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A lew York, Saturday, July i, 1905 «<>••»» 


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AN INTERRUPTED TETE-A-TETE 


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HARPERS W E E K L Y 


b 2 8 4 0 0 

HARPER’S WEEKLY 

Vot. XUX. a 53 a 

EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


THIRTY-SIX PAGES 

New York City, July i, 1905 

Terms: 10 Cents a Copy — $4 oo a Year, in Advance 

Postage fret to all Suhtcrihcn in the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, the Philippine Islands, Guam, and Tutuila, Samoa 

Emu rut at tkt ,V(» Tort A tl at teeand-ttatt matter 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 
NEW YORK CITY: FRANKLIN SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET. W 


COMMENT 

The preliminary report of State Suporintendeut-of-lnsur- 
imce Hendricks on the Equitable Life Asaurance Society win 
made public on June 21. It is a voluminous document, in 
which arc considered at length the charges made against tlic 
society’s officers and directors, with certain definite recoin* 
inundations as to the future conduct of the society’s affairs. 
The ri-|>ort begin* with severe criticism of IIesky B. Hyde, 
founder of the society, for using the assets of the society for 
his own profit and for the personnl profit of the officer*. Ho 
established sufe-deposit companies, connected with the so- 
ciety. throughout the country, from which the society sus- 
tained actual losses of thousands of dollars on account of in- 
adequate rent, and from which great profit* were received by 
individual officers and stockholder*. In the matter of the re- 
lation* of the Equitable to its subsidiary trust companies, the 
conclusion is drawn from an investigation of seven of the ten 
corporations affiliated with the society that “ the fact* dis- 
close a very decided tendency on the part of some of the di- 
rectors and officers of the society to sacrifice its interests in 
order that they may reap the profits through the media of 
these corporations.” 


A similar state of affairs is noted in connection 
with tin* 'syndicate transactions of Jaufls H. Hyde 
and associates, and tin* recommendation is made that each 
and every individual and corporation which shared in the 
profits of these transactions, of which a list is given in the 
report, “ slmuld Ik* conqiellod to pay hack to the society these 
several amounts with interest.” On this jsiint the report says 
further that it is an open question whether, under section 
thirty-six of the insurant*- law, all the officers and directors 
who “ partieipatv-d in these unlawful transactions ” arc not 
disqualified “from hereafter holding any office in u life-in- 
surance company.” The responsibility is laid on Mr. Hyde 
for the extravagant salaries allowed many executive officers; 
and with regard to the future investments of the society it is 
suggested that the Legislature take action on the question of 
limiting the kinds of securities in which life-insurance com- 
panies — like savings-bank* — shall be permitted hereafter to 
invest. The report concludes with a reference to the recent 
purchase of the stock control of the society by Mr. Rvav. 
Oil this point, referring particularly to the promises that 
the new management would institute reforms "which wpuld 
inure to the benefit of the policy-holder*,” Mr. Hendricks 
*ny*. u f do not question but this is tin* honest intention of 
those* who have acquired the control of the society.” In sum- 
ming up his conclusions*. Mr. Hendrick* gives it ns his opinion 
that confidence will In* restored ami the business interests of 
flu* society will lie best served only by complete mutualization 
and by the elimination of stork and Wall Street control. 

The report of Superintendent HcSMflrKK foltr.p* A*lni*ly 
the lines already laid down by Mr. PaV'L Morto.n, "the uewr 


head of the Equitable. The day before Mr. IIemmiu kn recum- 
uiended that Mr. Hyde and Mr. Alexander be retired from 
the society, Mr. Mouths announced that their resignations 
had been accepted. It is further announced that other 
resignations which have bni made may be accepted, and 
still others called for. Mr. Morton, after conference 
with his lawyers and tlic three trustees of the *P«ck bought 
by Mr. Ryan, has disclosed, furthermore, the intention 
of making on his own account a searching inve-tigatioii 
of the management of the Equitable for year* past, ami of 
bringing suits “ to compel restitution of all profits illegally 
acquired by use of tlic fund- of the society.” A special em- 
phasis is placed on the intentions of the new management in 
this particular. How revolutionary such intention* may he 
can lie better estimated after the results of the Morton in- 
vestigation are made known. M Developments which are al- 
most incredible” are hinted at us the result of the preliminary 
nosings of the accountants, but tlicre is no need to heed hints 
or rumor* when the facts are so soon to come to light. The 
tone of the announcement of Mr. Morton’s intention* carries 
conviction of his purpose to make thorough work. The general 
belief that thp ipanugement of the Equitable has been about 
the same as that of several of the other leading life-insurance 
companies make* this prospect of rigid investigation and legal 
proceedings all the more stirring. The fact that Mr. Ryan 
and his committee arc back of this investigation guarantees 
to the policy-holder* that, whatever the disclosures, any future 
action will safeguard and benefit them. 


On June 20 Herbert W. Bowen wa* dismissed from tlic 
diplomatic service of tin* t'nited State* fur bringing charge* 
against Assistant Seeretary-of-Statc K. 11. Looms, which 
Secretary Taft reported to be false, and for having instigated 
newspa|H-r attacks on Mr. Loomis. The President would have 
permitted Mr. Bowen to resign but for the statement made 
in Mr. Bowen’s behalf that he would consider resignation 
an admission of misconduct. A* lie did not wish to resign, 
he wa* dismissed, the President fee ling that in spile of gi**l 
work done in the past hi* usefulness in the diplomatic service 
was at an end. Sin- ret ary Taft, as is well known, investigated 
with great care the charge* against Mr. Loomis. He ro|iorted 
to the President that Mr. I^himis had been eruelly *lawlere-d 
in the charges against his integrity arid sincerity as a public 
official and a* a man, but he censured him for his failure to 
hold himrelf aloof from "personal participation in plans for 
investment and exploitation in the country to which lie was 
accredited.” It will be recalled that Mr. Loomis was Mr. 
Bowen’s predecessor an minister to Venexuela. Secretary 
Taft found that be did not receive a brilic from the New York 
and Bermudez A-plialt Company, nor prosecute the Mercado 
claim against Venezuela and share the prem-eds (though he 
was slightly mixed up in that transaction), nor diit In* a* 
Assistant Secretary of State breitk up an arraiigeuieut Mr. 
Bowen had m'arly completed with the Venezuelan government 
to arbitrate the a*phalt en*e and other ehtiiii*, nor did he 
assure the Wamcr-Quinlan Asphnlt Company that the Tinted 
Stab’s would not help tig! Bermudez company; hut he took 
somewhat too much personal inten-st in tlic refunding of 
Venezuelan loans by American bunker*, und came P*> near 
being concerned with some oilier transactions. Secretary Taft 
found him ck’fieient in solicitude, as minister of fl»e I 'n il«**l 
State*, to keep hi* skirts clear of |K*r*onal participation in any 
business that might bring him into contact with the govern- 
ment. 

The wish was plainly futhcr to the thought ill the mind* of 
tlu*re who started the Jtory flint C’liief-Jtwfier Kr i.i.f:h, now 
in Europe, intend* to resign his real u|w»n the bench of the 
United States Supreme Court, and is to Is* succeeded by 
Seeretary-of-Wnr Taft. That the Si-ere-tary e4iuld have the 
place if it were- vacant, and if he wanted it. i« probable enough, 
but no chief justice of the highest Federal tribunal lias ever 
been known to n-sigs.. uml Chief-Justice Fiixkr is said to 
have remarked before he left Washington that he hail no inten- 
tion of making a precedent. It is possible that Mr. Taft would 
rather be Chief Justice than ho President, but hi* friend* take 
a different view of tlic matter, and mean to try to secure for 
him .Up v Republican solicitation for the of Chief Magis- 
trate :n ilP'iS. .’Nobody, brlicw* that President Roosexf:lT 
will permit the Federuf patronage to he used on behalf of any 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


.-.mtliilatc, lot, oil the other baud, ho is scarcely likely to 
make a secret of bis personal preference, and this, it is under- 
stood. points to Judge Taft. There are signs that Vice- 
President Fairbanks, who has been making speeches in the 
W«t, lakes a less optimistic view of his prospects of pro- 
umtiiai than he took last winter. Should Speaker Cannon 
make up his mind to enter the race, he could doubtless get 
the di'liiration from Illinois, and all the Republican politicians 
«h» ate opposed to any revision of the Dinolky tariff might 
akitnatcly unite on hint as being likely to be u more popular 
KCiinee than the Vice-President. Nobody, we believe, has 
iitr accuss^l Mr. FaUOuxKS of being “ magnetic,’’ whereas 
abort everybody likes “ Uncle Jot." 

Hitherto, however, no Speaker of the House has ever been 
Dominated for the Presidency by a national party during his 
term of office. Henry Clay receiver! a local nomination in 
1$U4. and X athamel P. Banks was nominated by a wing of 
the Native. Americau party in 185fi. Neither Rkkd nor Rax- 
I'lLL could si cure a nomination. The fact is that the Presi- 
dency lias never been attained by a man who had been 
S|Kaker of the House of Representatives, except in the erase of 
James K. Polk, who had been out of office five years when he 
*a» nominated in 1844. It has been alleged that the lender 
of a party on the floor of tile House has a better chance of ob- 
iiining “ mansnation than has the Speaker. As a matter of 
fart, the only persons who may be suid to have passed directly 
frr«n the leadership of their party in the House to the Prcsi- 
duicy were William McKinley and James A. Garfield. 

At the hour when we write, the Morocco incident has had 
dr definite outcome, (irent Britain has declined and Germany 
lm» accepted the suggestion of Sultan Mi'lai Abdul- Aziz that 
the questions raised by the treaty concluded between France 
and Great Britain with reference to Morocco — a treaty to which 
Stain ami Italy became portico— should he referred to a con- 
fettMc of tlie powers which signed the treaty of Madrid in 
and which, by the way, included the United States. 
X# reply to the invitation has yet been given by Mr. Roork- 
uiT, ami the impression is current that he regards our eom- 
mrrrial interests in the Short-chan dominions as too slight to 
justify our participation in a conference called to deal with 
matters in which European powers arc almost exclusively 
oawfrncd. The grounds on which Emperor William II. is 
understood to have explained to Mr. Roosevelt his nnwilling- 
mw to tecogtiiae the Anglo-French treaty as binding are 
at least plausible. lie points out that by a clause of the 
Madrid Ciaivnitiou the Sultan of Morocco was hound to grant 
-acli of the signatories the treatment of the most -favored 
nation. How i* it possible, asks the Gcnnan Emperor, to 
iwticifc i!m> equality of treatment guaranteed by that eon- 
vmtion with the special authority vested in France by the 
Anglo- French tretily — an authority obviously calculated to 
give France much the same tutelary relation to Morocco 
which England holds to Egypt! That is to say, William II. 
pr-fe~c« to desire to apply to Northwest Africa that principle 
<d the •* open door n to which the United States an* committed 
siih regard to China. The practical difference between the 
t»i. ease- i« that oar actual ami prospective commercial inter- 
in the ChinrW Empire are very great, whereas they lire 
la-ipriificaut in Morocco, and scarcely warrant a departure 
«» our sii|*’ from our traditional policy of avoiding foreign 
♦utangk-BH’iits. That the Anglo-French treaty will prove 
stathc is already evident. The Sultan of Morocco hu* re- 
podiated it, and Frailer has no intention of attempting to 
^vrre him against the wishes of his German protector. The 
tatponry elimination of Russia from the list of first-rate 
military power* is recognized by French statesmen as con- 
•wmining tlurir country to fkpendencc on the forbearance of 
tljDr neighbor. There is no douht that Emperor 

Wu.uiy is now able to do wliat bo likes in Europe, and is 
l*Id buck only hv his conscience — a restraint which was lack- 
ing III t hr Ita of Frederick Tint Great and that of Napoleon 
BeAU’.WTE. 


Ikat ibe revolution will be a blood hw) one which was in- 
augunilnl when the Storthing, or Norwegian Parliament, 
pnwUiinrd the independence of Norway, still seems msurcil. 
King Or« of Sweden continues to resent his deposition by 
thr Storthing; he has rejected the invitation of the provisional 


government to designate a prince of the house of Behnaihutk 
for tire Norwegian throne, and be has convoked tbo Riksdag, 
or Swedish Diet. Wc do not believe, however, that the 
Swedish Parliament will authorize an attempt to coerce the 
Norwegians, for although the sovereign cun command the 
sympathy of the aristocracy, the masses of the Swedish people 
would not tolerate a war for the reestablishment, of a union 
in which they never took much interest. Nevertheless, if the 
Riksdag shall concur with King Oscar in asserting that as a 
matter of constitutional law the union of Sweden and Nor- 
way still exists, the Norwegian provisional government may 
find it difficult to get its diplomatic and consular representa- 
tives recognized by foreign powers. The Norwegian Parlia- 
ment’s arrogution of a right to depose a dynasty must be 
anything but a welcome spectacle to the reigning families 
of Austria and Russia. The precedent set by Norway must 
seem especially obnoxious at St. Petersburg, one of the Czar’s 
objections to the convocation of a national assembly being 
hi» recollection of the ominous fact that in 1013 the musky 
sober, which met at Moscow, deposed the sovereign then reign- 
ing, and elected Michael Romanoff, a young man who had 
not a drop of the blood of Rubik in his veins. 


The Norwegian poet, novelist, ami dramatist, B.iorn- 
8TJERSE Bjornr&kx, who for some months has been en- 
lightening the English people about Norwegian affairs through 
the London press, expresses in the Daily Chronicle regret 
at the course pursued by the Storthing, which he looks upon 
as hasty and needlessly provocative. He thinks that the 
question whether the union of Sweden and Norway ought 
to be dissolved should have been referred to the people ut the 
general election eighteen months hence, when in all likelihood 
a majority of the Swedes, as well as of the Norwegians, would 
have sanctioned the secession of Norway at the bullot-box. 
As it is, the novelist opines that unless King Oscar consents 
to nominate a prince of the house of Bernaihitte for the Nor- 
wegian throne, Norway will become republican, modelling its 
form of government on the Swiss pattern. It will be remem- 
bered that in Switzerland the functions of the Federal Execu- 
tive arc delegated to a Federal council consisting of seven 
members elected by the Federal Assembly. These seven coun- 
cillors arc joiutly responsible for all executive business, though, 
for the sake of convenience, then* arc various departments, 
and their chairman is called the President of the Confedera- 
tion. Wc leant with interest that Mr. Bjomneskn expects to 
witness an improvement in the relations of Sweden and Nor- 
way as soon as the two countries shall have Ixi-omc completely 
independent. He looks forward to the ultimate conclusion 
of a defensive alliance of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, 
to which he hopes that Germany, Holland, Belgium, and 
Switzerland may become parties, Ilis ideal would be a great 
Teutonic coalition, to which Great Britain and the United 
States would be admissible. Only in some such way, he thinks, 
con the public mind be prepared for emancipation from war. 


While the outcome of the naval hattlc in the Sea of Japan 
was quickly made known by cable, the curiosity of naval 
experts as to the means by which a victory so unexpectedly 
decisive was brought about remained for weeks unsatisfied. 
Not until June Iff was some light upon the details of tlie 
engagement obtained through Tokio new*pa]>crs, copies of 
which then reached Victoria, British Columbia. It ap|M>urs 
that soon after the firing began many of the ltu*siun seamen 
and gunners became panic-stricken. Two gun crews on the 
Dmitri Dauakoi mutinied when the presence of the enemy 
was suspected, and their officers could only keep them at 
work by threatening to shoot them down. The assumption 
that a battle-ship cannot be sunk by gun-fire was exploded. 
It is now undisputed that the Onliafia and Sourarojf were 
sunk by Japanese guns. The fact may he attributed to armor 
plates of inferior quality, hut another plausible explanation 
is that these v<«*-h Is owed their fate to tlie heavy sea running 
at the time. The Japanese had long been practic’d in firing 
under such conditions, and when the Russinn bnttle-hips 
wore rolling and exposing unprotected ports. Toon’s gunners 
«coml many hits. Much credit for the result is u scribed bv 
Russian survivors to the Japanese torpedo-craft. Of the 
three torpedo-boats lost by Tn«:n. one, it acorns, was disabled 
when only four hundred yards distant from a Russian battle- 
ship, whereupon another tcr|iedu-boat darted in and took off 


02ff 



HARPERS WEEKLY 


(ho former’s crew while she was in a sinking condition. The 
report that submarine* purchased in the United States were 
used by the Japanese has been more than once denied, but on 
June 2 the censors |*crmiHcd the Japan Advertiser to state 
that the Japanese did avail themselves of submarines in the 
Strait of Tsushima, and that these vessels greatly contributed 
to the early rout of the Russians. 


By consent which is all but universal. General Maximo 
Gomez, who died in Havana on June 17. is rated as a great 
revolutionary patriot. The cause for which he fought was 
finally successful; that is, of course, an incident that helps 
his fame. It was a just and necessary cause, and Is- was for 
it for its own sakr, and was constant to it through nearly 
fifty years of trinl. Constrained to leave Cuba after the failure 
of the ten years’ war, lie went first to Jamaica and then 
to Santo Domingo. From 1878 to 1895 ho was a Santo* 
Domingan fanner. When the new revolt came and Marti 
called for him, in spite of his threescore years and twelve, he 
took the field in Cuba again, with Gakcia and Macbo as his 
lieutenants. As a soldier he learned his first lessons as lieu- 
tenant of cavalry in the Spanish service. On the patriot side 
in the ten years* war lie rose to lie a major-general, ami in the 
final struggle (1805 to 1808) with an army of 40,000 he man- 
aged to keep the field against 200 , 000 . until the Maine was 
blown up and the Americans interfered. Then and afterward, 
as commander of the Cuban forces and the most influential 
man on the island, he did the Cubans a service of the pro- 
foundcst value by throwing all his influence in favor of co- 
operation with the Americans. His great popularity enabled 
him to make a successful stand against the radical element 
which ruled the Military Assembly. Thinks largely to Gomez. 
the peace was kept with the United States, and General 
Worm’* government ran its due course. When Palma came 
as President he found an invaluable supporter in the veteran 
of two revolutions who wanted to see the Cuban Republic a 
going concern while he was still there to watch it. Gomez 
has been called the (hibnn Napoleon. lie did much to deserve 
a nobler title — the Cuban Washington, lie hail character, 
integrity, and sense. At the critical time when the fighting 
was over, he put them all on the side of order, patience, and 
good faith. He might, no doubt, have been Cuba’s first Presi- 
dent. He did far better for his people and better for hi* 
own fame in putting aside that ambition, if he ever had it, 
and accepting Palma as the man whom the times demanded, 
and buckiug hint with the weight of his own popularity. 


Mr. James Dalrymplk, of Glasgow, lately came to this 
country on the invitation of Mayor Dknnk, of Chicago, to 
give that city the benefit rtf his experience in managing the 
street railway* which Glasgow owns. He seems to have 
brought with him the powers of observation and reflection 
which have made him useful nt home. When he lutided in 
New York and was entertained by the Municipal Ownership 
League of this town he said he saw no reason why any Amer- 
ican city should not Is- able to own its street railways and 
run them as well as Glasgow runs hers. Glasgow, he said, 
would on no account lie satisfied to go back to private owner- 
ship. Then he went to Chicago aiul saw what he saw and 
heard what lie hcHrd, and doubtless read the newspaper* and 
asked questions besides. He eame back b.v way’ of Phila- 
delphia, and probably addl'd to his stock of information while 
in that city. He has changed his mind about municipal own- 
ership of public utilities in American cities. His latest ut- 
terance on that subject expresses his conviction that to put 
street railrouds, gas-works, telephone companies, and the like, 
under municipal ownership Would be to create a municipal 
machine in every large city that would lie simply impregnable. 
“ I came to this country,” he sold, “a believer in public owner- 
ship. What I have seen here, and I have studied the situation 
carefully, makes me realize that private ownership under 
proper conditions is far better for the citizens of American 
cities.” That view accords with conservative American opin- 
ion based on intimate acquaintance with American municipal 
politics. The practical question is. How an* we to get the 
“proper conditions ” which Mr. Dai.rymplk calls for? 


As fo that, we are certainly making progress. We are prob- 
ably still a long ways off from economical and satisfactory 
municipal management of gas-works and street railroad.', but 


it cannot hr doubted that there is a great awakening in 
progress as to the value of public franchise* and the propriety 
of obtaining for the people some reasonable approach to tin* 
value of the franchises, charters, and privileges which they 
have to sell or to least. The momentous overturn in Phila- 
delphia. itself the fruit of the overturns in St. Isiuis. Minne- 
apolis, and other cities, is much more than a dramatic event. 
It is a sign of the times. Municipal rascality is no longer 
respectable and is fast becoming dangerous. All the time- 
honored methods of illicit acquisition on a large scale seem 
to be declining in grace. Something very like n howl of, 
“Get out of the trough!” spreads from city to city and from 
newspaper to newspaper. A man may no longer steal the 
public lunds without danger of prosecution. Even to Is* caught 
giving unlawful rebates lias come to In* tin embarrassment, 
and to bribe u Legislature or a municipal council is in danger 
of being regarded as downright ungcullcitionly. A lot of yeast 
is stirring in our national dough. How much of a rising 
there will be, how far the impatience of corruption and chicane 
will go, who will la* brought to shame and who to re|*-iilanec 
— no one cun foretell, but already there is a general burnish- 
ing up of scruple* grown rusty by disuse and a creaking of 
consciences scared into unaccustomed o|a*ration. It is all 
very healthy and very welcome. The venerable opinion that 
a good name is rather to be chosen than great riche* will never 
find universal acceptance in nn.v country in any time, but at 
least we may hope, here and in our own generation, to #i*e a 
much keener and more general appreciation of the easy and ob- 
vious truth that a good name is one of the most graceful einL-1- 
lishments with which great Hein’s can be adorned. Hogs that 
are hogs by nature, condition, and instinct must In- tolerated, 
but hogging by hogs that have no need to bog is hoggi-h in 
a disgusting degree, and fit to excite reprehension even among 
the charitable, as a practice tliat flouts noblesse oblige and 
repudiates the obligations of environment. 


“It is a fine day.” say's the traditional Englishman. “ ls*t 
us go out and kill something.” “ It is a fair morning,” says 
the contemporary American. “ ls*t us go forth and indict 
some one.” Governor H krrkk, of Ohio, i* touched by the 
prevailing aspiration. “The professional lobbyist,” he says, 
“is a criminal. We must do more than arrest; we must 
exterminate him.” But arn-st him first, Governor. Extermina- 
tion before arrest isn’t statutory. 


One of the lessons of the war in the Host that we may 
reasonably expect to see learned by all expert observers is that 
the efforts of newspapers to conduct hostilities do not yield 
results that an* of a value projmrtionatc to the energy ex|ien«Ied. 
Japan has done pretty well ill tla- war now proceeding, but 
she owes scarcely any of her success to tla* pn-ss. The cor- 
respondent* have at all times been ready to help. They have 
at no time refused to advertise any general’* plans that iiei-dcd 
discussion. Before then* was any front they hail gathered 
and were clamorous to go to it. But the Japanese have stead- 
ily deprecated their oral, and persisted in keeping them out 
of harm's way as much n* jnwsible. In the land operation* 
the Japanese generals have worried along the best they could 
without exposing the correspondents to a single risk that fore- 
thought. dissuasion, and attentive guardimi'liip could avoid. 
In the sea-fights the correspondents huve had scarcely any part 
whatever. Admiral Touo got lost and succeeded in remaining 
so for a considerable space before lie met the Russian fleet, 
yet he got along just as well n* though every newspaper 
reader in the world iind accurate knowledge of his where* 
about* at breakfast every morning. These incidents will cer- 
tainly l>e remembered in the Western world, though it is 
impossible to say that they can be repeated iu any country 
that exists, us ours doe*, under newspaper government. Tluit 
our Spanish war, for example, could have been fought on land 
or ou sea without the use of the largest type, the reddest ink, 
and the fleetest despatch-boats i* unthinkable. Our sailor- 
men certainly can shoot, we think our soldiers can tight, 
our military doctor* may exhibit the practice as well as the 
theory of sanitation, and our subsistence department may feed 
troops, but thut we shall ever have « secrecy bureau flint will 
compare in efficiency with Japan’s is very, very doubtful. 


Princeton in making Mayor McOi.ku.an a 1.I..D. ex 
(Miundid bis record ns that of “an influential, able, ami 


two 

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HARTER’S WEEKLY 


conocientious legislator/* and as an officer of administration 
“ who stands to-day, by genera] consent, as the beat Mayor 
New York has known within our memory.** Columbia might 
demur t«> praipcs so sweeping, but at any rate Princeton has 
demonstrated that the Mayor is not without honor in his 
own academic stamping-ground. The assurance is timely, 
for there wen* reasons a couple of yean* ago to doubt whether 
Princeton appreciated all the qualities of her likely young 
politician. 


Columbia made Mr. Howell? n Doctor of Letters, recog- 
nizing in him distinguished attributes, achicvementa, and 
virtue*, which wen* enumerated by Professor Harry Thurston 
Peck, among them being the gift ** unerringly to read the 
mind of iiirii, and. what is not less wonderful, the heart of 
woman.” It is a serious thing to receive mi honorary degree 
from Columbia. Each candidate for that pleasant distinction 
is presented by a barker, who makes a short speech rehearsing 
the elnims of his man. The older plan that still obtains in 
some universities was for the president to confer the degree 
with a very few words — anciently Latin, now usually Eng- 
lish — in which hr aimed to compress the full tale of merited 
praise in one or two sentences. To sum a man’s life-work 
up in a phrase is an exploit, that invites an exercise of verbal 
skill analogous to that which goes into the composition of 
a good inscription. Moreover, the waiting candidate’s mod- 
esty is usually better equal to standing up under the drip 
of a sentence or two than of a tribute that is longer drawn 
out. Mr. Howells, however, is doubtless inured to praise 
by this time and proof against severe embarrassment from 
any intelligent administration of it. 44 The interpreter of his 
own countrymen to themselves.” Professor Peck called him, 
and sjHike in words that readers everywhere must echo of his 
interpretations being qualified by 44 that kindliness of feeling, 
with nil that fine sympathy and sanity, which mark the work 
of the great English masters with whose Hank's his is in- 
separably joined." 

At the Princeton Commencement President Wilson an- 
nounced the new departure in instruction which he has 
been planning for some time past to introduce. A committee 
of the alumni has assured the university of additional in- 
come exceeding $ 100,000 a year. This money is to be spent 
in adding to the Princeton faculty fifty preceptors, who an. 4 
to do. apparently, what tutors do in the older British uni- 
versities. That is, they will keep in constant touch with the 
students. 44 as guides, advisors, und testers of their learning." 
Left reliance than formerly is to he placed at Princeton on 
recitations and examinations, and more on conferences of 
individuals and small groups of incu with their instructors. 
Not only the new preceptors, but tin* older members of tlie 
faculty, an* to take part in these conferences. Dr. Wilson 
proposes, it would seem, to have his young men taught by 
hand. They are not merely to be led to water. They must 
drink. It is n very interesting experiment in American col- 
lege education, and its results will doubtless be closely wutched 
by educators. 


An interesting letter appeared the other day in the Boston 
Trvntcripl from an American Rhodes scholar at Oxford, in 
which English and American university met Inals and their 
n^ult* were compared with intelligence and in an open- 
mindi'd spirit. The writer liked and enjoyed Oxford. He 
found that tin* majority of the students there did little study- 
ing in term-time. Spurts and social engagements — teas, 
44 wines," and the like — left little time for reading. It was 
somewhat appalling (though pleasant) to the more earnest 
Americans, until they discovered the Oxford system of work- 
ing in vacation* time. The vacations an* long — twenty-eight 
week# ; the terms nrv short — twenty-four weeks. Vacations, 
this scholar found out, wrre spent in slightly interrupted 
study; the terms in not very seriously interrupted play. As 
to the relative scholarship of English and American students, 
hr found the Englishmen to be much better informed on fewer 
subject*. Tliey were much more thorough classicists, much 
better read in all literature and in the newspapers. They 
made a serious part of the day’s employment to inform them- 
selves about whnt was going on in British |*»lities and world 
polities as well as in sport. The American students had 
pursued more subjects — science especially — hut, a* a rule. 


had not gone deep enough into anything to got a permanent 
hold on it. It seemed to ho this observer’* conclusion that 
the English method gave decidedly better results. The Eng- 
lish student? could discuss, and did constantly talk about, 
concerns of literature and politics ns to which the American 
lads had little to fay that was worth saying. The writer of 
the letter was impressed with the seriousness with which the 
Oxford men took public questions, and with the confidence 
with which some of them looked forward to participation 
in government. That was one secret of their interest in 
public affair*. No American college student can harbor like 
anticipations with the same confidence. 


It ha? long been known that the population of no great 
city would increase, or even remain stationary, but for the 
incessant influx of newcomers from the rural districts or from 
foreign countries. This seems to hi* peculiarly true of New 
York. As Dr. John II. Glims KK puts it in his hook entitled 
New-Yorkitut, the inhabitants of the American metropolis 
itre driving themselves and being driven like beasts of burden. 
44 They work like dynamos all day, and play like idiots all 
night." The reports of tlu* Health Department show that tin’ 
number of sudden deaths in New York bus recently increased 
out of all proportion to the growth in population. Thus, in 
1W>4, it seems that 3000 person* fell dead, or died soon after 
they were stricken — an increase of r>00 over New York’s 
record in the previous year. In the first threp months of 
1905 no fewer than 1700 eases of this character were re- 
ported, and as these figures were for cold months, when the 
brain or the heart is not as liable to crack as it is in hot 
weather, it is expected that tlu* victims of living at high 
pressure will number in the present year more than twice 
n* many ns they did in 1001. The dimensions of the inflow 
of American young men and young women from country 
towns into the metropolis cannot easily be measured, but we 
know* that in 1903, when the immigration of aliens reached 
an unprecedented figure, about three-quarters of the for- 
eigners intending to settle in the United States came through 
Ellis Island, and of these about a third elected to remain 
in New York city. Thus, while New-Yorker* arc swiftly 
dying, the gaps are mors than replenished by the sturdy son* 
and daughter* of American farmers, or by alien* from 
southern und eastern Europe. The net outcome of the double 
movement is a steady increase in the volume of the metro- 
politan population. Whether the quality of it is improving 
or deteriorating is a different question. 


Comparisons of Jews with other people in respect to their 
vitality art* made from time to time, and ulways make for 
discouragement of the otlier people in the competition. A 
new one comes to hand by way of the London Lancet, which 
puhlislies the result of an investigation of the physical con- 
dition of children living in the slums of Leeds. Itt every 
cast* the Jewish children showed a marked superiority in con- 
dition. Comparisons were made of IWKXJ children similarly 
situated a? to age, poverty, character, ami residence. The 
little eight-year-old Jew* were three pounds heavier ami two 
inches taller than the Gentile children of like age. At ten, they 
were six and a quarter pounds heavier and two and a half 
inches taller. At twelve, seven pounds heavier and one ami 
a quarter inches taller. Jewish hones and teeth were better, 
and the Lancet notes that the nasal chamber was larger in 
Jewish children, and that they wen* remarkably free from 
adenoids. The characteristic Jewish nose, then, is not without 
some substantial advantages. The Jewish mothers, it seems, 
got bettor rare before their children were born and had more 
milk for their babies, and after weaning, the young Jew chil- 
dren were hotter and more sensibly fed than the Gentile 
children. It is a handsome showing for the poor Jews of 
Leeds, for it means that tliey are more intelligent than their 
Gentile neighbors, and, doubtless, more teni|N>r*te, and man- 
age under difficulties to have a Is-tter family life. It would 
surprise no one to have an investigation of the slums of New 
York yield stntistieal result* of the same general nature. 
Of the 700.000 «r more New York Jews, a great many are 
extremely poor. No one seems to doubt that nuMt of tltem 
will work out of tlu* hard conditions that encompass them. 
Because they are Jews they are expected to win. That ex- 
pectation is a remarkable tribute to something. 


931 

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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


Will England Profit by the Japanese Alliance? 

The future of the British Empire i* not only a question of vital 
concern to Englishmen. but also one of profound interest to Amer- 
icans, because the effaceincnt of Rutland from the list of the 
great |K»wrr* might have serious consequences for our own re- 
public also. It i» true that England wax a great power before 
the first trading settlement was formed on the const of India 
by the British East India Company, but she would cease to be 
one were she deprived to-morrow of her Anglo-Indian Empire. 
When Dihkaeli added the affix " Kiuprcu of Indin ” to ViCToaia'a 
historical title “ Queen of Great Britain and Ireland,'' he gave a 
hostage to fortune. The loss of British India would now involve 
not only the forfeiture of supremacy over aome three hundred 
million human beings, but the prestige and dignity of England 
would be irreparably impaired. Not long thereafter would she le 
likely to retain her outlying possession* in Further India; nor ia 
it probable that her ascendency in Afriea would long survive the 
extinction of her Asiatic dominion. Will her statesmen recognize 
Ihw profoundly her position south of the Himalaya* may be 
affected by the drastic material and moral changes wrought in the 
condition of Asia by the outcome of the war in the Far Has*.? 
Let ua try to measure those rhange*. with a view of indicating 
their bearing on British interest* in India. 

In order to comprehend the actual, and forecast the prospective, 
attitude of Japan toward Russia on the one hand and Great 
Britain on the other, let ua go buck, not only to 1902, when the 
present carefully restricted Anglo-Jnpanese alliance was concluded, 
but a little earlier, namely, to 19DS, when the ultimatum formu- 
lated by Huxxiu. France, and Germany constrained the Mikado 
to retrocede to China the Liun-tung Peninsula. At the date last 
named the Liberal party was in power at Westminster, and Lord 
Ho.HERr.nT was Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs. .Tainan, 
it will In* remembered, had marched victoriously through Korea 
and Manchuria, had captured the naval fortresses of Port Arthur 
and Wei - hai - wei. and having a veteran army within easy dis- 
tance of the Great Wall, could without any difficulty have occu- 
pies! Peking. Nobody doubts that had British statesmen been a* 
alive" to their national interests in 1R95 as they showed them- 
selves seven years later, they would have offered Japnn the assist- 
ance of the British fleet in Asiatic waters, In which event the 
Tokio government would have defied the coalition of Russia. 
France, and Germany, which proposed to rob it of its well-earned 
gains. That opportunity of winning the undying gratitude of the 
Mikado's subjects lxird ROHDCST let slip. In 1902, on the other 
hand. England's foreign policy wn« shaped by a Conservative 
minister, and, thanks largely to the personal influence of King 
Euwakii VII., a second chance of securing Japan's friendship was 
tamed to account. How nearly the second chance was missed is 
no secret to diplomatists, although it has hitherto escaped atten- 
tion at the hands of the daily newspaper*. The truth is that the 
Marquis I TO, who has been four times the Mikado's Prime Minis- 
ter. and who was then in Europe on a special mission, was inclined 
at that time to advise liis imperial master to enter into an inti- 
mate alliance, not with Great Britain, but with Russia. The 
draft of such an alliance was actually prepared, hut partly ImilM 
the militarv and naval efficiency of Japan was imperfectly appreci- 
ated at St. Petersburg, and partly because the discussion of de- 
tails caused a great deal of delay, the British government, in- 
spired by RiiWsKl) VI 1., had the time and the wit to make a 
counter-overture, which, upon reference to Tokio. where Russia's 
lease of Port Arthur, which had been wrenched from Japan, still 
rankled, was accepted. So it came to pn-s that an agreement was 
made for five years to the effect that, should Japan And herself 
engaged in war with more than one great European power, she 
could rely upon receiving assistance from Great Britain. 

From the view-point of the Marquis Ito, and of muny Japanese 
statesmen of his way of thinking, thi* was a quid pro quo for 
Japanese cooperation very inferior to that which the Czar had it 
in his power to offer. For had the project favored by the Marquis 
ITO been carried nut, Russia would have definitely renounced the 
essentially foolish project of ereking an outlet to the sea in 
eastern Asia, and would have substituted as maritime objectives 
the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. The substitution would 
have involved the invasion and conquest of Persia, Afghanistan, 
nnd British India, but we can now see that such an achievement 
would have been by no means impracticable with the cooperation 
of Japan, which, on her part, would have received from Russia a 
free hand in Korea and .Manchuria. We now know that hud the 
Mikudu seen til to act as the Czar's coadjutor, several Japanese 
army corps could have Wen transported with the utmost facility 
hy means of the Trans-Sila-rtan and Central Asian railways to the 
Persian and Afghan frontiers. Even the half-million men which 
Russia has wasted in the fruitless effort to cope with Japan in 
Manchuria would have sufficed to overrun Persia and Afghanistan, 
If not also to expel the British from India. That Japan would have 
had more to gain by a combination with Russia than with England 
srciii* evident, for the present war, although a successful one, is 
computed to have cost her nlreudy in the neighborhood of seven 


hundred million dollars. Had she entered into an offensive and a 
defensive alliance with Rut-da, she eould have had Korea and 
Manchuria without firing a shot. Hut. it may be naked, would 
not England have kept control of the ocean, and have interrupted 
ronmiuuieat tons between the Island Empire and the Asiatic main- 
land! We answer that it is very doubtful whether, if Persia. 
Afghanistan, and India were known to he threatened with in- 
vasion. England could have maintained in the Fur East a fleet 
able to cope with the combined squadrons which Japan and Russia 
pi is -eased at the beginning of February, 1904. 

From the recent past, let us turn to the present : 11X12, with its 
contingencies and (tossihle combinations, is gone; it is HHifi that 
confronts us. Dies the Tokio government desire Great Britain 
for an ally hereafter? Has it really been satisfied with the on- 
duet of it* British coadjutor during the last sixteen months? 
Have the Mikado'* advisers believed that Great Britain would 
keep her word, ami that, if France should decide to cooperate with 
her Russir.n n'*.\ the British navy would l«e arrayed on the side 
of Japan* ,.o»v was it |uis*ihle for Tokio statesmen to put abso- 
lute f-»ih in British promises, seeing that, at a time when Japan 
was engaged in n struggle for national life or death, the British 
Foreign Ollier seized the opportunity to enter into a cordial under- 
standing with its French neighbor? Was that the art of u trust- 
worthy friend! It may, of course, lie said, and has been said, that 
the British Foreign Office used the influence thus acquired in 
Puri* to restrain the French gmernment from lending substantial 
assistance to the Czar. The fact remains that for months off 
Madagascar, and for weeks off IndoChimi, the Baltic fleet under 
Hoikstvevskt was permitted to ua French harbors and French 
waters as if they were Russia's own. Evidently. British influence, 
if then sincerely exerted on behalf of Japan in Paris, was curiously 
inefficacious. Apparently, the Japanese statesmen were of the un- 
proclaimed opinion that the tie connecting Great Britain and 
Japan would not hear much strain, for they carefully refrained 
from demanding that Great Britain should call peremptorily upon 
France to observe a neutral's obligations, lest *ueh a <h-mnnri 
might have forced (treat Britain to choose lietween her duty to 
her Japanese ally and her newly cemented friendship for the 
French Republic, 

The simple truth ia, that no statesman. British or Ru-sinn. ia 
endowed with sufficient sagacity to make a catspaw of Ja|mn. 
The hour is close at hand when Great Britain and Russia will 
have to bid agnin, as they did in for the good-will of the 

Mikado. It is by no means certain that the Tokio government 
will now listen to overtures from either St. Petersburg or Ixtndon. 
With half a million veteran soldiers at its disposal, nnd with an 
unbeaten fleet, which may he enlurged indefinitely with the pe- 
cuniary indemnity that will lie paid hy Russia, Japan may deem it 
expedient to play a lone hand. Why should she help to fight the 
buttles either of Russia or of Great Britain in central and south- 
ern Asia? Evidently, now that Russia is walled off definitely 
from the Pacific, she and Rnghiiid are predestined to tight a duel 
to the death for preponderance south of the Caspian and the 
Himalayas. What should Japan Ik- doing in that galley? Why 
doe* it not behoove her to cry. “A plague on both your houses”? 
Korea is liers; Munrhuria, also, if she wants it: ascendency in 
China will follow in due time. Why should she not let Russia 
nnd Great Britain spend the next decade in fighting for the control 
of the Indian Ocean? The llind'XM are nothing to Japan. She has 
her work cut out for her much nearer home, 

There is, of eourae, one conjunct tire in which even the Mnrqui* 
Ito, and those Tokio statesmen who look with cnnxidcrahlc scepti- 
cism at British promises, might -till deem it judicious to enter 
into an offensive and a defensive alliance with England, which, 
while assuring to Japan the cooperation of a British fled in time 
of need, would reciprocally contribute the service* of Japanese 
veternn* to the defence of British India. Should Russia persist 
in a refusal to pay a pecuniar}* indemnity, and decline to renounce 
the dream of Itcroming a great power in the Pacific: should she 
evidently resolve to enter upon a programme of revenge.— then 
it may well hap|ten that the Tokio government will deem it wise, 
and even indispensable, to enter into the closest possible association 
with Great Britain. Jnpnn might thereby lie guaranteed against 
the interruption of communication with Korea, while Great Hiitain. 
relying on the military support of the Japanese, might well deem 
herself safeguarded against a Rusxliin Invasion of India, But 
who knows what view of the Far-Eastern situation will be taken 
hy the British Liberal who seems certain to succeed Mr. RauoI'K 
in the post, of Premier nt no distant date* It must have lieen 
observed that scarcely n word upon the subject has been heard 
from Earl SrrxrrR, who is likely to lie the head of tin* next Lib- 
eral government nt St. Stephen’s. 


Peace Possibilities and Terms 

The fact that the St. lVtersburg government, after formnllv 
necepting Washington ns the place for tlie peart* «-i in feretw-e. -ImiiM 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


have tried to bring about the selection of somo other capital he* 
naturally rekindled the distrust with which Russia's intention* 
are te^rilcil in Japan. Russian diplomacy in viewed in Tokui 
with n* much »u»pieion as the Chinese used to br. It may be re- 
memlwrcd that in 1893 the peace negotiations at Shimonoseki 
were broken off when Japan's representative!* discovered that the 
credentials of China's plenipotentiaries wen* unsatisfactory. We 
may he certain that the credentials presented hy the fair's agents 
at Washington will be sharply scrutinized by Marquis I To, who as 
Count I To took the principal purl in the settlement of bis roan- 
try's quarrel with China. Whether Japan will assent to an armis- 
tice before the ponce conference shall have met is uncertain at the 
hour when we write, although, according to a telegram from the 
Russian headquarters in Manchuria, negotiations for a suspension 
of hostilities are tinder way. It has been generally taken for 
granted by military experts that the enveloping movement credited 
to Marshal Otama was on the point of being executed at the time 
when President Romiyelt prevailed upon the Japanese and Rus- 
sian governments to consider the question of peace. If the huge 
army under Central Lixikvitcii should la* virtually annihilated, 
the- fall of Vladivostok might lie expected soon to follow, and 
Japan would then doubtless insist on the permanent exclusion of 
Russia from the region south of the Amur River. 

Just what terms the Tokio government will insist upon, if 
peace is made before the defeat of LlNlEVlTiTI and the capture of 
Vladivostok, is not authoritatively known, though they are be- 
lieved to have been outlined confidentially to Mr. Roohevei.t, and 
by him communicated to the Czar. There seems to be no doubt 
that Japan will demand a pecuniary indemnity at least equivalent 
to the sum which she has expended during the war. It is also 
assumed in well-informed quarters thut Russia will have to sur- 
render control of the Manchurian branches of the Siberian Rail- 
way either t« China or to Japan. Technically those railway lines 
arc owned by a private Russian corporation, which, of course, 
would be reimbursed by the St. Petersburg government for the 
Inns of its property. The difficulty which Russia would experience 
in meeting Japan's demand for an indemnity of half a billion 
dollars or more has probably been exaggerated. Paris hankers 
would doubtless undertake to finance the loan, knowing as they 
do that the national interests of France are deeply concerned in 
bringing tin* Far-Kostern war to an end before the power and 
prestige of her Russian ally arc subjected to any further shrink- 
age. When the inner history of the pence movement la written, 
we are likely to learn that it was out of deference to an earnest 
appeal from Premier Rm vikr that the Cnur decided to accept 
President Roohevei.t’* suggestion. 


The Pope’s New Attitude Toward Italian Politics 

As incident of ohvious importance, not only to Italian Catholics, 
and. indeed, to Catholics throughout the world, hut also to all friends 
of a stable government in Italy is the issuance by Pope Pirn X. of 
an encyclical recommending Catholic voters to take a vigorous part 
in the next Italian Parliamentary election. In order to appreciate 
the significance of this step, it is, perhaps, needful to recall the 
diametrically opposite position maintained by the two preceding 
Pontiffs for upwards of thirty years. It will be remembered that 
King Vi CTOK KmmaM’EI,, the grandfather of the present sovereign, 
seized the opportunity afforded hy the Frnnco-tierman war to 
occupy the city of Rome, and to incorporate what was left of the 
States of the Church with thr Italian monarchy. The Italian gov- 
ernment desired to reconcile, if possible, the Papacy to the loss 
of its tem|M>ral dominions, and the Parliament passed a law appro- 
priating to the Pope an annual revenue of more than six hundred 
thousand dollars. This revenue Pirn IX. refused to accept, on 
the ground that hy doing so he would seem to condone the 
spoliation of which he had been the victim. In that refusal he 
persisted until his death; *o did his successor L» XIII.; and up 
to the pis*sent time the present occupant of the papal chair, Pii h 
X., had shown himself almost equally intractable as regards this 
particular matter. 

This unrom promising refusal to accept a subsidy, however, 
has not been the only distinguishing mark of the policy inAcxibiy 
pursued by the head of the Catholic Church toward the civil power 
in Italy. Soon after the loss of hia temporal dominions, Pira IX. 
put forth the memorable " won fjrpedit n encyclical, so called be- 
cause the injunction, addressed to all faithful Catholics in Italy, 
proclaimed It u inexpedient " for them to recognize the authority 
of the usurping sovereign by taking any part in the elections of 
Deputies to the Italian Parliament. They were ordered to be «» 
elrlli ni rl^tlori, or. in other words, neither to vote nor la* voted 
for. For reasons to lie mentioned presently, many an attempt 
was made by Italian statesmen to prevail u|*in Pi I'M IX. or Lno 
XIII. to recall, or at least to suspend, the injunction, hut up to 
thr present time ull such efforts had proved unsuccessful. As 
time has gone on, however, the regret originally felt by the up- 
holders of Mabiliti and order in the Italian peninsula at the con- 


certed abstention of Catholic electors from the hallot-hnx has been 
materially strengthened. So long, indeed, as the executive agents 
of the civil power were presided over by a man like Mixouerri. 
and represented the Right, or conservative, section in the Italian 
Chamber of Deputies, it might seem that the eooperation of 
Catholic electors at the polls could be dispensed with. Neither 
was their aid regarded »s absolutely essential, so long ns a 
moderate Liberal like Ditmetim was in power. As the centre of 
gravity, however, in the popular branch of the legislature shifted 
more and more toward tin* Left, and as the Left itself fell more 
and more under the control of Socialists, who made no secret of 
their aim at drastic political ami social reconstruction, the neces- 
sity of securing assistance from Catholic electors, who are natu- 
rally conservative, was recognized by the present King himself, 
and by his more clear-sighted advisers, as of urgent and vital 
import to the monarchy. Of the registered voters about one-half 
are Catholics, and it was manifest that if these were permitted 
to go to the IwiUot-hox, a conservative, or, at all events, an anti- 
Socialist majority in Parliament could almost certainly be re- 
turned. 

Before the last general election, therefore, when it was 
feared that the Socialists, not unreasonably elated by the influence 
recently exercised by them in the Chamber, would make great 
gains, an especially earnest effort was made to persuade the new 
Pope, Pirn X., to suspend tacitly, if not explicitly, the Papal in- 
junction against the voting of Catholics for mendier* of the 
Chamber of Deputies. The Vatican declined at the time to make 
any formal pronouncement on the subject, but that it had no inten- 
tion of enforcing the prohibition with any show of rigor was 
evident from the fact that in some of the provinces not only many 
of the Catholic laymen, but even priests and monks in their 
ecclesiastical robes went to the ballot-box. while in Home itself 
several {arsons known to he attached to the Papal household 
voted against Feiiki, the Socialist leader. What was done then 
sporadically and with a seeming disregard of the obedience due 
the Papacy, is now to la* done systematically and under un- 
equivocal Pontifical authority. The encyclical just issued has for 
its avowed object the release of Italian Catholics from the in- 
junction imposed upon them for a generation, and the encourage- 
ment of them to filter public life for the purpose of safeguarding 
their temporal interests, which are threatened hy Socialist de- 
signs. 

The almost certain result of this trenchant change in the re- 
lation of the Vatican to the civil power will Is* the return of a 
large anti-Socialist majority at the next general election, and the 
transfer of Parliamentary ascendancy from the Left to the Centre, 
if not even to the Right, in the next ('handier of Deputies. Wlmt 
qviii pro qno has been promised to the Papacy in return for a con- 
cession of so great political moment, a concession likely indeed to 
guarantee the stability of the Italian monarchy? That is a ques- 
tion which ull Catholics in and out of Italy are now putting to 
on* another, and wc may expect to *«•* it answered at no distant 
day. 


Yachts 

ArroBoixa to some figures compiled by Mr. A. F. Ai.iminor for 
the June numlicr of Pearson** Magazine a much larger amount of 
money is expended in the United States on yaelitiug than in com- 
monly supposed. It seems that yachting costs American 
citizens $8,000,000 a year, to say nothing of the interest on 
$43,(8)<>,U(M> invested in yacht* and $6,000,000 sunk tn yacht club- 
houses and club property. There arc now in this country $90 
yacht clubs, comprising more than ." 10.000 memticr*. and posnensinR 
3118 recorded yachts. In addition to the registered vessels, there 
are, we are told, perhaps 10,000 small laum-hes and motor boats, 
together with an unknown multitude of tiny snillsMts. Of the 
registered yacht m, 512 are steamers and 199 arc " auxiliaries ” — 
tlTMs** to say, Isssts provided with small-power engines to u.-w* when 
winds are light, or when it is necessary to enter a harbor in the 
teeth c. a hrad wind. X'o fewer lliaa 129 steamers are built 
entirely of steel, and their aggregate value exceed* $17,(8)0.000. 
Sever of them are over 3(8) feet in length apiece, and the average 
pries- of each of theae ia estimated at half a million dollars. Rig 
yacht* like the I'afiVmf, Parana, or foracu'r require crews of sixty 
met. 

The pay of an ordinary sailor on a steam * yacht is $30 a 
month, to which many owner* add $3 for go**! conduct. Fifty 
cent* a day is allowed for the food of each member of the crew. 
Captains ami engineers of steam-yachts receive from $75 a month 
to $3500 a year. They are also, of course, handsomely provided 
lor in respect of quip-tt-nt and nourishment. We observe, lastly, 
that the average time for which a yacht- is in commission is said 
to 1** five months in every season, though, of course, some vessel* 
are in use nearly the whole year. It Dial to lie said in Knglnnd, 
when plcusure-rruft were smaller than they are now. that no man 
eoiild afford to keep a steam-yacht on leas he could spend on It 
at least ten thousand pounds a year. 


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Results of Togo's Victory 

I. — The Battle- ship versus the Torpedo-bo&.t 

By Captain Edward W. Very, late U. S. N. 


T O the (rrrat iiiiisa of the thinking people nil thing* nuvnl 
nre vague mysteries. A battleship i* r« leviathan; n 
tor|icdo-hoat un angry wasp: n submarine in nn indefinite 
nn un aeroplane: and liryond thin imagery the landsman 
emihl not go if he would in the intimate nen knowledge 
necessary to true judgment. Kven tn-duy. with full nnd correct 
accounts of the Japanese naval operations, in which all of the new 
weapons have l**rn put to the full test of war, the landsman finds 
himself hopelessly entangled in the attempt to nnalvjse results. 
Battle ships have driven buck re|>ealed ami must vicious attack* 
of torpedo-law t tint ilia*: torpedo-boat* have sunk hattle-ahipe ; 
protected cruisers have disabled armored eruisers, hut armored 
cruisers have successfully held their own in the fighting line against 
battleships. The submarine mine has lieen strictly impartial in 
its treatment of friend rind foe, and has done yeoman’s service. 

Wherein, then, lies the lx-«t combination of power, efficiency, 
and financial economy? .Must millions Is? tied up in a single Iwt- 
tie-ship with her vulnerable underwater body, or is it not possi- 
ble to secuaely entrust the home protection to the cheajsT hut 
undoubtedly formidable defence of flotillas of torpedo • Ismtsf 
What, in fact, is the economical lesson of the war? 

Many attempts are constantly made to give a definite answer 
to the questions, and. with the natural perversity of human na- 
ture. the less the leal knowledge possessed of the general subject 
the more specious the argument. It is hut natural, and. indeed, 
fair, in view of the enormous and ever-increasing expense of the 
Iwt tle-ali ip. to look askance at this detail of the fleet as an in- 
strument to lie suppressed, if such a thing can be safely done; 
therefore, it is well svorth the while to undertake such an explana- 
tion as shall make dear the true value of each in the composition 
of the Heel. Are the bases of the arguments sound that would 
substitute either the torpedo-boat for the battleship or rice 
reran t 

Perhaps the argument for the substitution of the torpcdn-lmat 
for the Iwt tie-ship has most often for its foundation the geograph- 
ical situation of the I'nitcd States. Whether an enemy is to lie 
made to the rust ward or the westward he must croM the ocean 
to fight: therefore with ns a defensive warfare is our strongest 
|Hiint, and it follows directly front this that we may and 
should place full reliance on our const fortifications, supplemented 
by coast defence vessels and torpedo-boat flotillas. If this be true, 
then the immense battle-ship lien ones simply a luxury. No matter 
what its real power mav lie. to ns the power is unnecessary. 

Kxainine this bed rock argument in the light of actual war ex- 
perience. -lust prior to the outbreak of our war with Spain, our 
Pacific sqtuidron was completely broken up to reenforce the At- 
lantic ami Asiatic squadrons. Assume now that, instead of this 
having Is-en done, and, in conformity with the alsive argument. 
Dewey’* squadron had la*rn recalled to the Pacific |»orts. leaving 
the Spanish commander-in chief in the Far Hast under the ne- 
ccsftity of eroasing the Pacific to do harm. Is it not true that 
the whole people of the Pacific coast would have Wn as thor- 
oughly terrorized ns were those of the Atlantic coast while wait- 
ing for the descent of Cervera? Is it not true that Dewey’* 
squadron would have been scattered from Puget Sound to San 
Diego, each unit lieing helpless to stand off a squadron attack of 
the enemy? Is it not true that the S|»ani*h admiral delilierately 


assumed the strict defensive under Ihe gun* of the forts at Cavite, 
ami by this act enabled Dewey to crush liis entire force at one 
blow ? 

Consider the eorrrsponding situation on thr Atlantic, and as- 
sume that the urgent appeals of our |>cop!e luid Is-en listened to 
when Cervera left the Canaries, and that the squadrons had been 
distributed from Portland to Cliai lesion in defensive positions. 
Is it not true that the fear of the prospective dex-ent would have 
been just as great at each locality? Is it not true that Cervera 
under such circumstances could have rcfitti-d at a West Indian 
port and again taken the sea? Is it not true that from the mo- 
ment he was euught la-hind the headlands of Santiago he was held 
safe, and our coast ami commerce were free? 

Turn now to Japan, whose geographical oversea situation is 
precisely similar to our*, and assume that Togo's fleet consisted 
of coast -defenders ami torpedo-boat*, ami that he had taken de- 
fensive positions in hi» home jairt*. Is it not true that Hu* 
ItiiHsiun Meet, with secure ha«e» at Pnrt Arthur. Chemulpo, and 
Vladivostok, would have held him poweile-*. precisely as he held 
them at Port Arthur? Assume that a few days ago he had taken 
a defensive position within llu* hurlsir of Mesa in pi to. Is it not 
true that the superior speed of his ships would have Is'ilt of no 
service? Is it not true that Hojpst veusky would have Im-cii free 
to form and handle his fleet at will in the sea- room outside, while 
Togo would have been in irons in the harbor? 

Let nil iuivaI campaigns In- reviewed, and it will I** found in- 
variably. from Salami* to Tsushima, that the naval force that 
assumes the defensive under shore protection has been caught at 
a disadvantage: invariably it. has Wen cither n**ut rali/.od or 
Waten. generally both. If. then, as is absolutely true, the striet 
defensive is invariably wrong in naval warfare, then a fleet built 
for the defensive is condemned in advance, nnd has no reason for 
existence. In our own case, there were in the West Indie* three 
of our monitors — striet coast-defence vessels, ami not only were 
they absolutely of no service whatever, but they Were a constant 
ci»iurras»riient to the active fleet. 

Therefore, whether or no there lie a possibility of substituting 
some less costly unit for the battle ship, it is dear that any fleet 
construction based upon a eo»»>«t -defence |s>li»\ is worse than 
worthless, for it cultivates a feeling of security where disaster 
only can W reaped. Coast - defence lies within the three-mile 
limit. Wvond which the enemy i* free to work his will. The Meet 
best guards its countiy a thousand miles away. 

If a torpedo-boat can get within reach of a In tile- ship the 
chances an* very great that the latter may Is* disabled. It fol- 
lows then, and with truth, that with fintiilas of destroyers sent 
in from different directions, the chance becomes almost a certainty 
that the Imttle-ship will tie put out of action or sunk. Sims*, then, 
flotillas sufficient for the iiui|kisc can Is* built and maintained *t 
a nmdi less cost than a Little -hip. can we not repine the tint 
tie-ship by the flotilla? \\V have sent a flotilla of these vessels 
half-way around the world with ease, and so have most of tin- 
other naval power*. Distance and safety at sea are therefore mi 
handicap. 

Assume this to lie done. Look through the roiiqiosition of any 
fighting Held in the world, and it will In- found that in the day of 
trial the enemy will meet you with h.-itth* ships uml tlml rogrra. 



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Ccrr*<Eht. i*"J. by G. r[«i« llanry 

Vote Hat I It -ships Slamrurre in Line — Ike “ Kentucky," “ Illinois,’’ “ Alabama" “ /oica,” ami “ Ui*aouri” SLamimj in Line {Oft 

Yard* apart 


Of what was Togo's fleet composed T Wlio re in would |{ojc*t- 

vensky have liren better off had ho pnsacaiicd destroyers alum* of 
the cash value of his licet I Wo must agree that the coinmn nder 
who ran keep the whole world guessing for throe month* as to 
when, where, and how he is going to strike, and who finally strike* 
at a different time, in a different place, and different way from 
any guess that had l>crn in the world during that time, would 
ponses* the wit lo catch a fleet of destroyers nt a disadvantage. 
Togo also had his destroyer flotillas, but murk the fact that lie 
neither sent thrm into action in advance nor with the main at- 
tack. but wisely held them in reserve until the enemy's decks had 
been swept and their tire so reduced as to make their onsets fair- 
ly sure. There is no true foundation for the argument that 
because a destroyer cun and has sunk a battle-ship a substitution 
may Is* made. In fact, while there is scarcely any general re- 
semblance between naval ami military campaigning, there is pre- 
cisely the same necessity for elasticity in the squadron that there 
is in the army corps, and the battle ship, the scout, and the de- 
stroyer can no more replnee each other than can artillery, cavalry, 
and infantry. There is another fact that bus a very strong in- 
fluence on this same financial question. It is patent that a fleet 
cannot lie constructed as an army can be mobilized, and yet where 
naval powers are coming to the touch of war. it invariably is 
upon the navy either to make the first attack, quick and unex- 
pected. or to receive that of the enemy, and the highest efficiency 
is required to make an attack successful or to beat it off. 

There is another statement, commonly and carelessly used, and 
literally believed, whose true value must la* known before this 
great question uf cheeking cost of construction and maintenance 


can l»e properly dealt with, and that i* that the life of a battle- 
ship does not exceed ten years. In so far as actual deterioration 
of the original lighting value of a battleship is concerned, there 
neither is nor is there the slightest foundntinn for the state- 
ment that »he deteriorate* in any degree in twenty or even thirty 
years, save the ordinary wear and tear that is constantly cor- 
rected. t'omparativcly. bIic falls behind as any machine does in 
the race of development. In Togo's late victory one of his battle- 
ships in the fighting-line was the ('kin Vm, built for China in 
1882. and carptured at the battle of Ynlu. Now. wherrus ship* 
may be outclassed by their sisters of later date, let it la* remem- 
bered that as the original strength increases so doc* the high 
value come closer to and remain longer with tile new creations. 
The loose assertion, therefore, that a ship is only good for ten 
years censed to be true lung ago. 

The remedy, therefore, for the overtnppling budget dm** nut lie 
in abolishing the battle-ship for a makeshift substitute, no mat- 
ter how valuable as a fighting unit that substitute may la* within 
its own province. Nor does it Ik* in retrograding the size and 
j tower of future battle-ships, for in this the unity of the squadron 
so vitally necessary for thorough efficiency is sacrificed. If a 
sacrifice is to be made it must la* in magnitude of the power as 
a whole, but never, under any circumstances, should a single step 
la* taken that shall endanger the thorough efficiency of whatever 
limited power there Ik*. Of all the lesson* that may la* gained 
from the naval caiiiiuiign of the Kusao-Japanese war none stands 
out so clearly as tne complete efficiency of the Japanese Meets, 
trm on I to the minute, and as perfect in the rough and tumble of 
a fight in fog and heavy sea as a regiment on parade*. 




The Li. S. Torpt, tlu-bual Ih itlroyt r 


Stun eM by II. C. Whll« C*. 


Ti.r/u dot* and Disehargr-lubes vn (he I! ii. Cruiser “ Sew York ” 


035 


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I : ma u«M*<*i‘h ly II. I- Smutty 

.4 Spanish Torpmlo taken {rum the Harbor of Santiago , — 
showing the Contact Arms, which, i rhea struck, thru*! a 
Spike into the Interior, causing Explosion by Concussion 


C-erneM I'V td«i« I 

Hussian Submarine Mine taki n from the Harbor of .\rir- 
chuang 


II. — The Va-lvie of the Submarine in N Aval Warfare 
By Lawrence Y. Spear 


I N attempting at the present time tn estimate tbc military 
value nl the submarine torpedo hunt from the naval opera- 
tion* of the war in the Far Ka*t we art? confronted at the 
outset with the lurk of authentic public information whirli hat 
been so pronounced a characteristic of the whole war. The pub- 
licly established facta arc few. and are generally comprised in 
the statement that at the outbreak of the war neither comhutant 
had nnv submarines in Kaatern waters, and that a* the war has 
progressed taith sides have been remedying their deficiencies in 
this respect. It is practically certain that neither side could have 
completed such a task until very recently, so that they could not 
have liecn employed in the Port Arthur campaign, where the 
conditions were eminently fn\ arable for their suct'e»*ftil use. 

As illustrated by the battle of Koreau Straits, fleet actions in 
the very nature of things are apt to lie inaugurated in narrow 
water* within striking range of the shore lm-cs of submarine*. 
Practically the control of tht sea. about which mi much is heard, 
means the control of very restricted areas, ami the aggressor’s 
main chance of forcing an action lies in the facilities a Horded hy 
narrow passages for loculing and furring liatlle upon his oppo* 
nont. The issue race joined in narrow waters, the admiral seek- 
ing | mi nsuge is most apt to find his tactics great I \ affected by the 
local conditions, and especially must expert to lose in a large 


measure the mobility and speed which are his only defence against 
submarines. That this was the case on that fateful Saturday in 
the Korean Straits is well established, and wr hate here a good 
illustration of that |M-euliur combination of circumstances which, 
at the present day, renders possible the effective use of submarine* 
in llect rngugcnirnta. If the Japanese Hot ilia wu* organised for 
action at this time it is altogether probable that some of tbc 
boats were stationed at this passage, the remainder U’ing a— igned 
to the other pnasages to la- guarded : and miev their presenic is 
established their effective use under the conditions of the first 
day’s battle is much more than u probability, and will la 1 gen- 
erally accepted in expert circles as a fact. 

Paradoxical as it may scent, the j«i— ihilities of tbc submarine 
are much tetter known than are the possibilities of a battle-ship. 
In a broad sense they are the least experimental type of war-ship. 
This will la- readily understood when it is rcnicnilicn-d that the 
submarine is the only type of vessel practically immune from gun- 
fire when in action. The effect of gun-fire u|«>» a ship ami its 
|»crsnnnel is a most uncertain and dilllnilt problem which the de- 
signer or tuctician has to solve, as best he may. without experi- 
mental determination. 

While no submarines were available in the Port Arthur cam- 
paign, it l>y no meauH follows that no lessons lie hidden in its 



0CJ6 


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Kngluml* line Type 


history. The significant features of tliia campaign were the dash- 
ing initial torpedo attack, whereby at one stroke and without risk 
to his large ships Admiral Togo rendered the Russian fleet inferior 
to his own. and forced it to take refuge in Port Arthur, and the 
unrelenting blockade which held it there to its final destruction, 
thus giving the Japanese from the outset that absolute control of 
the surrounding waters which was essential to their military 
plans. 

If with I’ort Arthur as a centre we strike a circle, the radius of 
which is the radius of action of the modern submarine, it will be 
found that the arc includes all the narrow sous traversed by the 
Japanese lines of communication not onlv with Manchuria, but 
with Korea. Similarly, the radius of actum when submerged in- 
cludes not only 11 m? Japanese naval lwse in the Elliott Islands, but 
the landing-points of the tioops on the Manchurian coast. As it 
was. the Russian control was limited to the harbor of Port Arthur 
only, and every mile wherein that control could have been extended 
or the Japanese control hotly disputed would have been worth 
thousands of Russian soldiers in Manchuria. 

Let us assume now that the Russian* put the price of one hut- 
tle-shin into a fleet of submarines, and hud at I’ort Arthur, as 
a result, thirty bouts of the best modern type. The possible Modi- 
fication in history would Is* enormous. In tlie first place, the 
Japune&r fleet lm-c in the Elliott Islands would have Im-cu con- 
stantly menaced uud made untenable, since it lies within the sub- 
merged radius of action of submarine* operating from Port Arthur 
as a base. No numlier of guard-ship* at the entrance could have 
prevented or even have detected the egress of the submarines. No 


► 



The Submarine " Fulton" Trimming (or Hiring 


Submarine, “ B-l ” 


known means could have prevented their unexpected appearance 
at the base of the opposing fleet. Admiral Togo would have been 
forced to clioofe* between the constant danger of a reduction in 
lii* fleet sufficient to turn the scale again in favor of the Rus- 
sians, or a loosclv conducted blockade conducted from shifting 
base* far removed front his objective. Such a blockade would 
have lss-n a relinquishment of the strict control of the upper 
Yellow Sea, and the resultant freedom for the Russian main fleet to 
burry tl»r sea communication* with Manchuria. 

On the other hand, had the Japanese fleet l»cen augmented by 
five submarines the long blockade, with it* ri*k» and losses, might 
have las'll avoided. The fortitloutiou* and uiiucn could not have 

I irrventeil the entrance of the boats into the harbor, in the Uni- 
ted area of which escape for the Russian fleet would have been 
impossible. The true objective being the enemy's fleet, no time 
need have Ims'ii wasted iii attempts to remove or neutralize the 
fixed mines in order to ullow the Japanese battleship* to enter 
the harbor. as even with the mine* rendered harmless the fortifica- 
tion* would have prevented auch a movement. In any case, the 
destruction of the enemy's fleet would Is* accomplished under these 
circumstance* with more despatch and less risk by the submarine*. 

No umount of diacu salon can. in the end. obscure one great fact 
regarding the submarine — that is. her ability to approach a battle- 
ship in hr«md daylight ami force the latter to retire, or accept dis- 
ablement or destruction. This is the essence of the matter. All 
other eons iderat inn* are by comparison non-essential. This lim- 
itation curtail* the battle -hip's control. That, in final terms, is 
what the submarine can do now, and that is enough. 



037 


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III. — What America has Learned from Togo 


By Commander Bradley A. Fiske, U.S.N. 



N O lessons for naval of- 
ficer* nr* 1 to lie de- 
duced from the recent 
nuccesse# of Jnpun u|*»n the 
sen, hut there are muny for 
the {tropic. So fur na naval 
officer* are concerned, nothing 
Im* hern proved. no dnuldflll 
(mint* determined. because 
most naval oflicers. at least 
American naval offlccra, have 
continually predicted that 
.lupnn would win the game. 

'J'ln* nui'ccsm** of du pun and 
the accompanying disasters of 
Itussia in tlirir battles on the 
sea Have effected one errat 
result, they have put into 
the hand* of American naval 
ndirers the weapon which they 
need the most — the weapon 
of proof that their repreaenta- 
tiont to Cungma and the 
people have hern correct. 

Ouringr the last session of 
t'ongri*** an eminent Senator 
declared, on the lloor of the 
Sennle. in effect, that “ mere 
naval nflieer* " were not com* 

|*4*t< tit to pus* u|miii «| lit— t i>>n.-> 
of iinvnl policy . Can any one 
imagine » Senator, or any- 
I mdy eW, taking a like atti- 
tude regardiug the delib- 
eration* of an academy 
of medicine, a church con- 
vention. nu engineers’ associa- 
tion, or a court of law: Many Congntwsmen of uiidouMed nhility 

and patriotism, and distinguished in their own professions, have 
challenged the declaration of the men of the naval profession that 
they needed very large hattic-ailips. Now what the recent suc- 
cesses of Japan have done for naval oflicers, and therefore fur the 
country, is to prove that they were right. 

This leads up to, and establishes, a very interesting condition: 
the condition that the navy will henceforth la* called upon not 
only to do the absolute lighting. |>ut also to immidrr ami rc|sirt 
what measures must tie taken to insure that, when it dimes to 
fight, it will have the proper tools. The advantage of tills condi- 
tion to the country will Im- twofold: first, it will put the re- 
sponsibility for our naval defence in u delinite place, the Navy 
Department second, it will give to naval oflicers that kei*n in- 
terest in their profession which is ticcetmary to every man who is 
to practise his profession well. 

Home of the immediate results art* easy to foresee. One is that 
the great American fleet, mi long desired and needed, will at lust 
come into being. Heretofore it has Urn dillleull to convince laymen 


Gunners on Board the (7. S. Cruiser 


of thp dilTeii'tiee tad wren a 
flirt and a collection of ship*. 
Hut siirelv the long trip of 
llojcstvenaky from the tultie 
to Japan, with hi» lighting 
ships of different kinds, and 
hi* colliers, hospital ship*, 
and auxiliaries, and the fate 
fill buttle which he fought, 
will show even the most in- 
credulous layman that, if we 
air to hate a navy at all, 
that navy must |mism*s* a 
fleet which can go to the 
uttermost parts of the earth, 
and In* self *iip|Mirling all the 
time. Am) when thi* layman 
***** — a* all sec now — that the 
fate of two empire* hinged mi 
the Isittle ultimately fought, 
he must also »ee that our 
flirt must In- so enormous, 
o imposed of ship* so power- 
ful. muuiicd by men ami of 
fleer* so brave, and com- 
iiMmleil by an admiral mi 
skilful, that we will Is* sure 
to win. 

I was in Ja|i*n a few year* 
ago. uml many Kurnunin* 
point'd out to me the folly of 
Japan in apt-nding for buttle- 
ship* so many «>f the million* 
that she had ricrivrd as in- 
demnity from t 'h inn. Her re- 
cent successes show that it 
wa» not only wisdom of the 
highest order, Imt courage of nn order just as high: for Japan 
i» not a rich country, like ours, but a very |mor one. 

The only navy that will surely whip any pmliahle enemy is one 
more {Hiueiful than any prolmhlc enemy. Ui- must deride, then, 
who will U* our proluihle enemy or eu amirs, ami get a navy miin* 
powerful than their*. And wfrrn we are reckoning who will In- 
our probable enemies we must recollect that it will take ten years 
to construct ami drill a MiHii-ii-nt navy : *o we iim*l think of con- 
ditions not as they are now. hut as they may Im- ten year* lienee. 

What *i*e of navy shall wv need then T Thi* would In* a very- 
hard question to answer, if it were not for one thing: ami that 
thing is the example of the only other tuition in the world a* 
great, and as rich, and a* isolated in Imr grandeur as we our- 
selves. That nut ion is t front Itritnin. Her wise policy decide* on 
n navy of a certain sine. Thi* i* our only guide. We shall lie 
safe if we have a navy a* great as hers. 

The principal lesson then for our people— that may tie deduced 
from the recent successes of Japan is that we need a navy at 
leust as powerful bn tfreut Itritnin'*. 


ua »•*■»«!« In 4 IU- i.s«l«j> 

* Xt'itt York " fwuiisjr ti-inch 



The JaiHinc.it Torptylo-lnmt pnlrui/rr *' Kanumi,” The ” haiunii." like her Sutler Ship. I hr " Knlsuki," tit JJH I lonti. dis- 
places .UiO Ton*, and has a tifictxi of .1/ Knots. Her annanu nl consist* <i f one .finch Hun, fire li-)nmndtrs, and hr r, Is ine/i 
Torpedo* tubes 

ona 


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Unlnimb H'finl making an I'ndrrhand Valley 


lira ! * C. Wright at the Fnd of a Forehand Stroke 



ll i/lwn J. Clothier making u Fun hand I alley William .1. La rued " Smashing " 

AMERICAN TENNIS-PLAYERS WHO WILL COMPETE FOR THE 
DAVIS INTERNATIONAL TROPHY IN ENGLAND 

The photographs are snap-shots of thr four 1 mrrirn n tennis-plaip 1 * composing the .1 men ran international team, irhirh suit'd 
for F.ngtand on June 1. 1 to compete for thi Darin international trophy. The ham cetnsists of Holcomb H'nrrf, of Orange, V etc 
./ rrnry, I mcriran champion in singles mol doubles ; It- ah t\ Wright, of It on ton. i rhn hold a the donhlr championahip irith Ward; 
Wi/liam l, Lamed, of Annapolis. American champion in singles in I Uhl and IfStJ ; and William ./, Clothier, of I’hiladi Iphia. 

I* there arc four other challengers for the Dari* hotel hr aides that of thr 4mmVvfN tram, a preliminary tournament trill be 
hr Id among thr different teams to Sr tret a challenger for the international championahip 

Diulo(tip> uopyncht, 1*15. by J. f- fuel 

030 


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The New Secretary of the Navy 

By Kenneth F. Lockwood 


T HE predominant 
trait in the char* 
aetcr of Charles 
J. Honuparte. Sec- 
retary-elect of the 
l T nite<l State* Now, is his 
utter fearlessness in every- 
thing ho does and says, 
whether the object of his at- 
tention is a Democrat or n 
Republican, a city " bo** ” 
or n precinct “ runner." 

“ In every sense of the 
word he U non-partisan, 
with an eye solelv to good 
government,” saiu a poli- 
tician who lias known him 
intimately for many years. 

" He would cut olT the bead 
of a Republican a* quickly 
ns he would decapitate a 
Democrat who failed to 
measure up to hi* ideals." 

This aggn-ssivc impartial- 
ity ha* made many enemies 
for Mr. Bonaparte in both, 
parties, who do not hc*it«tr 
to say some rather severe 
tiling* about him. although 
proltably the worst ehargr* 
which he has encountered 
have been thoae which have 
described him as a “placc- 
johber," “a hypocrite, and 
as a man possessing influ- 
ence which ne exerts for his 
own benefit. 

Mr. Bonaparte denies that 
lie has “ pull." In his own 
word*, referring to his em- 
ployment in the prosecution 
of the alleged Indian frauds 
and of the postal abuse*, 
which primarily gave rl*e to 
the charge*, he say*: 

” It was anything hut a 
‘soft snap*; the work wn* 
onerous and highly responsi- 
ble. and while I inay not lie 
a fair judge, I think I 
earned the compensation 
paid me. However this 
may lie. und while those re- 
sponsible for my employment may have erred in selecting me. still 
I can say with absolute certainty that the selection was made by 
them for the public lieneflt, and not for mine." 

An incident which occurred this year, an apparent direct refuta- 
tion of Mr. Bonaparte's denial, strengthened the popular belief 
that he “ stood in " at Washington. 

The office of postmastrr of lialtimore city was vacant — or about 
to become vacant — and the struggle which usually accompanies 
such a condition bud In-gun. Senator McComas, at odds with 
the Republican organization, bad no |>nrtieular man in view, und 
eared little who secured the position no long a* the nppointi-c was 
not a candidate of the regulars, who were practically settled on 
one selection. The appointment of this candidate seemed ns- 
stirrd, and the organization was preparing to celebrate accord- 
iiiglv. wlim a lioinhslull fell in its midst. It Itccaiiii- known that 
\V. Hall Harris had Im-cii appointed |kmI master at lialtimore. 
Who was lie? What bad be done? Who had secured the appoint- 
ment for him? I'p to the very minute of the announcement not 
even a hn-uth of rumor Inid mentioned Harris’* name in connection 
with the office. Indeed, there were few |ieople who even had heard 
of him. When, however, it la-eame known that he was a close 
friend and a relative by marriage of Charles .1. Ilonaparle — " Noup- 
lionse Charlie." a* they used to rail him — there was no nerd to go 
deeper into flic mill ter. Mr. Ilonaparle had recommended Harris, 
and tin' President relied iiimui his word I Iml he wa* the proper man. 

In tiie early days of the llalliinore Reform la-ngiic Mr. Ilona- 
parte deemed necessary an invrstigatinn of the alTairs of a prom- 
inent Federal office • hohier who was suspected of violating the 
civil-service rule*. After a thorough examination of the mutter 
a report was drawn up for submission to the member* of the asso- 
ciation at their next meeting. Friends of the crooked official 
learned this, and resolved to "park'’ the council, m> that the re- 
port might la- voted down. 

The night canie. Mr. Honaparte listened patiently and at- 
tentively to the arguments against the report, and then arose to 
air his own view*, lie bitterly nttm-ked 1 lie official, and declared 
that the charges should I** immediately approved. He soon flaw, 
however, that his words would have little elTret upon that por- 
tion of his audience whirl) sided with tin* accused man. So. when 
he had finished hi* discourse, lie Is-gan over again, rejs-ating it 
word for word, jmuisc for pause, gesture for gesture in the same 


tone of voice — not once, hut 
a dozen time*, until toward 
morning the friends of the 
official were fust asleep. Mr. 
Bonaparte and his constitu- 
ent* then approved and 
adopted the rc|iort. 

At various time* in the 
life of the League charges 
made agaiusl certain 
individual* which some of 
the members refused to sign 
because they considered 

them libellous. tin such 

occasions Mr. Honaparte 

wasted - no time in argu- 
ment. He invariably pub- 
lished the charges over hi* 
own name in the new*- 

papers. 

" There.” he would say — 
*' if they are libels, I am re- 
*|*ui*ibie. Let them sue." 

Mr. Ilonaparle ha* defined 
his political status bv sav- 
ing. " 1 am both a Repub- 
lican and an Independent ; 
the former primarily and 
the latter secondarily." He 
voted for drover Cleveland 
in 1884. and supported the 
Democratic candidate in the 
lialtimore municipal cam- 
paign of IfWHt. 

In appearanre Mr. Ilona- 
parte i* above the average 
height, is sturdily built, and 
while one might take him 
for a Frenchman, there is a 
total absence of the French 
gesture* and grimace* which 
have been credited to him by 
an imaginative press, lie 
invariably dreaae* in Mark, 
and usually wears a string 
lie of the same hue, whoos- 
hing end* straggle over hi* 
turn-down collar. He speak* 
slowly ami deliberately in ■ 
high-pitched voice, which is 
not in the lea*l monotonous, 
ami he i* of an extremely 
nervous temperament. 

The only salaried public office he ever occupied wa* that of 
Supervisor of Flections of lialtimore city, which he held for three 
week* in the summer of I Hits. lie has l*s-n elected to only one 
public office, that of Presidential rleetor last yc*r. lie was the 
only successful Republican candidate on the Maryland ticket, and 
ran fur ahead of his Democratic colleague*. 

Charles Joseph Honaparte was burn in Baltimore on June 5. 
1851. His father was .Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte. son of Jerome 
Honaparte. who was a brother of Napoleon, and one time King of 
Westphalia. 

.Jerome Honaparte married Elizabeth l*atterson. daughter of a 
wealthy lialtimore merchant. The story of the unfortunate term 
ination of that marriage i* well known. Jerome met Mis* Patter- 
son during a visit to the I'nib-d States, and ninrricd her in I8t*:i 
without the consent of hi- brother Napoleon. The marriage gave 
great offence to Napoleon, and was annulled by hi* order in 1805. 
Jerome wn* crowned King of Westplinlia in 18414. and in the same 
year married a daughter of the King of Wtlrteinlierg. His first 
wife died in Baltimore in 1870. at the age of nim tv-four. Mr. 
Bonaparte's mother wa* Susan May Williams, daughter of Benja- 
min William* and Sarah Copeland, lie received the rudiments off 
hi* education in private aelinola and under the care of private 
tutor*, ami entered Harvard in I8IM1 as a Junior. He wn* grad- 
uated two year* later, and remained at the university one year a* 
a resident graduate. 

In 1872 he look up the study of law in the Harvard 
lav School, finishing the course in 1874. Sim-c his admission to 
the Maryland har be has practised hi* profession principally in 
the Federal ami State court*, and In- has a wide clientele, 

Mr. Honaparte i« a Roman Catholic, one of the truster* of the 
Cathedral Church of Baltimore, ami a warm friend of Cardinal 
(•ilihnns. He is president nf the Civil Service Reform Association 
of Maryland and of the Natimuil Municipal la-agiic. Resides tlu-»e 
office* he is connected with many other reform ami charity organi- 
zation*. 

lie was an overseer of Harvard University from 181*0 to 
and aroused much criticism by opposing the plan to confer the 
degree of LL.D. on President McKinley. 

Those who imagine that Mr. Itonaiuirte i* unduly promt of hi* 
ancestry are greatly mistaken. He 1* an American through and 
through. 



f'AaWci J. Bonaparte, tcha trill HuecrrH /‘nut Hurt an an Brcrrtary 
of the .Vary on July I 


310 


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The /'immA vf the Suburban — •• lt> Idnme " leading, “ /’ro^rr ” teevnd, “ h'irnt llnton ” third 


SNAP-SHOTS OF THE SUBURBAN HANDICAP AT SHEEPSHEAD BAY 

Thr S' ii bu rim it Uandirag of $!<l.00n, for tkn'r- i/enr-ohl* and Ufitra rdn, ichirh iron run on I hr o/wviiru; dni/ of Ihr Voney Inland 
Jockey VI ub'n June nuet at Shre/mhiad liny, mis iron by Mr. Auuunt Belmont’* marc ” Beldame — lime, . 1 . 5 . ,1/r. II'. 

It. Jrnniny'n " Proper " iru* ueeond, and Hr. V. Itoue’a " I’irat Union" third. During hut yar'a raring union “Bel- 
dame” ir*oi nearly J.i j.WHN in thirteen rare*, the amount of h*r total earning * on the turf being about $Hn,OOU 


041 


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Racing across Continent by Train 

I. — Preparations for Breaking the Long-distance Record on the Pennsylvania 

By Colin Studds 

Eutem P&iMmer Agent Pennsylvania Railroad 


T IIK ease with which u train like the Pennsylvania Special 
breaks thr long-distance record of the world suggest* 
that Mime extraordinary preparation*, like the >'i>~>uiin^; 
of a racer for the track, must lie made to injure muwm. 
It is a natural thought that a specially clear track should 
lie ordered, that tnwcrmen should warned to redouhlr their 
vigilante. that trainmen should lie enjoined to quicker perception 
and prompter action; hut on a system where these conditions pre- 
vail at all times the quiekciiing up of a timetable simply brings 
into play perhaps a shade more acutrlv the every-day character* 
istics of the human agencies that are beliind thr movement. 

The real preparation for this event Is-gun six year* ago. when 
the present managenient of the Pennsylvania Itailroad system in- 
augurated a thorough and comprehensive plan of betterment of 
the property, which has resulted in its practical reconstruction 
between New York and Chicago. Upon his accession to the presi- 
dency Mr. Cassatt found the transportation facilities measurably 
taxed to provide for the freight and passenger trullie whirl* was 
then offering itself as the result of n period of business activity. 
Then the plan for increased train weight and incidental multiplica- 
tion of train rapacity had developed sufficiently to foreshadow the 
necessity for the mliiction of grades and the use of stronger 
bridges. Foreseeing the iremrndotia revival of industry and com- 
merce that seemed inevitable, the new president set the capital 
and lira ins of his corporation the tusk of prewiring the 
structure of his line to take on the new burdens of traffic. This 
*t it | nil dons work of reconstructing and amplifying over into miles 
of trackage, with enlarged terminals and facilities. expanded to 
muny times their previous pnqsirt ion.*, required a vast expenditure 
of money and a tremendous output of energy. 

The itlan involved the expulsion of terminal*, the elimination 
of grade crossings in ull cities und towns, the umplitieation of 
Irarks from two to four, and in territory of dense traffic to six. 
the reduction of grades, and the transformation of curve* into 
tangents. To segregate the freight Kaffir und remove it from pas- 
senger tracks. indc|M*ndent freight lines were plutnied. of which 
a considerable mileage is in use and the lenuiiiuler nearing com- 
pletion. 

This expansive policy wan pursued in greater degree on the 
lines east of Pittsburg, where the grades Were heavier, the truffic 
drnser. and thr difficulties of operation more acute; hut a similar 
line of action was followed on the lilies west in the matter of 
the duplication und relocation of truckage on easier gradients am] 
in more direct course. 

The result of this reconstructive effort is un amplified road- 
way constructed of tile lic.*l materials, in the most nolotunt ial 
manner, and largely relieved of thr menacing shadow of obstructive 
freight wreckage. 

Tlie present physical condition of the road invited the intro- 
duction of a faster passenger service between its two most im- 
portant terminals, for which there is undoubtedly a popular de- 


mand. The constantly growing interdependence of the two cities 
increases the importance of facilities for the prompt transaction 
of business by personal contact. 

Such facilities are afforded now by trains so adjusted in their 
lime schedules as !o give a business man the working hours of the 
day in either city and then drlivrr him in the other in ample time 1 
to do a day's work. 

So, with thr physical condition of the road in readiness and the 
faith of all its employers in its supremacy assured, the introduction 
of even a record breaking train is merely an incident. The gen- 
eral scheme is laid out among the higlu-r operating officials and 
discussed exhaustively before the general and division superin- 
tendent* are called together in conference. The details of the 
schedule are discussed, the general schedule formulated ns to the 
terminal figures of each division, and the division *ii|icriiilcndciit* 
submit u tentative table of running time, which must Is* approved 
by the chiefs of the transmutation and operating department*. 
With this approval the running schedule* are printed and dis- 
tributed among the trainmen of eaeli division a week or ten 
days liefore the new train starts, in order that they may become 
familiar with tile movement of the new train, as well as the change 
ill time or stops of local und other trains which may la- nccc**ury 
to clear the new train on the different divisions. Thr new 1 train 
is entered oil the schedule lawks, or sheets, us a regular train, 
subject to tlie rule* prearrilwd for all other trains of its elas*. 
and i* treated as such bv ull trainmen. Any clearing of the wav 
that may lie necessary is done on the superintendent'* schedule 
when the new train makes its ritlrrr. After that event it i* a 
memla-r of the family, and receive* such consideration a* i* ac- 
corded it in its entrance record. No special ceremonies announce its 
entrance into train life, no special instruct bin* an* issued «* to 
its treatment. The- starting and arrival time at division terminals 
is given, thr *topping-plue-e* an' indimti d. with the passing time 
at signal towers and ex erv one who lias anything to do with the 
movement sees to it that it moves on the given time, unless some 
insurmountable olistiirh* intervenes. 

In order to accustom enginemen to a new degree of *|iecd. te*t 
runs with a train of like composition an* frequently made in ad- 
tame of the inauguration of a train of exceptional speed. These 
test* disclose the evenness or unevenness of the truek. the relative 
effect of curve* or the steadiness of the trains, and the degree of 
power rcoiiisitr to surmount graifW. At the same time the tests 
educate the cngiiiciunn and his (ireninn up to the more alert de- 
mands of their positions under pressure of a higher degree of speed. 

The ease with which the requirements of the fu»t schedule was 
more than met by the new eighteen hour train of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad between New York ami Chicago, ami the regularity with 
which it continues to run up to it* obligation* abundantly certi- 
fies to tlie g»*sl judgment of the management that the time was 
ri|ie and the conditions opportune for it* inauguration a* a much 
needed con veil ience to the travelling public. 



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II. — From New York to Chicago in Eighteen Hours over the Central 

By George H. D&niels 

G»n«r&l PuMn|«r Agerxi. New York Centro. I end Hudson Rtvor Ro-llroo-d 


T WICE rwry year, in the spring and fall, the oprmting uml 
pussenger officials of the various railroad line* meet and 
consider what changes are necessary in their systems of time- 
tables, discussing condition* which have u risen since the previous 
change, and considering what should be done to best enable their 
railroads to retain or increase their business. 

One passenger ollieial report* that a competitor has secured a 
ttmsideralile amount of business between certain points, and be- 
lieves that if train No. I were duinged to a later departure, with 
a corrrsjsinding later urrival at its opposite terminal, it would 
la* henetk-ial. Another states that if train No. 2 were to leave 
its initial station one hour later, and arrive at it* destination the 
same time us it then did. making up the hour, it would help con- 
siderably to repair the inroads which another line had made on 
its business on account of a more favorable hour of departure. 
Another official believes that if a sleeping-ear were run between two 
points on train No. 3, instead of on train No. 4, it would better 
accommodate the travelling public. 

All these thing* arr considered and detailed, until finally all 
are agreed a* to what should la* done. It is then necessary for the 
general officer* in charge of the making of the time table to agree 
ns to the amount of time to be allowed cneh road for the through 
run. each road securing the number of hours to which it is en- 
titled. based on the percentage that the nmntier of mile* covered 
by each road Wars to the total mirnWr of mile* travelled. When 
this in for nuit ion ia secured the time is divided between each di- 
vision of the road, uniformly in most cases, but sometimes vary- 
ing according to the physical characteristics of the territory of 
each division, and tl»e time-table is then made out. giving the time 
for each station, this part of the work Wing generally performed 
by the chief train - despatch*** of each division, who is in done 
touch with the movement of all trains, and cm tell from his 
personal experience what amount of time shall W allowed Wtween 
mi'll station. 

It oftentimes occurs that in arranging a schedule of a fast and 
iui|M>rtant train it is necessary to change the time of other trains 
which are not so important. * Other occasion* arise where a fast 
train overtake* a slower one, and it ia then necessary to schedule 
the slower train so that it can W side-tracked nl a convenient and 
proper station for the fast train to pass. This is usually dune 
in such a way as not to delay the slower train more than five 
or six minutes, ami where the slower truin has a considerable dis- 
tance to run this time is usually mude up in the schedule, so us 
to bring the train into its terminal at it* eld time. On some rail- 
road* where the density of traffic is unusually great, the change 
of one truin has been known to disarrange the schedule of nine or 
ten other*. 

After all corrections are made, the time-table is sent to the printer, 
and sufficient proof* received m> that all concerned — assistant super- 
intendents, truin masters, despatches, ami others — may go over it 
carefully and confer with the division superintendent with refer- 


ence to it. After it has Wen carefully examined, nccewsary cor- 
rection* made, checked, double-checked by the superintendent and 
his assistants, it is sent to the printer for final printing, a copy 
of the proof Wing sent to the general passenger agent, and it is 
from thi* proof that the general pussenger agent issues his various 
time-tables, folders, leaflets, etc., that are used by the travelling 
public. 

Previous to llie change of time -table a notice is issued. 
|MMed on ull bulletin • Isiaids and in all stations, culling atten- 
tion of employees to the fact that a new time-table will la- issued 
on a certain dale, and it ib the duty of every employer whose ocm 
put ion requires it to secure a copy "of the new lime table, receiving 
it from one of the various place* where they are supplied for dis- 
tribution. The supply for station* and blink stations is sent 
out. and receipt* received tor them. No employee is allowed to 
go out on the road when a new time-table takes cHVct without 
first having a new time-table in his possession, and this information 
i* secured Wforr hr is allowed to go. 

This is the story of making a change in the time-table. Karh 
train is scheduled *o us to make the speed uniform, depending on 
physiral condition*. It is watched every minute of the trip by 
the trnin-despatchrr, who sits at his key in the superintendent's 
office, receiving rrpnrt* of it* passage from the block station* along 
the road. The block signalmen are on the alert to put the signals 
in clear position, so a* not to delay it* passage, or to keep signal* 
in stop position when the block in advance i* not dear. 

The change nf time on the New York Central and luike Shore 
of their Twentieth Century Limited from a twenty-hour train be- 
tween New York and Chicago to eighteen hours meant sjmply 
the shortening of the time an hour on the luikc Shore Wtween 
Buffalo and Chicago and an hour on the New York Central W- 
tween New York and ItulTaln; and while thi* may seem a remark- 
able thing, it was not considered by the officials of these lines an 
insurmountable feat, and the result proves that it can W done 
with com |iara live case. 

The first train west-bound, which left New York at 3,30 Sun- 
day. June lfi, arrived in Chicago on time Monday morning. The 
train that left Chicago at 2.30 Sunday afternoon. June 1H. arrived 
in New York three minutes ahead of time Mondav morning. The 
Twentieth Century Limited ns an eighteen -hour train by the New 
York Central lines is now making the same schedule jut hour 
Wtween New York and Chicago that the Empire Stale Express 
has Isi-n making for more than ten years from New York 
to HtifTalo, namely, 53 1-3 miles per hour, including stop* and 
slow-downs. 

While no difficulty has been found in meeting the eighteen- -hour 
schedule, the accident to the Twentieth Century Limited at Mentor 
on June 21. due not to the *|>cvd of the train, but to the malicious 
often ing of a switch, determined the officials nf the load to aban- 
don the eighteen-hour schedule and return from June 23 to the 
twenty- hour schedule. 



A Signal Station on the l.inr of I he ,Vnr York Cm t nil ftailrinid between Xnc York anil Chicago, a err i rhieh Ihr “ Ttemlitlh 
Century l.i rnilril " made if* Hiqhlrt n hour run bi'hnrn lh<- ft ro Citim. I hi June IS thin Train mailt a reeord run of l.lf 
ililca in 12/ Hinulra. The SMtf Milt a between ,Vck> York and Chicago trrrr covered by thi* Train in 1080 If mute* 


M3 


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Electricity at Home a.nd irv Business 


By Herbert T. Wo.de 



I X the desire to save 
time, spa ee, and energy, 
und promote comfort 
mid convenience, nu- 
merous novel und inter- 
rstlng applications of elec- 
tricity have lni'ii iniulc. The 
saving of time uml space 
menu* the saving of money, 
und iiirmuml economy und 
ellieieney ure always at a pre- 
mium. In the business ottico 
there are many applieatioiiH 
of electricity to achieve thia 
end. Aa iiii example muy In; 
cited the chi-trie ly|H-w liter, 
inventui when it um> real- 
ized that increased s|««-tii 
und fucility of o|M*mlion 
could he secured if a <i-rluin 
amount of the energy moil 
liy the typist was supplied 
im-chiiniealiv. und that the 
i unit convenient method for 
doing thia wan the electrie 
lonlor operated by current 
from (lie ordinary lighting 
circuit or n small Imtlrry. 

Then. by "imply touching the 
key*, a* effective work could 
la* done na by n blow of con- 
siderable Corn*. The Name 
[irinciple w.ia also applied to 
the adding nud calculating 
maeliinra now no iiNeful ill 
hnnkN and other commercial 
CKtuhliNhincnlN. In thia cum*. 
after the appropriate keya 
have ln-cn "truck, the gcuriiig 
of the machine in revolved by 
an electric motor, ami the 
total ia automatically given 
without further attention from the operator, who, with machine" 
of the older type, wan forced to move trunk n or lever". 

The next Interesting instrument that one finds in an up-to-date 
elrctrieully et|iiip|M*d ollice in the teluutogruph, which automatically 
reproduce* luuidw riting in fucsimilc at u point mote or lew dis- 
tant. Where it ia necenaary to give exact inforinution to a mini 
tier of Tier noun tdinultancoiiBly and have the MUM a nuttier of 
record this instrument ii very convenient. For example, a train- 
dispatcher eun announce the moveiuentN of trains to a nuniWr of 
offi'-ial* stationed at different points by simply writing a single 
message. The dev in* In also employed by newspapers and other 


ennterns for writing bulletins, 
while for dircci comrminica- 
tion ls*t ween two person* the 
apparatus possesses obvious 
advantages. \\ lien used in a 
hi* nk the eashier or teller may 
inquire from the l"N>kkee|u*r 
as to the amount of Im lance 
nr other particulars of a cus- 
tomer's account, the mcs-nge 
ami the answer ls-ing noise- 
lessly sent and received. The 
same instrument, aside from 
it" commercial application*, 
find* employment in fort i Ilea - 
t ion*, where the artillery of- 
ficer churn'd with observing 
the target and computing the 
range and direction of fire 
can send from hi* station to 
the gunner* in the emplace- 
ment" detailed und specific 
inst ructions a* to direction, 
elevation, etc., without llw* 
IHMsihility of misluke or mis- 
understanding attending a 
verlail order or nmlihle signal. 

Attention might In- direct- 
ed. in the typical modern of- 
fice. to another set of con- 
ductor". from the lighting 
circuit or a Iwttrry to a curi 
oil* instrument mounted on a 
polished liox. ami consisting 
apparently of a pair of inctul 
reel* moving speedily hut 
noiselessly, from which a fine 
steel wire is Iwing rapidly 
wound and unwound. This i* 
the tclcgra photic, which is 
just Is-ing established us a 
valuable adjunct to the tele- 
phone, and ea|*ahle of many useful applications. Is-ing. among other 
thing*, a Milistitutc for the phonograph. It is siisn-ptilde of nu- 
merous adjustment*, ami can tie made to tecord or reproduce an 
ordinary conversation, not only after the manner of the phono- 
graph, but also when ronuerted with a telephone. It will record 
the conversation of laith parties on an ordinary telephone-line. 
Such a conversation can I*- Mib-njuently reprndunil at will and ns 
many time* ns desired. With this same machine, by simply turn- 
ing an appropriate key. a man may dictate to the machine, and 
then a stenographer in an adjoining room or another building can 
put on her head a telephone - receiver connected w ith the 


Electricity at llomr — .1 /lew in a- machine o/trralcd by art Electric 
Motor 



The Telauittyrtxjih, irhirh nprotlucm I'ae/timilen of written 
Memtayen til a /liV-ims — the t'koluyniiih ulioas both the 
Ucrtiriuy anti Ketuliny I titfruitienht 


The Teleyra plume. to U'h irk l.tlltr* may hr Dictated anti 
Itc jtftnj until by a Slenotjraphte. Thi* I urea I ion also nuil.t* it 
1‘twxiblc to lit re# re amt make a l‘t riuanml It r cord ttf n Mt s- 
naye one Itc Telephone 


!>li 


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A Modem l.auntlry, in trhich thr Clot hen arc ttoitrd, MUnhnl, ll’rung, and Ironed by Klcrtrieily 


Irli^nphiNiP, and by turning tin* reproducing key may listen to 
thr ilkhiliim, and transcribe it on the machine. If tin* desired 
person In nut in hi* oilier when whim* one wishes to communicate 
with him by telephone, hi* clrrk may arrange thr tclcgrn phone to 
m*lve any mraaagr, or in chw the oflice i* left ulone thi* may In* 
done autninatirally. and the message will la? repeated on the 
return of thr prruon railed for. The telegrnphnne n* at present ar- 
ranged contain* about two mile* of fine i 1 Moth inch in diameter) 
uteri wire, which i* ntilllcirnt for about a half-hour'* conversation, 
hut ut any time a message or all message* may be ellretively effared 
at will, when the appanitUN ia ready for new record*. It operate* 
on an ordinary electric-light circuit, and doe* not require a* much 
current for it* motor* a* an incnndr*ccnt lamp of sixteen-candle 
{tower. Another interesting form of telegra^hone i* one arranged 
for repenting and reproducing a conversation, and it haa Inin 
found that from a *ingle record on the steel wire a number of re- 
prodiieing circuit* can la* led. Thu* a news bureau or press a**iv 
cialion would lie able, by mean* of a *ingle telephone and 
operator. to *upply information to a number of HuliNt-rihcr* or 
client*, by whom a record for subsequent reproduction would be 
obtained. 

Or the telegraphone ran lie used a* a nday to extend the range of 
telephonic communication. In another form of the in*truinent the 
record i* made on a thin metal di*r iiiHtcud of on the wax cylinder 
of the phonograph. Thi* can !*■ mailed to any one having a cor* 


Am Islcclric Kef ri jjrru tiny-/ilant . t Void T< «i/« ml arc i« run- 
•1'in/ljl maintained by <i Motor automatically tunlrullcd by a 
Thrrmtmlat 


re*|M>nding in*trument. The muni i* quite permanent, and can 
la? removed only by a strong magnet, which, however, will effnee 
It altogether. The steel di*e i* lire- proof and practically indr- 
Mtruetible. and l»y the u*c of certain key* ami ndju*tmcnt* two 
maeliim** can Ik- *u tuned that they will fie able to work together, 
and a disc firepared on him* will be reproduced only on the other, 
*o that~the desired secrecy may be obtained quite a* elTeetively a* 
hy a complicated cipher code. 

Another oflice convenience recently invented i* a type-printing 
Morse murder, whereby an ordinary telegram i* printed in ordi- 
nary type character* on a tape. Thu* the oflice i« indc|ici>dcnt of 
the mr**enger-boy, a* it i* only necessary to connect the instru- 
ment with the sending ntation. If there are a certain iiuiiiImt of 
telegram* to be *riit out a peculiar form of typewriter which re- 
uire* iki r special *kill can In- provided to trnnnmit the memwgMi 
irectly. Morse signal* lieing comniuniinted to the circuit. 

The owner of aucli an up-to-date oflice equipment a* deseribed 
above probably ha* hi* home provided with uuinr electrical con- 
venience* beside* thorn* now conaidered a* absolutely e**cntial. He 
doe* thi*. first, if he is a dweller in a city, ltrcause lie must 
economize *|»are, and, furthermore, lie doe* not desire the expense 
and |Hi*sihle discomfort of etoves und furnaces hunting when they 
are not actually needed, not to mention the annoyance of handling 
fuel, ashes, etc. lie may have an electric Inundry. where the 
f Continual on /tape 951.) 


.in tvc-crcnm Frtrsrr o/tr rated by <m Klretric Motor — the 
Current may he taken from <m ordinary l.ii/htiny Circuit 



045 


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Kt creation-hour for /m/kuhw l‘i i/toncn held by the tluimianx hi Mimroa- 

THE FIRST PHOTOGRAPHS OF JAPANESE SOLDIERS HELD 
AS PRISONERS OF WAR IN RUSSIA 

The pholoyraphx *Aoir inriirm nwom; Ike n prixonrnt hehl by the fluxiinnn at M‘*cnir an d in the yorrmmntt of Xoryomd 

in t'.urofaUM H auxin . It ix nrmxary for the Anmmiim to xend their prixaner* of tear into Hara/iean h’axxia. ax there are no fa 
cititirx for mrina for them in Manehnria. At the rn/urnt of the Ja fume *e minixfer at llei tin the American rice-coaxal al I ton 
coir, Mr. Thninnn Smith, inrextiyated the mud it ion if Jaintuexc prixomrx in Raxxia. and ml id their treatment im* Matixfaetory 
rjvi/if for the rexlrirtinn* in mndiuy mail. If. Marten*, head of the f'riton ft arena in Itnixia. promix, d to notify thix. but no 
Mtateiarnt of hi n or of the uaet number of Ja/xiinxi' prixonerx hi Id in Itunxiil ha* i pi to ■ a made public 

040 

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By KATHERINE CECIL THURSTON 

Author of “The MKsquor&der " 


MYXnl’MIM OF FRET Kill NCI CIIAITKU8 
James Millmnkr, nn <>l<l college friend »t InmiU Anshlio. visits (In- 
latter fur the tirsi time In thirty yean ut hi* ancestral estate in south- 
pro Ireland. lie Itnda AsmIiIIii iiui. Ii changed. After dinner AshIiIIb In- 
duces Milbanke t •> |>l«) ear da with him, and they play until early 
morning. .Mllluiuke finally winning. After Milbanke leaves hi* host to 
pi to his r<Mim, I'liHlntdi. At— Mill's eldest daughter, meet* him In the 
hall, and beg* him tint to gamble with her father again, as it U 
thioiigli Ills |ta«<hiii for |daj that Asshlln Is bringing ruin to himself 
and his family. The next mornlnir at breakfast Mlllianke llnds on hla 
plate a check from Axsbllu In payment of Ills losses. That tilicht A*-tilln 
proposes another frame ot cards. Mlltwnke refuses to play, and drops hla 
host’s eheek Into the tire, lie tell* Asshlln that he considers him weak 
and worth lean, and return* to England the next day. Three year* 
after, Mllliaiike receives a letter from Clodagli telling him that 
Asalilln lias been seriously hurt In an accident, and urging him to 
come to Ireland. Milbanke hasten- to his old friend's home, and 
finds A— Min on his deathbed, nnd In great distress of mind over the 
future of Ills children, who he knows will he left penniless as a 
result of his d(ssl|>ai Ioiik. Milbanke promises to lie responsible for 
their welfare. A famous specialist Is summoned from Ihiblln to con- 
sult with tlie liM-nl surgeon, and nfter a careful examination by the 
two physicians. Milbanke Is Informed that bis friend's condition Is 
hopeless, late that night Asshlln dies. 

CHAPTER Xlfl 

T IIK Hirer days (lint full own! A -sillin'- death resolved 
themselves into so tunny hours of gloom and confusion 
(hat found their culmination in (In* funeral ceremony. 
After (lie burial. Millmnke walked back from Carrign- 
inore alone. The servants wlto had followed their master 
to his resting- plan* in the old graveyard had remained in the vil- 
lage to enjoy the importance that the occasion lent them ; young 
A—hliii had disappeared at the conclusion of the burial service, 
while the daughters and sister-in-law of the dead man — in ac- 
cordance with the custom of the country — had remained secluded 
in their own rooms at Qrristown, appearing neither at the lirrak- 
fust nor the funeral. 

In the dining-room tlie curtains had l»em drawn hack, hut the 
day light seemed |o fall tardily and unnaturally upon the room 
after its three days’ exrlttaion. Milluinkc stood bsiking at the 
df-bri* of the brmkfnst, that Imd not yet lieen removed, at the 
di-array of the elmirs that had 1*-cn hurriedly vacated; then, 
with a fresh and imignant sense of lose nnd loneliness, he turned 
hastily and walked out of the room. 

In the hull lie ntti-mptrd to pause afresh; but the sound of 
muffled sobbing from the upper portion of the house sent him in- 
continently forth into the open. With an overwhelming desire for 
human fellow shin, for any companionship in this abode of deso- 
lation. he passed without consideration of liis dignity round the 
corner of the house in the direction of tlie a table-yard. 

Still moving with Ids habitual precision, he entered the yard 
by tlie arched gateway, picking his wav between the scattered 
array of rubbish, food, nnd implements that encumbered the 
ground. 

Conscious of the isolation that hung over the place, dispropor- 
tionately aware of his own aimlessness, he stood uncertain in 
what direction to turn. For the moment the household had no 
need of him; there were no legal formalities to succeed the 
funeral. Asshlin having left no will; and of personal duties he 
had none to claim his attention. 

lie stood by the couch-house door, wofullv undecided as to his 
next move, when all at once relief rame to him from the most un- 
expected quarter of the outbuildings. One of the dairy windows 
was opened sharply and a held was thrust through the aperture. 

“ Wisha, what is it you're doin' then*, sir?” a voice demanded, 
kindly. “Sure, that mild yard is no fit place for you." 

Turning hastily. Millmnkc saw the broad, plain face of llunnnli. 
her small eyes red, her rough cheeks stained with weeping. 

“Why. Hannah!” he exclaimed. "What are you doing here? 

I thought you were at the funeral.” 

Hannah passed the hack of her hand across her eye*. 

“ Widni. what would I 1 m* doin' at it?” she demand'd, huskily. 

•* Sure, I don't know what they do Is* seein’ in funerals at all.” 


Milhuuke glanced up with interest, recognizing the originality 
of the remark. 

*' Why. you und I are of the same opinion,” he mid. " Tin* Celt- 
ic delight in tin* obsequies of u friend lias I wen puzzling me for 
the lust three day* — ' Then lie puused suddenly, conscious of 
Hannah's llxisl regard. "That is.” he substituted quickly — " that 
ia. I have hern wondering, like you. what they hoc in it.” 

Il.imi.ili's small, otwcrvnnt eyes did not waver in their scrutiny. 

“You've Invii wonderin’ about somethin', sure enough!” she said. 
“ I *«*» it myself every thus I'd Is* carry in' in the dinner, or doin' 
u turn for the poor corpse, (iixl Ik* giK*| to him this holy and 
blessed day!” Again she wiped her eye*. " Hut 't isn't Wonderin' 
alone that'* at you." she added, more briskly. " Tfs some other 
thing that's lyin’ heavy on your mind. I seen it uirsclf at every 
hund'* turn." 

Milbanke started. This sympathetic onslaught wus us discon- 
certing ns it was unexpected. 

" I — I won’t eontriidict you. Hannah,” he said, wnvrringly. 
“ Xo doubt you an* right." 

For the spaer of a minute Hannah wus profoundly silent; 
then she broached the subject that had been tilling her mind for 
ik.duy and a half. 

” Wisha, now is it thrue what they do la* tellin' me?” she asked, 
softly and warily. " That you’re goin’ to Ik* father nnd neither 
an’ nil to (him two poor children.” 

Again Milbanke started nlmo-t guiltily: then the |N*rsonal 
anxiety that mingled with and almost dominated his grief for 
Asshlin rose irrepressibly in response to the persuasive tones, the 
kindly human interest and curiosity. 

Hannah,” he said, quickly. “Yes, it is my intention to 
try and fill my poor friend’s place." 

"Hod Almighty will give it hack to von, sir!" she exclaimed, 
with impulsive fervor. “ And what would you Ik* thinkin' to do 
wid thini?” she asked, in a new ami more personal tone. 

Miltmuke did not unswer at once. His even strayed uneasily 
from one object in the yard to another, while the frown of per- 
plexity that had puckered his brow since Asshlin’* death reap- 
peared more prominently Ilian before. At last, with a certain 
expression of puzzled resolution, lie looked up und met. Hannah'* 
attentive gnze. 

"To tell you the truth. Hannah." he said, "that i* the precise 
question I have been asking myself ever since your |MKir master 
died." 

“An* why, now?” Again her tone changed, the irrepressible 
undercurrent of native humor, native inquisitivcnc**. and fa 
miliurity wrlllng out unconsciously. “ Sure, they ‘re good chil- 
dren.” 

“I do not douht it. I do not doubt it for one moment.” 

“ ltut they're tlirmtblin' ton all the same?" 

“ Well, ye*. Yea, I confess they are troubling me.” 

“Both of thini?” she asked, innocently. 

He hesitated. 

"Well, no." he replied, artlessly. "No, not both of them.” 

— 4Ah. I thought that same!" Hannah gave a nod of complacent 
understanding. “Sure, 'twa* to he tormentin’ inch she was 
brought Into (lie world for. 1 said so meself the first day I took 
her into me arms.” 

“ Hut — but I haven't said anything. How do you know that 

Ilia 

“Mow do I know that It's Miss t'lodagli that’s botherin' you? 
Sure, how do I know that you’re standin’ before me? Faith, by 
the use of nte eyesight ! Haven't I seen von lookin' at licr und 
|Nindrriu' — and lookin' at her agin?" 

MiMmnke** lip* tightened, and In* drew himself up. 

“I should Is- sorry if any thought I have bestowed on your 
young mistress--" he* began, oddly: then suddenly the intense need 
of help and sympathetic counsel overlalanced dignity. “ Hannah." 
he said, abruptly, “ I'm in a terribly awkward position, and that 
i* the simple truth. My mind is quite nt rest iilsml tlie younger 
girl. She l« a child and will Im* a child for year*. A good school 
is all «lie needs. Hut with the other it's different — with Clo- 
dagh it's different. Clodagh is no longer u child." 


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Munnah remained discreetly silent. 

14 If I had a sinter,” lie went on, “or any friend to whom I could 
intrust her. Hut I have none." 

He looked anxiously into her liroad, shicwd face. 

For a moment the small eyes met his seriously; then invol- 
untarily they twinkled. 

•' Faith, when I was a voting woman, sir.” she said, slowly, 
” men wasn't so sat on (lullin' relations (or a girl like Miss Cio- 
dagli — unless '(was a relation of their own makiu'!” 

Milhanke suilileiily looked away. 

” What — what do you mean!” he asked, confusedly. 

*' Why, tliut 'tisn't aunts and cousins that a girl like Miss Clo- 
dagh wants, lull a good husband.” 

“ A — a husband?" 

" Why, thin, what else? Instid of throuhlin’ yourself and fret- 
tin' yourself till your heart is scalded nut of you. why don’t you 
marry her? That's what /'re l«ecn askin' mcself ever since the 
poor mnsthcr died. It’s out now, if I'm to Ik- killed for it!” 

She eyed him quizzically and half defiantly. 

Hut MilU-inke «tood stumtiiei ing and confused, his pane fixed 
nervously on the ground, an unaccustomed flush on his worn 
cheeks. 

'* But — but. Hannah. I — I am an old man I” 

** An' sure what harm i* that?” she said. “ Wasn't me own poor 
man ns mild ns me grandfather, nij* no woman ever buried a finer 
bushnnd. t»od rest him!” 

Milha iikc's luek of humorous imagination stood him in good 
stead. 

“Hut she's a child.” he stammerrd. "A child — ” 

For answer. Hannah leaned out of the window until her face 
was close to his. 

"Listen to me?” she snid, softly. "Child nr no child, yon 
thought alwut mnrryin' her la-fore ever 1 said it. Hut you'd 
never He the courage to do it. You're not like the Asshlins, that 
would tear down the walls of hell if they wanted to he gullin' 
at the divil; you'd like somebody to take him he the hand and 
draw him out nice and ais.v for 'you — There she is up in that 
lonesome house, frettin' her heart an’ cryin' her eyes nut. Why 
can't you go up an’ take her before somrhndy els,- does?" 

As she tamo to the last words her rough voice dropped. Her 
loyulty to her dead master, her anxiety to sec his child in a place 
of safety, poured from her in crude eloquence. To her primitive 
mind Milbunke appeared as the idcnl husband — a man of depend- 
able years, of wealth, of good social position; and all her af- 
fections. all her energies, yearned to make the marriage. She 
could not have framed the fear that possessed her mind, hut her 
instinct, her acute native intuition, w-nrned her unanswerably that 
the daughter of Denis Asshlin would need protection — and would 
need it before long. With an 
impulsive gesture she stretch- 
ed out her hand, and touching 
Milbankc's shoulder, pushed 
him gently forward into the 
yard. 

"(Jo on. sir!” she urged. 


softly. "(Jo on up an' take 
mnunodyr 


her before 
does I ” 


else 


CHAPTER XIV 

It may be surmised, with- 
out fear of misconception, 
that never il tiring the smooth 
course of his uneventful ex- 
istence had Milhanke Is-eii so 
rudely shuken into self-com- 
prehension us by Hannah's 
unlooked-for onslaught. Ilia 
limbs were imbued with a 
sensation of unaccustomed 
buoyancy as he turned, im- 
pelled by Hannah's words, 
and moved across tlu* yard 
towards the arched gateway. 
A half-admitted, intoxicating 
sense of imminent action |*ns- 
scH&ed him; and as he walked 
forward it seemed that he 
scarcely felt the ground be- 
neath his feet. 

Almost without volition he 
passed from the stone-paved 
courtyard into the sweep of 
gravelled pathway that front- 
ed the house. For the first 
time in his existence he was 
conscious of Is-ing borne for- 
ward on the tide of his emo- 
tions. and the knowledge had 
un exhilarating, unbalanced 
daring that suggested youth. 

As though he feared thn 
evaporation of his mood, he 
made no pause on gaining the 
pathway, hut went straight 
forward tovraids tile house 
with a haste and impetuosity 
very foreign to his formal 
nature. On his second entry 


" <!o on. air," ahe urged; “ lake hrr before sown b<*ly r lac doea 


into the hall he paid no heed to the chill desolation of thr place, 
hut. crossing the intervening »|»*cv, began immediately to mount 
the stairs. 

Scarcely had he reached tin* highest step, however, than he linlted 
incontinently. For. as though in direct response to the thoughts 
that were tilling bin mind, a door on the corridor open'd and 
C'lodagh appeared u|hiii the scene. 

Seeing him. she too paiiM-d, and in the moment of mutual hesi- 
tation he hud unitor! unity to study her. 

In her new black dress she biokid slighter and more imma- 
ture than he had expected, and the pntlu tic effect of her apjtear- 
anec wiik enhanced by thr paleness of her face and the heavy 
purple shadows that sleeplessness and tears had traced la-low her 
eyes. As the irnpressimi obtruded itself upon him his own nervous 
cxcitrmmt dropped from him suddenly. 

“My poor chilil!" he said, involuntarily. 

At the words and the tone she turned to him impulsively. 

*' Oh, Mr. Milhanke — " she began. 

Then lu-r loneliness, her sense of iiereavcment and desolation 
inundat'd her niind. With a short soh she moved abruptly away, 
and. turning her face to t!u- wall, broke into a pa-don of tears. 

The action was the action of a child: and without hesitation 
Milhanke responded to it. Stepping ariosa the corridor he put his 
urm about her shoulder and drew her gently towards the -tairs. 

"Come!” he said, soothingly. "Come! The house is quite 
quiet, and you are badly in want of a little daylight mid fresh air. 
Come! Let me take you out." 

Ciodagli Bobbed on; hut she suffered herself to lie led down the 
stairs and across the hall towards the open door. There, however, 
she paused, newly arrested by her grief. 

“Oh. Mr. Milhanke," she cried, "I can't brliove it! I can’t be- 
lieve that we'll never we him again. Poor futher! Oh. poor 
father!” 

Hut Milhanke wab equal to the situation. 

" You must lie brave," he said, kindly. " You must remember 
that he would like you to he brave." 

The words were an inspiration: with marvellous efficacy they 
cheeked the torrent of Clodngh'ii tear*. For a moment -lie stood 
looking at him in a dazed, uncertain way; then she lifted her 
head in a pathetic attempt at decisive art ion. 

" Y’ou are right." she said, unevenly. " He tmuld like to know 
that I was brave." 

The declaration seemed to cost her an immense effort, for in- 
stantly it was made she turned away from Milhanke, freeing her- 
wif from his detaining arm. And as though fearing to trust her- 
self to any further onrush of emotion, she stepped through the 
open door and walked quickly forward to where the gravelled 
drive merged into the long and narrow glen in which the Orris- 
town woods met the sea, 
Down the wide track lead- 
ing to this glen she walked, 
with head rigidly erect and 
with resolutely* set lips, 
while Milluinkf followed in 
the rear. His eyes fixed upon 
Clodagh's slim, black figure, 
he walked forward in a 
vaguely intoxicating dream. 

For the full course of I he 
path she went on steadily, 
but reaching the glen, she 
paused ; and then-, ns if by 
a prearrangement of destiny, 
Milhanke overtook her. 

With a quiet, unostenta- 
tious movement he stepped to 
her side, and stood looking 
upon the view that spread 
before them. 

For a long silent moment 
Cloilagli surveyed the scene ; 
then, with one of the im- 
pulsive, unstudied gestures 
that, were so characteristic of 
her, she lunki-d round, and for 
the first time since they left 
the house her eyes rested on 
Milbankc's fun-. 

“ You an- very kind to me." 
she said, suddenly. “ Why 
lire you so kind?” 

The words, spoken with 
complete ingenuousness, nunc 
at a singularly appropriate 
moinent. To Miltmnke, nerv- 
ously conscious of his own 
emotions, they seemed in- 
spired. With a quick, un 
sternly gesture he wheeled 
rouiul, and putting out. his 
hand, caught hers. 

" It — it is easy to lie kind 
to some people," In- said. «l 
most inarticulately. 

(-'ludugli look'd at him in 
Borne surprise, but it did nnt 
occur to lo-r to withdraw lu-r 
hand. She stnml perfectly 
calm and unembarrassed : and 
presently, as he made no 


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attempt nt further speech, lur 
glance wandered hack to the 
ii mi| stretch of water. 

" Ye*," *he *<l ill , slowly. " I 
*up|Mi»e it i* eaay to be nice 
to some people. but Dot to 
*elti*h people like me."’ 

At her wnnl* Milbunke's 
ImihI tightened abruptly. 

" Vmi 11111*1 not *ay that," 

In* niurniuml. “ I have never 
*een any fault* in your cliar- 
aeter. Anil even — even if I 
liml ” Hi* voire quickened 
confusedly. " Kven if I hail 
seen them, vim would »till lie 
tin- - the rlii hi of mv olde-st 
friend.” 

lie > pi ike ill* jointrdly and 
agitatedly, hut at hi* wnnl* 

Ulodagtr turned to him nfrndi. 
with a grateful, iinpul*ire 
movement. 

"Ah. then I understand !" 
she *aid. warmly. " You arc 
very kind — you arc very 
good— ” 

At her movement and her 
tone a mental giddiness seized 
upon Milhanke. A Hush rose 
to his temples und his Unger* 
twitched. 

"Ulodagli.” he Mid. sud- 
denly. " let me lie kind to you 
always! Ia-t — let me inarrv 
you- -and be kind to you af- 
ways !” 

The appeal nunc forth 
with volcanic suddennew*. He 
had not mennt to be precipi- 
tate: it was entirely alien to 
hi* slow, methodical nature 
to plunge headlong into any 
situation. Hut the ne<-a*ioii 
was unprecedented : circum- 
stance* overwhelmed him. 

For a long spare after he had 
spoken he stood as if trans- 
ited. his eyes straining to 
eatch the expression on C’lo* 
dagh's face, lii* pale, ascetic 
feature* put-krred with anx- 
iety. 

The puuse was long — preternaturnlly long, f'lodagti stood ns 
inotionlnui as he. her hand still resting |tn-*ive in his clasp, her 
rlear eyes staring into hi* in stuiirfii'd amarement. It was plain- 
ly evident that no realization of the declaration ju*t made had 
penetrated her understanding. To her mind— unnttunrd. even 
vaguely, io the ideu of love, mid temporarily numbed by lo-r grief 
— the thought that her father's friend could consider hrr in any 
light but that of a vhild was too prr|Mi*terou*. too unreal to come 
*|Miiitnnrou«ly. The Itelief that Milhanke'* extraordinary word* 
hut needed some explanatory addition held her attentive 'and ex- 
pert unt. And under tliis eiuivielion she stood Diieon*eiou* of his 
close regard and nnemlMirniiMcd by the pressure of his hand. 

At Inst, as some shadowy perception of her thought* obtruded 
it*elf upon him. he stirred nervously, and the llu*ti upon his face 
deepened. 

“ Ulodngh,” lie said, “have I made myself plain' Do you under- 
stand that I — that I wish to marry you? Thai I want you for 
my — my wife!” 

The final word, with its intense incongruity, cut suddenly through 
the mist of her bewilderment. In a llash of comprehension the 
meaning of his declaration sprang to her mind. Her face turned 
red. then pale: with a sharp movement she drew away her hand. 

** You want to marry me?" she said, in a slow, amazed wire. 

Itefore the note of blank, undisguised incredulity Millsinke 
shrank lan-k into himself. 

"Yes.” he mid, hurriedly. "Yes: that i» my desire. I know 
that perhaps it may — may seem incongruous. You are very 
young, and I — ” 

He hesitated, with a painful toneli of embarrassment. At the 
hesitation t'lodngh's voice broke forth. 

" Hut I don't want to marry.” she cried. " I don't want to 
marry — any one.” 

There was a sharp, half-frighti-nrd note audible in her voice. 
For the moment her whole attitude wa* that of the inexperienced 
lN-ing who clings instinctively to the rock of present thing*, and 
obstinately refuses in 1 m- nisi into the sew of future |K>«»ihilitic*. 
For the moment site was blind to the instrument that was forcing 
her toward* those possibilities. To lo-r immature mind it wa* the 
choice between the known and the unknown. Then suddenly and 
urridentiilly her eves came hark (n Milhanke'* fail-, and the per 
moubI element in I he choice assailed her abruptly. 

“Oh. I couldn’t!” she cried, involuntarily. “1 couldn't — I 
couldn't !” 

She did not intend to hurt him: hut cruelty is the prerogative 
of I he young, and she failed to sec that In- winced before the 
derisive honesty of her word*. 

* Am I so — so very distasteful?'’ ho asked, in a low, unsteady 
voiev. 


" } om iranl to marry i 


She looked it him in silence. 
It wn* the inevitable clash of 
youth and age. She was 
w arm- hearted, she wa* capa- 
ble of generous action: hut, 
lirforc all else, she wa* young 
— the triumphant inheritor of 
the ugc*. I.ife *treti-hi*l he 
fore her. while it lay behind 
him. She looked at him. and 
a* she looked a wave of re- 
volt — a strong, sudden sense 
of her individual right to 
ha ppi lies* — su rged t h rough 

her. 

“Oh. I couldn’t!” she 
cried again. ” I couldn't!" 

And before .Millsinke could 
reply, before he had lime to 
comprehend the purport of 
her words, she had turned 
and lied in the direction of 
the house, leaving him stand- 
ing a* he win— dazed and 
|wtrified. 

Upward along the path 
Ulodagli ran. Her impulse 
toward* slight had liven 
childi-li. and her thought* 
ns she sped forward were a* 
unreasonable mid confused as 
a child's. She was vuguclv, 
blindly filled with a desire 
to e*cu|M> — from what she 
knew not ; to evade — w hat 
she knew not. Her one con- 
secutive thought wa* the 
knowledge that the prop o|miii 
which she had Icitued in these 
days of sorrow mid despuir 
had unaccountably and sud- 
denly been withdrawn, and 
that she stood wofully alone 
and unprotected. 

On she ran until the arch- 
way of the euurtyard broke 
into view; then, without a 
moment's hesitation. she 
swerved to tin* left, aped 
across the yard, and burst 
unceremoniously into the 
kitchen. 

In the kitchen llunnuh was busying herself over the Are. that, in 
the confusion of the morning * event, hud been suffered to die 
down. At the tempestuous opening of the door she turned sharply 
round, and for a second stood staring nt the disturbed face of 
her young mistress: then, with the intuitive tact of her ran-, she 
suddenly opened her ample urttis. and with a sob Clodogh rushed 
towards her. 

For a long moment llniinnli held her a* if she had been a I why. 
patting her shoulder and smoothing her ruffled hair, while she cried 
out lu-r grief and bewilderment. At last, with a slow, subbing 
breath, she raised her head. 

“Oh, llminnh. I want father!" she said. “I want father!" 

II. inn. ili drew her rluscr to her broad shoulder. 

“Whisht now!” she murmured, tenderly, "whisht now! Sure, 
lie's bettlicr off. Sure, he'* hrttln-r off." 

Hut ClvMlagh’s mind wa* t«s» agitated t'- take comfort. With a 
change of mental altitude she altered her physical position, freeing 
herself abruptly from Hannah's embrace. 

Hannah." she cried, suddenly. ” Mr. Milhanke wranls trie to 
marry him. And I won't! I can't! 1 wont!" 

Hannah * eye* narrowed sharply. Hut whatever her emotion, she 
cheeked it. and bent over her charge with another can-**. 

*• Sure you won't, of course, my lamb. Who’d la- askin' you?” 

"Thin why would you Is- fret tin’ youraelf?” 

“ I'm nut fretting my«elf. Only — " 

“Only what?” 

“ Only — Oh. nothing, nothing " With a distressed movement 
Clndagh pu*lii*l I Mick her hair from her forehead. Then she turned 

to Id servant afresh. " llnntuih,” *hc “ why docs 

he want to marry me? Why doe* he want to!" 

Hannah wa* silent for a *|N»ee ; then her shrewd, ugly face 
puckered into an expression «f profound wisdom. 

" Men are fliinro." she Mid. oracularly. "The oulder. the vpiarcr. 
Mint*- he's tliiiikiu' of him-clf in the mntther: l»ul may In- "— her 
voice dropped impressively — " maybe. Mi** Ulodagli, "ti* the way 
he'* flunkin' of you 

“What do you mean!" Ul<-lagh asked. 

” Mane?" Hannah turned awnv, and. picking up a poker, began 
softly to ruke the a*lie« from the lire. “Sure, what would I la- 
mailin' ?” 

“ Hut you mean something el-e. What is it!" 

At Iasi the old servant turned, n* though prettied beyond endur- 
ance 

"Well." she said, with deeming reluctance. " maybe he'd In- 
thinkin' 'I would l«- ai-ier lor wan of the Analilin* to la- draw in’ 
out of her husband'* |iorket than to br- 

ff.Vmf in uetf on /*» gr 056.) 


i stoic, a man d voice 


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Correspondence 


THE QUESTION OF LA HOE FAMILIES 

.New Vi irk, June U. BOS. 

To the Editor of llar/ur's Weekly: 

Siu, — In nn article in ju«r of Muy 1-1, Mr. A. S. Williams 
attempt* to refute «n article of mint* which you published 
April 15. In reality both In* and Mr. Henry <1. Stevens, in u 
letter published Mnv 27, have al templed In answer the title, '* Are 
Urjtc Families Useless ?” rather Ilian the article itaelf. To the 
question of the title. Mr. Steven* 1 * answer, “ It Depend*," i» amply 
sufficient — it doe* depend. But the purpose of the article ha* lit- 
tle relation to that title. Wluit I have attempted to prove i* that 
the community is not benefited by the children of tin* miperin- 
tellectual claw, and that therefore they should rather praise than 
criticise tlwir tendency to remain childles*. 

Mr. William* agrees with me that the offspring of this class 
ha* always shown a tendency to be disadvantageous to society; 
nnd, n» he points out. people who are childless are the only losers 
by this fart. Ought the community to discredit this form- of un- 
selfishness 7 Perhaps Mr. Williams is right in saying that it is 
inconsiderate to blame our rouote ancestors for our own short - 
ertmings: hut certainly without their connivance we should not 
be here. If nn unlit jM’rson refrains from becoming a parent there 
is little danger of his becoming a grandparent against his will. 

One interesting sentence deserve* repetition: "The cultured will 
never overrun the world, while the vicious may. ami but for the 
laws of nuturr would." Doc* Mr. Williams contemplate the pos- 
sibility of a temporary smqiension of the "laws of nature" ( un- 
*iM*eitlVil| , so that they may? Arc these laws immutable, or do 
they suspend thenwelvea like our criminal code? I cannot agree 
that this pessimistic view has any basis. The "idle and vicious” 
are a diminishing percentage, and they do not tend to leave de- 
scendant*. 

As to France now: It seems to me a highly moral, intelligent, 
altruistic thing for that country to do — to care for its mod- 
erate family at home, rather than to increase the trouble of the 
world by turning into the highroad of nations a countless brood 
begotten in selfishness and unwisdom. Are Italy and Russia, wlneh 
till the sweatshop* of New York with their progeny, to Is* thanked 
for the gift? A recent statement of Henry James, which is quoted 
in nn English paper, is worth repeating in this connection: 

" The falling birth-rule shows that the people arc beginning to 
think for themselves. It is the ultimate, satisfactory solution of 
all our social trouble* and labor diflicultie*. Large families to 
the wnrking classes are an inexpressible burdeo, nnd the over- 
stocked labor-market leads to poverty, degeneracy, and crime. The 
falling birth rate is the 1a*st news of our time.” 

The statement that the weak in body, mind, character, or purse 
should remain childless doc* rot need to lie proved — we all admit 
it. What I maintain is that the supcrintcllcctual are unsuccess- 
ful parents, and should be also classed with these. 

I arn. air, Martha S. Bf.khlet. 


THE DEFINITION OF A “GENTLEMAN" 

IIr.NTaviu.il. Tkxak. June H, I90S. 
To the Editor of Wor/wr’* Weekly: 

Sim. — Tlu* comments of youi eorrmimndent in the Wreklt of 
the 10th inst. relative to the definition of the word gentleman 
call to mind the closing words of the Hon. John Hay’s memorial 
address on William McKinley. 

As I have not a ropy of that address at liund I am unable to 
give its wording, but as well ns I remember, Mr. Hay, after ex- 
pressing the opinion that McKinley's name would Is* linked to 
those of Washington and Lincoln in Americnn history, conclude* 
by snying, “ And in hi* death tuught the world lmw a gentleman 
can die.” 

The use of gentleman in this connection seem* to nir inappro- 
priate. For that word i* used in many sense*, and most uf them 
are not essentially complimentary. The meaning of the word as 
used in the uddri*** f“ n man of education, high principles, 
courtesy, and kindness"), while not except tonal, is not the or- 
dinary meaning, ami one must stop to think before one can decide 
what is really intended to Ik* expressed. 

. I am. sir, K. N. Johnson. 


INTERVIEWING 

Nbw Yohk. June tS, ms 

To the Editor of Worke r's Weekly : 

Sir, — P ermit me to protest with sufficient and I trust not undue 
vigor against a statement in a recent issue, to the effect that 
when American women become newspaper “interviewers” they 
are prone to *' drop lower” than American men interviewers. I 
am not n journalist mvself: and admitting at the outset that I 
have no statist irvl facts to present, nothing, indeed, but a very 
genera) information, a love oi fair play, a desire to defend the 
undefended, to offer as a basis of my plea. I trust I shall thus 
assume an attitude ignorant, naive, humble, and therefore all- 
womanlr. enough to lead the most masculine editor to regard me 
with gracious attention. Itv a process nf lurid feminine logic I, 
therefore, begin by contradicting you. It is not so. Not by any 


means. When I recall the many interviews I have nlmcrvcd rather 
than read, indubitably written by men, who predominate in large 
number* on the American press; when I rcmemU-r the miles of 
journalistic "slush." ladled up daily in our own New York news- 
paper* touching talks with thieves, Iduckuiitilrr*. and murderers- - 
which represent, I am credibly informed, very largely the work of 
men — 1 wonder upon what inundation you set up your ill-pro- 
portioned acorn of women interviewers. And who. oh, who. has 
forgotten the fact exploited bv a really able nnd noted man jour- 
nalist during the last President is I campaign, that -Fudge Alton 
It. Parker of sacred memory was addicted to the consumption of 
buttermilk pop* Even the lowest -dropping woman interviewer 
would have been saved by Providence from mentioning that in- 
nocuous beverage under the circumstances. If eminent men jour- 
nalist*. selected for s|s*ciul service in so important a mission as 
that of impressing the sensitive American brain with an inform- 
ing nnd dignified picture of ail unknown Presidential candidate 
and nominee, descend to what ought henceforth to Is* known as 
the •* Buttermilk I'op Interview.” what can be exacted of that 
mere, ordinary, casual- lira ined creature known as woman — ** one 
of whom I am. dear sir, which "T Sir, an editor should possess 
the far-famed judicial mind. He should weigh carefully the state- 
ment* which arc sent forth under his sign and seal. — and particu- 
larly should he Is- restrained in hi* remarks about women. You. 
air, hcrittc the English for judging all our women by a few, nnd 
yet permit yourself to fall into the same error. Muv I suggest 
that the finest course for the American man to pursue is to err 
only in furor of his most devoted comrade und loyal admirer, the 
American woman? I am, sir, 

Margaret ItrcKixoiiAM. 


THE NEW NORTH 

Los AxoKLsa Cot-art, Cai_. June >. ms. 
To the Editor of //neper's Weekly: 

Sir, — I read with grout satisfaction your article, “The New 
North." in the Wkkkly of May 27. Rut there i* one word in the 
first quotation for the article by Mr. Hamilton W. Mshic in the 
South 1 1 lan tic Quarterly for April which many liberal thinkers 
may regard ns conveying nn impression not historically accurate. 
Mr. Mabie states that the New North stand* for “ A complete, 
honest, and sincere recognition that the 'Old South' was as high 
winded. diuintcmttrd. and conscientious as the Old North." 

A* a Union soldier in the civil war I understood the motive of 
the Old North to Is* to preserve the Union formed by the Consti- 
tution. and. incidentally, to free it from the danger* of slavery. 

As I uiuIctsUkhI the motive of the Old South it was to preserve 
the reserved lights of the Slates under the eoui|Mrt railed a con- 
stitution, and. incidentally to maintain the institution of slavery. 

The value of property in slave*, estimated at live hundred million 
dollars, would seem to have hern a minor motive influencing the 
action of the “Old South," which, to the extent of that Influence, 
doe* not appear to have been a* dinintrreutrd as the artion of the 
"Old North," — r - Platform. No I himhug." I 

To show how completely my own sentiments, and those of many 
Union veterans, coinride with those quoted from the article of 
Mr. Mabie and your comments thrrron, I take the liberty to rn- 
rinse to you a copy of an address delivered when such sentiment-* 
were unfortunately not ns popular ns they arc with n younger 
generation, to whom magnanimity is an easier virtue than it then 
was to us, I am, sir, 

O. H. LaGraxgk. 


THE ATTRACTIVE WOMAN 

New York. June tv. was. 

To the Editor of Warper's HYilly.* 

Sir. — I n a discussion among some friends recently we were in 
dispute as to the four requisite qualities to la* found in the finest 
type of woman. A thought that these were the necessary charms: 
1. A sense of religion; 2. An affectionate disposition; 3. A high 
reverence for maternity: and 4. Docility of temperament. On the 
other hand, H required": 1. Beauty t 2. High spirits: 3. Intelligence ; 
and 4. An affectionate disposition. ]l reminded A that he had 
not asked for intelligence in hi* perfect woman, to which A re- 
plied that he didn't require it. H laughed this attitude of mind to 
acorn, and said that lie knew a ease at that moment In which 
nuch a woman ns A described was slowly boring her husband to 
death, and actually driving him from home hv her inanity — the 
case being all the harder for the hmdmnd because he realised and 
appreciated the good points of his wife. A retorted by saving that 
he knew a ease in which such an intelligent and high spirited 
woman a* B described had turned her homo topsyturvy by know- 
ing more than her husband did — that the husloind had been slow- 
ly but surely relegated to the linrkground. and the wife’s "nf 
feet ion* te disposition." instead of being dutifully concentrated 
upon lu-r loi'land and family, had gone abroad for it* satisfaction, 
and expended itself upon man and woman kind generally. The 
argument was of the sort that came to no end. and it was agreed 
that the question would lie sent to the editorial tribunal for set- 
tlement. in the hope that a formula for " the perfect woman " 
might be evolved. I am. air. 

It. D. 


0.10 


Digitized by (jOOQiC 



H A R P E R ' S WEEKLY 


Exact Time by Telephone 

WttlU tin it- »ignal* have been dintributed 
hy tvlfgra [ill for many f«n mill «l*« by 
wirrlnu trliynipliy more rwently. il i* only 
lately that uw ha* !»»-*•« math' of tlu- tele- 
phone fr>r l hi* pnnnw. 'Hie hint wait (Hit 
into practical application in Franca, where, 
nl tin* ret|Uo*t nf the Cliambra Syndicate 
ilc UHorakigie of 1’ari*, PXprrimniU were 
it i >> <le by the otwrimlnry of the Bureau ilea 
I»ngitinh* The work wa* »»► *neeei«ful In 
the tiial- made in Faria that it wft* ili*- 
t’idrd to extend it to the whole French lete- 
plume system. A* the abject i* to trannmit 
the signal* with ranMilcmble nirtfleu a 
verlul Mg mil wouhl not answer, ao a micro- 
phone wiki* arranged whereby each beat of 
the |ieiiiliiliiiii nf a’ Mtatulaiil dock in the 
olMcrvatory could !*• heard in the receiver. 
By a prearranged system of omitting a cer- 
tain nuinlrr of lieuts. nr other arrangement 
of the signals, it i* |ni*siMi* to identify a 
given signal a* Inn* noon. The method is 
not only most useful for waleiirnakeis anil 
regulators of chronometer*, nearly all of 
whom enjoy telephone service, but for nav- 
igator* who by simply having telephone mn- 
nri-lion either at the wharf or at an anchor- 
age Imm- can regulate their chriMiotueliT* 
while in port tiv an observatory standard. 
Thi* wae done in the case of a French war- 
ship at Brest with an accuracy of between 
.1 ami ."i of n sevoml. A* it i* perfectly 
feasildc to connect any telephone circuit in 
this way there i* no reason why the system 
should not he widely used. 


Our Trade with Germany 

Tvntn-oxc article*, or group* of nrti- 
He*, having each a toi.il value of 
or over, were imported into the United 
States from Germany •luring tin* |*a*t fiscal 
year; and twenty articles, haring n total 
value of Sl.OMO.iHM) or over each, were ex- 
ported to (lermany during the same period. 
Si nil uf act u ml articles, chiefly iron and 
steel, silk manufactures, chemical*, cotton 
goodf, earthenware, furs and furskins. and 
lots, eompris* 1 the principal iin|K»i-tatinii* 
into I lie United Slates from Germany. Of 
our ex|Mir 1 ations to Germany, raw cotton 
contribute* more than one-half of the total, 
it* share in IlHH king * 10H.unO.llOO out of 
» total export of fil.T.OOU.UOO. But few 
manufiicinri'd article* appear in the list of 
our priiu-tpiil exportation* to Germany. 


Printers’ Humor 

“ T. P." ha* collected some amusing in- 
stance* of printer*’ error*, contributed by 
well-known author*. An Knglish woman 
novelist, he Mva, tells of the mistake of ft 
print* r who made one of her character* sav 
that "she stuffed |Mipii into the grate, and 
soon there teas a merry bllM 1 .*’ What she 
wrote was " )»i ;«»•." A 1 1 nnsliil ion of 
llcine"* irk grolle nirht, which should have 
read. 

*' Saw tin* fell serpent round thy heart 
cut wine,” 

informed the reader that the author “ saw 
the serpent entwine.” etc. 

Mr. K. Murray Gilcliri-t tells of a passage 
in an uneorrectisi pi oof which read as fol- 
lows; “With tire Intent of improving her 
grandchildren's moral eharnetcr. the pious 
old lady would recite every evening terse 
passage* from the masterpiece* of Boc- 
raceio." The nutlior had referred to fiojgf- 
nLtt, aiitlior of an old-fashioned religion* 
iimhiuiI on conduct. 

W. \V. JsiwIm writes; 

“The most iiiini'ing error in my case was 
n utde by a typi»t, I was describing the emo- 
tion* of :i imin in i count iv lane coining 
in the dawn upon another man walking 
about tied to a chair. 1 wrote (lint . . 
be wa* undecided wliethei il was a mon- 
strosity nr an apparition'; the typist rm 
dared it * . . . lie wa* undecided whether it 
wa* a monstrosity or u Uittlr ship,’ ” 

An Auatralbn writer who described a fight 


ADVERTISING SECTION 


with a big fish in an Australian lake wrote, 
“ I lived over those ten*c moment* again 
and again," was made to say that lie “ liej 
over those tense moment* again and again." 

To these recollect ion* may lie added the 
experience of a writer who, in describing 
the “ Xante Sonata ’’ of a certain com poser, 
wa.* niiule to refer to the work iu pritil a* a 
“ horse sonata." 



The Horrors of War 

I'm: old gentleman in the smoking-car 
wa* din-la ring vehemently that, in hi* 
opinion, war wa* a disgrace to civilization. 
“War,” lie exclaimed, "is an alHuninalion. 
n blot on tin- universe!" Upon which be 
rose and left the cur. 

“The old mail seem* to feel pretty strang- 
le on the siibjrrt said one of the pisscn- 
ger*. " Hu* he ln*t *ome near rdativi 
through war." 

" Yen," answered a friend. " hi* wife’s first 
husband.** 


Families Supplied 

ArjtrtK (to h‘-r young niter). "Gnera 
what I know. Mary -then*’* u little bulky 
brother upstair*! lb* mine thi* morning 
when von were asleep." 

M.utv. “ Old he! Then 1 know who 
brought him — it was the milkman. " 

At 'ft n»;. " What do von tneiiti. Mary?” 

Many. ” Why. 1 lookvd at the sign on his 
cart yesterday, nnd it said * Families sup- 
plied daily.’" 


Acmes to Morns** — M*» Whmui 
lhou:i alwsys 1* wt for tfeililr** u*- 

ihiVJ. sofiens tho tom*, aftr 
■ th« best ramrdr 


nl'.ivi all iMiti, cur 
rrlim -- (.-fun I 


Comma rn 


FRESH MIT.K 

*» cktifeiifl.il.tr. lUmiiss's twu . — r — 

Met* il ntfl.ilfll.-tY pur* CO-rfV mlh: crnUmst flic* the tiwM 
Kfl.Jr of srscuLti.d MUiar For *»lr a« paw |IWWI AwriJ 

imiikiini l.rutvV — Md»4 


IN 


COLONEL’S TOWN 

Things Happen. 


From the home of tho famous “ Kevlmcl 
Kceyartah of Carteroville,” away down South, 
(sillies mii enthusiastic letter altout I’oMum. 

"I wife* in very delicate health. Buffering from 
indigestion and a nervotia trouble so seven; tlmt I 
could hardly sleep. The doctor ordered me to di»* 
continue the use of the old kind of coffeo, which 
Wife* like poison to tne, producing such extreme 
disturbance tluit I could not control myself. Hut 
such was my love for it that I could not get my 
own consent to give it tip for some time, and con- 
tinued to suffer, till my father otic day brought 
home a package of Poatum Food Coffee. 

‘‘I had the new food drink etirefully prepared 
according to directions, and gave it a fair trial. It 
proved 1*» have a rich flavor, and made a healthy, 
wholesome, ruid delightful drink. To my taste 
the addition of cream greatly improve* it, 

“My health Itegan to improve as soon a* the 
drug effect of the old coffee wan removed and the 
Post nm Coffee had lime to make it* influence felt. 
Mv nervous troubles were speedilv relieved, mid 
the sleep which the old coffee drove from my 
pillow always came I** soothe and strchgtlnai me 
, after I had drunk Poetum. In a very abort time 
f I began to sleep belter than I had for yean* before 
, l have now u-*d I’ostum Caffe* for several years, 
ami like it belter and find it more brncficiiil than 
when I first began. It ia an iifi*|>cukahtc joy to la* 
relieved of the old distress ami sirknrw.” Name 
given by PmIuiii Company. liallle Creek. Mich. 

There’s a reason. 

Held the little Issik, "The Hood to Wellville," 
j in each pkg. 

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9 We can not tell you all 
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The Modern Mystery Ta.le 

By Lee F. H&rtm&n 


T IIK fur-rcaching popularity of 
what, for want of a batter 
clarification, in loosely 

denominated the “ de- 

tective” story. Is deserving 
of comment in an age when fiction 
has hurst forth in an uncertain and 
Itrwihlrring variety of types more 
less tentative and ineffectual. We arc 
familiar with stories exploiting rustic 
types of clmrueter — the " li’-gosh 
novel,” ns it has been flippantly, but 
not inaptly, termed; every nook and 
corner of our diversified land — strag- 
gling village, bnekwood* settlement, 
or railway junction — ha* in turn con- 
tributed it* " local iulor" to the 
furbishing of some tuic fondly ex- 
pected to rapture the fancy of the 
fickle public; we have endured a great 
host of " historical ” novels, in which 
the historical element has often been 
an uncertain and misleading qual- 
ity; we know the ‘'society” talr 
which attempt* to picture fashion- 
able life, the “ political " novel, and 
the hybrid romance of The I'rinoner 
of 7, coda type. It is easy thus to 
enumerate various loose categories 
which nevertheless indicate certain 
persistent tendencies in present-day 
fiction. From the contemporary 
view point literature would stem to 
In* groping blindly in almost frantic 
endeavor to find itself and ita proper 
path of advance. It is constant ly 
attempting “ something new." uml 
consciously striving for originality 
through novelty of effect — an attitude 
which is perhaps to Ik* attributed to 
the influence of the modern news- 
paper and its methods upon our lit- 
erature. Aside, however, from the 
question of these literary genre* and 
their multiplicity — if I may dignify 
with hu formal a term the uncertain and ephemeral hulk of mod- 
ern novels — the perennial Interest in the •* detective " story i* some- 
thing to be noted among type* of fiction that seemingly pull so 
quickly upon the public taste. 

The story of mystery cover* a wide range in fiction. It is n far 
cry from the tales of Poe or Stevenson to the " dime novel " in 
the hands of the street urchin; but it is not unjust to link them 
thus together. 'Hie fascination of The Suicide Club or The Gold 
Hun for the diseriininating reader is akin to that which Dead- 
wood l>icl> ■ or Kick Carter has for the newsboy. Classic und 
cheap yellow-back alike appeal to that deep-seated sense of wonder 
that I* as old as humanity itself. To this sense of wonder, ever 
keenly alert to the mysterious and inexplicable, we may attribute 
the beginning* of all imaginative work — the myths of classic 
land* that have enriched all suhecqucnt literature. Hi I* same 
spell of wonderment is as strong to-day as it was among primitive 
peoples. The spirit of progress has denuded the mugie forests of 
The««nly and Crete, but we have learntd to conjure ingeniously 
with the complexities of our own civilization, and the modern 
mystery tale is the result. 

The mystery element enter* tn a grenter or less degree into 
fiction of every kind. Indeed, it is the base of nil literary iatMHt, 
Primarily, we read « story ” to see how it comes out." and, other 
thing* being equal, the story in which the element of suspense bv 
deft construction and subtle shaping i* most successfully main- 
tained will lie the most universally satisfying and popular. The 
mystery tale of today is n story in which the dement of sus- 
pense is deliberately enlarged and emphasized until it dominates 
every other consideration in the story, Characterization. atmosphere, 
emotional values, all become subordinated to the great business 
of plot development. The mnruhnlling of incident, the succession 
of climaxes in crescendo order, the cumulative sweep of the narra- 
tive while the secret of the outcome i* carefully withheld, is the 
affair here. Like a periodic sentence of Titani’e size, the tale is 
unrolled until with the concluding paragraphs thp meaning of nil 
that h«* gone Indore is made clear. 

I hove *aid abovp. that, Aside from other and more Important 
literary considerations, the interest in plot is the most elementary 
and universal. It require* no cultivation of taste on the part of 
the reader: its appreciation is instinctive. Consequently, the do 
teetive story lias « great advantage over higher and more siihtie 
forms of fiction In making a popular appeal. Its meaning lies 
unmistakably on its face; thp multitude can enjoy it without in- 
struction. and it *ntisfics the humblest cravings of the imagina- 
tion. 

Tlie exploit* of Sherlock Holmes naturally suggest themselves 
iis the foremost example in recent fiction of the popular detective 
lulc. Mr. Conan Doyle, without conscious design perhaps, brought 
to hear upon hi* work a humanizing element in the character of 
Hie great detective. In dilating u|hmi the prrsonul foihlcs and 


habit* of the mail, he crcutrd a real 
character which vitalixrd and truns- 
liguied the mystery problems or 
inductive reasonings which the 
stoiirs would have represented with 
Holmes lefi out. The successful re- 
sult of this happy combination of in- 
terests is a matter of household 
knowledge. Obviously, then, the 
story of mystery must offer a tempt- 
ing found.it ion to the modern novel- 
writer. 1‘pnn no other base can hr 
build so confident of popular acclaim: 
and. given some humanizing element, 
like the personality of Sherl<K-k 
Holme*, or a master |*»wrr of convinc- 
ingness and atmosphere, a* exhibited 
in The Suicide Club, or of subtle 
analysis and induction ns manifested 
in The Hold But), the result from the 
standpoint of |K»pnlar success* can 
hardly be in doubt. 

It is the love element which has 
coiup prominently forward nowaday* 
in mystery tales, and one eannot hut 
wonder if it ha* not conn* some- 
what tardily, so universal i* it* 
place in modern fiction. Hie mystery 
tale which emlKKlic* a love-story n* 
well is udmirahly instanced in a new- 
novel, entitled The Accomplice, from 
the pen of Frederick Trevor llill. 
wherein wc find the unravelling of 
crime and the entangling of hearts 
carried on in novel association. 

Hut the chief claim of The Aeeom- 
/if I iv to uniqueness lies in the stand- 
point from which the story is told. A 
mysterious crime has been committed. 
We do not, however, share the expe- 
rience* of a detective summoned to 
wrestle with the problem. Months 
have pussed: the ease bus come to 
trial, and with the foreman of the 
jury, who tells the story in first per- 
son, we are abruptly impanelled and given our first inklings of the 
charge against the young woman on trial for murdering her em- 
ployer. Step bv step the perplexing, mystifying details of the 
crime are brought out ns the lawyer* for prosecution and defence 
clash in combat, and from the jury-box we wonder and hesitate, 
the mystery growing more and more inexplicable, the question of 
the defendant's innocence continually more ha filing. 

There are delays slid brief adjournment* in the proceeding*, 
when the story is’ free to go beyond the court-room, but these de- 
partures never const ituti- mere digression*. Our hero, the fore- 
man. has adventures of his own while at large, and ehanee* upon 
outside evidence which enlightens yet at the same time bewilder* 
him in hi* opinions, greatly complicating thp situation. At length, 
in a powerful climax, the foreman of the jury is -u.ldcnlv rolled 
to the witness-stand hv the prosecution, and the reader, like the 
crowd in the court-room, breathlessly rise* to his feet. 

The ethic* of the commentator forbid revealing the ultimate out 
come of the plot he discusses, and assuredly even the slightest 
hint as to the guilty person or thp “ accomplice " in this story 
would mar the enjoyment and surprise* in u captivating tale. 
Lot it suffice to sny that the reader will remain mystified up to 
the very end of the volume, unle** he takes an underhand ad- 
vantage* of the author and peep at the closing page*. — an un 
gentlemanly trick and the height of literary had manners. We 
venture the opinion that the rashest attempt to guess where the 
guilt lies i* prime to fail, so skilfully is the solution withheld until 
the final curtain. 

As a relief from the 1en*c. exciting acene* in the emu t room, a 
pretty love-tale occupies the lighter moment* of the story, in which 
the young foreman of the jury i* again the protagonist. It -dimild 
l* 1 understood that Mr. Lambert is a young man. it wlu*c living 
apart from the village conuminitv. and a scholar of l’erslnn poetry, 
llnrhura Frame i* a typical village las*. Iielonginp to the “ first 
family” of the town, but whole muled and charmingly unconven- 
tional. overflowing with good spirits and vaguely cognizant of Mr. 
Lambert's scholarly attainments in thinking him tlie forrnuwt 
student of l*er*inn p attcry. So much in evidence of her happy, 
undiscriminating turn of mind. She is a breath from the country- 
side. redolent of wild rose and honeysuckle. In brief. Cupid * 
leading-string* get tangled up with the formidable red tape of the 
court-mom in delightful fashion, milling a piquant element of 
charm to this unique tale. If the render 1ms conceived the pro- 
cedure of law court* to he a dull affair. Mr. Hill's book will *|iecd- 
ily disillusionize him. while the lover of detective storie* will re- 
joice to learn that there are “till unfnlhomcd |s>s*ihilitir-* in hi* 
favorite kind of literature. In various way* Mr. llill has shown 
marked originality and ingenuity in bundling hi* theme. l‘n- 
questionnldv. Th< Acroinfilire must rank a* a novel of mystery 
along line* new and refreshing tn flctini — a detective story with 
the detective left out. 



Frederick Terror Hill 
Author of " The AecompHec " 


Digitized by Google 


HARPER'S WEEKLY 


A Business Man's View of 
Panama 

By J. D. Rockwell 

A few days ago one of our newspapers 
told of n " stampede ” of emplowe* on the 
ialhiiiua to «>«<-a|w the “epidemic" of yel- 
low fever, nnd in unother sw-tion of the mime 
paper there was an illustrated article on the 
oily of Panama, describing its great beauty, 
and stating that " it will not In- long la- 
fore Panama will rival Havana as a hiallh 
rrmort." 

It is not strange under these eireum- 
■tnnees that the most of us have misgivings 
as to the real conditions. I was rr-eently 
compelled to reside in Panama for a month. 
1 say “ compelled," for no one. not having 
business, employ men t. or tie* of some kind 
to hold him there, would stay any longer 
than he had to. Panama is not and never 
will hr a “ health resort." And this is not 
due to extraordinary prevalence of disease, 
nor to the many hardships incidental to ex- 
istence in a tropical country, hut to the 
inlrnee heat. 

Panama Not a Health Resort 

Still, while not a health resort, Panama, 
for the tropies, may lie made an endurable 
place to live in. It is not as beautiful or 
well kent ns Havana. The buildings are 
not as large, well made, or as comfortable, 
but with improved sanitary conditions it is 
verv probable that the hotels of Panama will 
nt least equal those* of Cuba, while at pres- 
ent the food served in Panama is more pal- 
atable to an American than that served in 
Havana. There is little that is attractive 
in the city. The streets arc narrow, badly 
paved, though clean, thanks to the Amer- 
icans, and there is no water supply or sew- 
erage system, although both are being in- 
troduced. It S4*emn odd to go to bed in 
the heat hotel by candle-light. Siam, how- 
*vrr. then* will lie un electric-light plant, 
and unother ice-plant, for as it is now the 
city is left days at a time without ice at 
unv priee. There are no street • railroads, 
nit hough there was one some years ago, 
which was discontinue!] from lack of use; 
there are no theatres, and absolutely no 
form of amusement since the discontinuance 
of bull-fighting. 

The Vigilant Police 

The hotels are closed every night at 
about eleven o'clock, nnd after that hour a 
Ixdutcd guest gains admission only through 
n sleepy watchman. The street* at night 
an* quiet, deserted, and dark. The 
cull*, driven for the most purt by Jamaican 
darkle-, and drawn by little burrow, must 
stop on the stroke of twelve, fare or no fare. 
unlc«» the driver has a sperinl permit to 
Ih- out after that hour. After dark, too, the 
police are particularly vigilant. One eve- 
ning lately an American was going home 
with u truckage of laundry. He was stopped 
by a policeman, who pointed to the bundle, 
but as neither understood the other, lie was 
hunt led to the sergeant, and after explana- 
tion was allowed to proceed. He was scarce- 
ly 01,1 the street again when lie was 
arrested by another policeman and the same 
performance was repeated. This happened 
several time*, until the sergeant, finally he 
coining tired of seeing tile man with the 
laundry so often, issued a written permit, 
which enabled him to carry it home with- 
out further interference. 

A City Without •‘Graft” 

But these city police are well meaning 
and they know absolutely nothing about 
graft. As one of the American (’anal Zorn* 
police put it. and lie had hud experience in 
the State*. "They don't even know enough 
to get their peanuts for nothing.” In fact, 
then- is very little room for graft. Prrmtitu- 
tion i« licensed hr the government, and there 
is no form of gambling except tin* I'umium 
lottery, which does a llotiri-hing business, 
nnd lias the sole concession by the govern 
n***nt. It is odd that this lottery i* located 
on the ground-floor of the bishop's private 
residence, hut it in said that the bishop is 
one of the largest stockholder*. Kvcry 



p. tr- 


ite, having been on 
the market for more 
than seventy 
years. As a sea- 
soning It Improves 
more dishes than 
any other relish ever 
offered to the public. 
Soups. Fish, Meats, 
Came, Salads, etc., 
are made delicious 
by l*s proper use. 

LEA& PERRINS' 
SAUCE 

adds enjoyment to 
every dinner. 


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THE 


NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW 

EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


July, 1905. 

Physical Degeneration in Great Britain . The Rt. Hon. Sir JOHN E. GORST, M.P. 
Present Supervision o( Life Insurance Companies . . . S. HERBERT WOLFE 
The Religious Life of the Negro .... BOOKER T. WASHfNGTON, 

PrineijMtl of the Tuakegee Induttrial Inrtitute. 

Publicity In Educational and Charitable Work W. H. ALLEN, 

General Agent of the Ataoeiation Jor /mirroring the Condition "/the Poor. 

Autocracy and War JOSEPH CONRAD 

The Industrial Situation in Ireland J. W. ROOT 

United States Copyright and International Relations . G. HERBERT THRING, 

Secretary of the / neorjtoratrd .Society of Author!. 

Reform in the Roman Catholic Church .The Rev. Professor CHAS. A. BRIGGS, D.D. 

Poland To-day ROBERT ATTER 

Frans Lisst and Princess Carolyne GUSTAV KOBBE 

The Political Future of India Sir HENRY COTTON, K.GS.L 

Our Neglect of South American Markels . . . . G. A. CHAMBERLAIN, 

lately United State! I iee-Contul- General at Uiu ile Janeiro. 

Marriage and Divorce from a Lay Point of View . ELIZABETH CARPENTER 

WORLD POLITICS 

London) St. Petersburg ! Paris! Washington 

SO cents a copy $5.00 a Year 

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK 


SIS3 


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King Alfonao (louring Euro/irl. - Thi* 
tit cony. ll’*r» / g>l It "mi /'in going to 
hr married.’' — Sion r City Journal. 


Horror, 
a mI . — Ki 


rhino Ihc Atlantic 


Anticipating Japan’* deal rr for the Philip- 
nr *. — Pittnhurg P< mf. 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


•Mir lui* * ticket. One dinner coata twenty 
iiiiIk, or ten cent* our money, n ml |Mmr fum- 
ilie* go without food to nave the price of 
oiu< or more tirkrl*, while the rich will 
regularly net n*idc u certain *tini cwch week 
to In- invested in the lottery. Ticket* worth 
|ii,imm> I'uria mutt inn money are iiMiicd each 
week, hut only about |DMN) ir. returned in 
pri/.ea. The " Kink " keep* the $ 4000 . 

When one ha* lived in the Kn*t long 
enough to we anil under* land the working* 
of city and State employee*, one ciinnot hut 
marvel at the honesty, efficiency. nnd *in- 
verity of the Canal Zone employee*, who 
-rein to lie then* to work with the mo*t that 
in in them nnd not merely to draw their 
nalatie*, even though the government i* their 
|Mi>ina»ter. We know by reputation the 
tiovcrnor, the chief engineer, und the chief 
nanitnry ollieer. mid we know that they are 
ipialitied for their work. Hut we do not 
Know of the many lieutenant* and *ub- 
ord inales of thc*c men who lire eminently 
well chosen for the places they fill. The 
lieulth oilier of I'ununiu. for instance, a 
moat trying pn*ition. i* filled by Dr. de 
Obarrio. of I'unamanian parentage, who wn* 
educated in the States and at Heidelberg, 
and later had Hindi experience in the State* 
in hospital lira dice. The health ollieer of 
Colon. Dr. Wheeler, was educated ut Dart- 
mouth, practised in the State*, wa* health 
ollieer in the Philippine*, with our army, 
mid i* now, under the direction of Colonel 
tJorga*. in charge of one of the most diffi- 
cult of modern sanitary problem*, that at 
Colon, where there ha* been some fever re- 
cently, where then 1 i* no sewerage or 
water - supply systrni, and no practical 
method of di*|io*ing of street cleaning* or 
garlaige. 

A Dangerous Class 

Of course along the Zon" one will en- 
eiMinler men who may la* classed ns ad- 
venturer*. but they are few. Hy far the 
mo*t dungerou* da** to the interests of the 
canal are those unsophisticated young men 
who have taken the civil-service examina- 
tion* in the State*, and knowing nothing 
of the condition* they will encounter or 
of the nature of the country, take ship 
with the idea that tropical lnnd* arc of 
" milk ami honey." und that there are vast 
opportunities ahead for enterprising young 
Amci icmiB. Panama i* not n land of milk 
and honey, neither ure there opportunities 
to Kpt-uk of. Consequently, the young man. 
who may never have been away from home 
lie fore, la-come* discouraged. It id hot. und 
lie doesn't like the food, and inaylie lie ha* 
to sleep with two or three other men in the 
same room and under the same mosquito 
canopy. So he take* the next ship for home, 
and on the pier he tell* the reporters that 
I'liii.iina i* the “ worst place ever." that it 
i* full of fever, and that it isn’t a fit 
place for a white man to live in. And 
then the public gets a new spare in the 
paper*. 

I am not saying that the Canal Zone is 
a good place to live in. for it is not. Hut 
the young man. lie fore going, should take 
into recognition the fact that the building 
of a big iii na I through open country must 
necessarily entail some hardship. Colonel 
Wallace wiiil, in a recent issue of IIahi'KIi'h 
W'Keki.v, that civil engineer* in our own 
West have endured much more hardship 
than will lie likely in runatnn. Con- 
ditions are improving constantly. New 
nnd modern quarter* are being built for 
the employees, and the much-dreaded yellow 
fever is not prevalent. There have been only 
nlanit sixty eases since lust duly, and u* in 
this disease the chances are sixty per cent, 
in favor of recovery, the denth-fntc among 
7500 employees i* not ulnruiingly high. 


Residence Unknown 

Kikht CiTiJtEX. “That new neighlsir of 
our*. Mr*, .lone*. *crm* an ill iiuturrd soi l." 

Sijhixo Cinzrts. •• How «>»•' 

First Crmw, “Why. I called her up on 
the telephone yesterday, and «»kcd her if sin- 
had any idea where her hu*hund wa* *lav 
lt»|f. "0*1 she rang olf without answering 
Hie." 

tfrro.TD Citizen. “ I don’t wonder— lie’s 
dead." 





I countries for its wines. The American people have 
I found that here at home is grmrh the finest wine I 
P grape in the world — the Scunfiernong. 

This grape, under the ca/eful processes in vogue 
| for a century at the Garrett Winery, produces un- 
I rivalled wines, such as Hid rare Virginia Dare, a I 
I moderately sweet whde'vintagc. unapproached by I 
I even the choicest Twayt of Hungary. 

' The Garrett lat> I is also a guarantee of quality 
and purity. 

It frees you from all dangers of wine adstltera/ion. V 
t makes us rexponsit le. V 

It frees you from UAe bondage of tea and coffee. Ill 
1 furnish an adequate food supply for starved nerves. 
We can without reservation recommend the adoption of 


The Rise and Progress of the 


Sta.i\d0Lrd Oil Company 

By GILBERT HOLLAND MONTAGUE 

This is a scholarly and accurate study of the Standard Oil Company, from ils beginning in 1865 till its con- 
trol in 1&75 of ninety-five per cent, of the entire oil business of the United States, and thence down to the 
prevent time. The story of this gigantic trust reads like a talc of magic, and is of profound interest even to 
the casual reader. 

Cloth, $ 1. 00 net (postage extra) 


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Chicago BewOrleans Paris 
18*3 1883 1908 

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READ The Accomplice 


July Fourth 

By John Kendrick Bangs 

A Pi eg a tad a Warniai 

Spread your hunting, hang your wreaths, 
Let your banners lie unfurled. 

Shout until the welkin seethe* 

All about the deafened world. 

Get your old-time speeches out, 

Cheer until you split the nkie*, 

But be careful, while you spout, 

Of your ryes. 

Drag the ancient cannon forth, 

Iautd it to the muzzle** brim ; 

Ircl the East. South. West, and North 
Echo with it* blim-bhiiu-bliui! 

I.et the crackers hiss and spit. 

Rocket -at icks come down kerplunk, 

But bo careful how you sit 
On the punk. 

Iret the Roman candle* dare 

All the darkened heavens through; 

Let the mortars till thr air 
Full of stars red, white, and bine. 

Let Uip lluent ml light. How. 

Dimming both the moon and sun. 

But be careful how you blow 
Down your gun! 

Roar, rejoice, and speechify! 

Go through all the bag of tricks 
With which now we glorify 
Heroes of old Seventy-six! 

But no matter what your glee 
'Mid the roar of bursting bombs 
Careful, O most careful be 
Of your thumbs 1 

Lila-rly a hieing is 
Worthy to lie glorified: 

Worthy of the fiery whit 
Of a nation full of pride; 

But it seems a liauhle vain, 

Emptv, useless thing of chance. 

When there follows in its train 
An ambulance! 


Columbia Honors Mr. Howells 

lx presenting William Dean Howell* fur 
the honorary degree of Doctor of letters 
at Columbia Cniveraity on June 14 Pro- 
fesaor Harry Thurston Peck said: 

“Mu. President. — It is most fitting that 
our university, which nearly three-quarters 
of a century ago inscribed upon its roll of 
honor the name of Washington Irving, 
should have continued to manifest from time 
to lime its high appreciation of creative ef- 
fort in the sphere of letters and of art. I 
make sure. sir. that of all the distingui.hed 
men who have received the honor of this 
recognition from Columbia. ar.d who in re- 
wiving honor have conferred it, there has 
been none more worthy than he who routes 
to-day. if I may so describe him. as the am- 
lw»Milnr of literature to learning, ami in 
whom both literature and learning an- so 
happily exemplified. 

It would Is* superfluous in me to enumer- 
ate in this presence his many titles to our 
admiration, whether ns student and ex 
positor of Italian poetry, as essayist, or as 
critic. When we speak hi* name we think 
first of all of what he has achieved in lit- 
erature through the medium of fiction. It 
is only in a narrow sense that we call it 
fiction. In a broader and more veracious 
cense, that fiction i* a* true a* truth itself. 
Through it lie has become, as it were, the 
interpreter of his own countrymen to them- 
selves. And In- has been something more 
than this; for he has gone down beneath 
those purely superficial differences and pe- 
culiarities which constitute the type* that 
are railed national, and has searched of the 
soul of that humanity which is universal. 

“To him it has liecn given unerringly t» 
read the mind of man and. what is no lew* 
wonderful, the heart of woman: and lie lias 
done this, not in the spirit of Gallic cyni- 
cism. but with that kindlinc&a of feeling, 
with all that finr sympathy and sanity, 
which mark the work of the groat English 
masters with whoso name* his name i- now 
inseparably linked- And. therefore. Mr. 
President, it i* a most grateful duty to pre- 
sent to you for whatsoever academic honor 


it may seem to you most fitting to Is-stow. 
one who is thr most eminent n> he is also 
the most loved of all In mg American men 
of letters — one who i* critic, poet, jwvrhol- 
ngi*t, and. above ull else, consummate 
artist — William Dean llowclls.” 


The Gambler 

(1'ontinurrl from jwjr !I.J!l.y 
But Clodagh interrupted. She turned sud- 
denly. her cheek* burning, her eye* ahln/r. 

'• iliuinuli !*’ she cried, in sharp, punu-d 
alarm. 

But Hannah had said her nay. With her 
old. ini|H-rturlMihle gesture she turned once 
more to her task. 

4 * I know nothin'.” she murmured, obsti- 
nately “ If you're wantin' more, ask Mrs. 
Laurence." 

For a while Clodagh stood, transfixed by 
the idea presented to tier mind. Tln-n. art ion 
and certainty becoming suddenly indispensa- 
ble, she turned on hrr heel. 

“Very well!" she said, tersely. “Very 
well! I will usk Aunt Kan.’’ 

And with a* scant ceremony as she had 
entered it. she swept out of the kitrhrn. 

With feet that scarcely felt the ground 
lienenth them. Clodagh sped along tin- 
stone passage* that led to the hall: and 
thence ascended to the bedrooms. Her sense* 
were acutely alive, her mind alert with an 
unbearable apprehension. A new drmd that, 
by the power of intuition, bad almost lie- 
come a certainty, impelled her forward with- 
out the ennsrious action of her will. With- 
out any hesitancy or indecision, *hr traversed 
the long corridor, and pausing before the 
room occupied l»y her aunt, knocked per- 
emptorily upon the door. 

After a moment** wait Mr*. Asshlin'a 
querulous voice was rniaisl in response. 

Clodagh instantly turned the handle and 
o|N'ned the door. 

"Aunt Fan." she said. "I want to ask 
you something. Why should Mr. MilUinke 
botber about me — almut us?” 

Mrs. Asshlin made a gesture tantamount 
to shrugging her shoulders. 

“ It is quite natural that Mr. Milhanke 
should Ik- interested in you, lie wa» your 
father*« oldest friend." 

“ Yc«. ye*." Clndugh bent forward, un- 
controllably. *’ And. Aunt Kan. has father 
diet! poor? Has — has he left debts? That's 
what I want to know.” 

Mrs. Asshlin moved nervously in her chair. 

“ Well — ” she stammered. " Well — " 

“H. has left debts?” 

“Well. ye*. If you must know — he has.” 

Clodagh caught her breath. 

“ Are the debts big ?" 

“ Immense." 

“Must the plan- go?" asked Clodagh, in 
an intensely quiet voice. 

“ Ye*. .U least—" 

“ What r 

** It would have had to go. only — " 

"Only for what?" In her keen anxiety 
Clodagh Moopcd forward ami laid her hand *0 
on her aunt's shoulder. “ How will the debt* 

Ik- paid?" 

Mr* Asshlin freed herself nervously from 
her niece'* hand. 

" Mr. Milhatikc will pay them." she said, 
impulsively. Then instant ly she checked her 
self. “ Oh. what have I suiil ?" she exclaimed. 

" Don't pretend that I told you. Clodagh. 
lie i* *0 particular that you shouldn't know." 

But Clodagh scarcely heard. Her hand 
hail dropped to her side, and she stood 
staring blankly at her aunt, 

“ You mean to *ay that lie’s going to pay 
father's debts — our debt*?” 

, • 

"Then we’ll owe him something we can 
never possibly repay!" 

Mrs. Asshlin drew herself up. 

"Not exactly owe." she eoi-recteil. " It is 
an — an act of friendship. The A— hlin* have 
never been indebted to any one for a favor. 

Of eoui si- Mr. Milhanke i- a wealthy man; 
and it’s easy to be generous when you have 
money — ■” 

She heaved 11 sigh. 

But Clodagh stood staring vm-anlly at the 
opposite wall. 

“ It’s a debt all tin- same." «he said, after 
a long pause. •• I suppose it is what father 
u*cd to call 11 debt of honor." 


056 






HARPER'S WEEKLY 


She »poke in n alow. mn-hunicnl voice; 
I lien, ■« if moved to art inn by her train of 
thought, she tumiil without waiting for tier 
mint'* comment ami walked out of the riHim. 

Traversing thr corridor, die dencemled the 
-taira and panned »t might to the hall door. 
Once in the open, the wheeled to the right 
with a steady, deliberate movement and be- 
gan slowly to retrace the steps she had taken 
nearly half an hour earlier. 

Steadily and unemotionally she went for- 
ward. skirting the courtyard, until, at the 
dip of the |>ath. the glen came into view; 
u ml with it Milliaiike's precise, black figure. 
Htunding exactly an she luid seen it last. 

Her foots! c|m were scarcely audible on the 
damp earth : and she was close beside him 
Iwfore he brouiir corineiouii of her presence; 
us he did so, however, he started violently. 

“fhslagh!" lie stammered. 

Hut t'hslugh cheeked him, laying her hand 
quickly on his arm. 

“ Mr. Milbanke," she said, hurriedly. “ will 
you forgive me for what I said? I want to 
take it hark. I want to any that, if you 
still like, I — I will marry you.” 

To be Continued. 


Electricity at Home and in 
Business 

(Continued from page 5./ 
e lot lust are Isiiled in electric boilers, washed 
in electric washing-machines, wrung in cen- 
trifugal wringers driven by electric motors, 
and ironed either by electrically driven man- 
gles or by irons' heated individually by 
electric current or on an electric stove. 
Many of these appliances are now available 
for the householder of modest means, and 
electrically driven fumily washing-machinery 
is thought an important agency of relief in 
many home*. e«|>eeially those where cheap 
electricity is available. While the kitchen 
may or may not be equipped with electric 
ranges, yet there are electric plate-warmers 
for the pantry, and from the chandelier of 
the dining-room may drop a conductor bring- 
ing current to un electrically heated chafing- 
dish, thus doing a wav with the dangers and 
inconvenience* attending the use of alcohol. 
If the kitchen belongs to a large establish- 
ment or to an up-to-date hotel, club, or res- 
taurant. we may many Interesting ap- 
plications of electricity. A special motor 
drives the ice-cream frcexrr. while another 
chops the meat. Tile dishes are washed in 
electrically driven machines, while the knives 
are cleaned and burnished on special wheels. 
If it is desirable to escape from the tyranny 
of the iceman and to have dry clean air in- 
stead of moisture for the pieservation of 
fond, an electric i«<e-planL may Is- installed, 
and tliem- are even constructed of such small 
*iie ns to lie available for families. Wing 
automatically controlled by electric ther- 
mostat*. which mninUin a constant tempera- 
ture. This is accomplished by automatically 
stoppiug and starting the motor actuating 
the compressor and pumps by which the am- 
monia is condensed. The expansion of this 
substance through a system of pipes produces 
the desired low temperature. 


An Automobile Battery 

IVurtroAi. has a unique battery of how- 
itzers which an' drawn by a large auto- 
mobile, the entire equipment Wing arranged 
on a permanent Itsisis. anil not Wing a mere 
temporary expedient like the use of traction- 
cngincs during the Hist war. The luttcry 
consists nf four how Utters, each of 150 milli 
meter- (alMiut six inchest calibre, which 
trail Iwhind a large automobile that carries 
the ammunition and supplies as well ns the 
greater number of the cannoneers. The 
gun* are 14 calibres in length, and employ 
a 40 kilogram (about KS pounds) project ih-. 
the ranp- nt an elevation of 45 degrees be- 
ing about five miles. The whole train rnn 
move at a speed of three and one-half miles 
an hour on grades not exceeding eight per 
cent., and is able to mount grades up to 
twelve per cent., while for heavier grades 
or diflicult place- the i-nginc is supplied with 
a windlass permitting a block and tackle to 
be used and the guns moved singly. The 
motor is arranged to use either |s-troleum 
or alcohol. 


financial 


Letters 

of 

Credit. 


Bills of exchange bought anti 
•old. Cattle Transfers to Eu- 
rope and South Africa. Com- 
mercial and Travellers' letters 
of Credit. Collections niude. 
lnLernuiioti.il Cheques. Cer- 
lldcaies ot Deposit. 


Brown Brothers A Co., 


IUnkim*, No. 59 Wall brsarr. 


Elements of Navigation 

By V. J. HENDERSON 

It Is s eery clear And mnrl»e statement of r-wntl»l fact* con. 
ermine the handling o( a ship At s*-A. and lumlUir- Informa- 
tion IndlatienaAhto torverr nor connect ,-1 with the uuptlon 
of » WMfl.-dnw amJ .Vote J.-ttrmal. New Vwk. 

MV/4 Dtsfra mt. tl.OO 

HARPER A* BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. N. V. 


MORTON TRUST COMPANY 

38 NASSAU STREET. NEW YORK 

Capital ----- $2,000,000 
Surplus and Undivided Profits - - $6,000,000 

OFFICERS 

LEVI P. MORTON, President 

THOMAS F. RYAN. Vice-President JAMES K. CORBIERE, Vice-President 

CHARLES H. ALLEN. Vice-President H. M. FRANCIS, Secretary 
CHARLES A. CONANT, Treasurer 


/ohm Jacob Aitm, 
CmABUB II. Al. l-BM, 

GaiIMI.B F IU*«A, 
EtlWAMIl J IIaawimo, 

1 M'lWWAl.U 

Jama- U Olka, 


Hammy t 

C 0. H, 

Java, N Janyia. 

WaI TAB S J oil Ml ION, 

a. n Jviii.iami>. 
Juuni Laaocvub, 


Counsel, ELI HU ROOT 

DIRECTORS 

F tAl.LAM. D. O Mil. IV, 


I -AVI P Mob TRIM, 
hi* m ami- A Mi Cvahv, 

W. IT 1 1 A AM AM, 

Saml-ai. Kaa, 

Kune Root, 


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 


Lavi P Mon-tom. 

Tmkuav F Ryaw, 

Chamlav H. Ann. 


Eowaad J Bmmwimp, 
G. G. Havbn, 


Jamas N. Jamyia, 


Wintmbih Ri tubby', ad, 
TnxMo F. K» am, 

J ai os II Senior. 


Elihc Rotit. 

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II ih, ■ Ht-tr I ■« y • tt .lr, ,rhd len (r»-i in ut 

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Hartford New York Londoo 


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ice*d “SANNA” 


< By tht Author of " The Wood-cirver of *. Lytnpus " 


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THE SPANISH INVASION. 

Shade of Queen Elirabeth. “A Kin* of Spain in England 
cousinly enirealed withal!*’ 


Che Dryad 

bv Justin 
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Bv Gilbert K. Chesterton 


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Publishers, - Kcw York harper 


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No. >tu 


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'■«- Mu' York, Saturday, July 8, 1905 


Copfrtgkl, 1903, if IIari-km * Umotmkbk. Ail rlgkli rtitrttd 



PAUL JONES. "MY NERVES ARE NOT WHAT THEY USED TO BE" 

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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


HARPER’S WEEKLY 

VoL XLIX \o. 2533 

EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


THIRTY- SIX PAGES 

New York City, July 8, 190; 

Terms : 10 Cents a Copy — $4 oo a Year, in Advance 

Pottage irrc to ill Sut»i-fibcn in tlir United Stair*, CaiutL. Mexico, 
Hawaii, Potm Rim, the Philippine (main, ami Tutuiia, *» 

Halter J at the .War Tort /*■>! "Air at MrramJcJau matter 

HARPER it BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 
NEW YORK CITY: KRANKL1N SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET. W 


COMMENT 

Ahk nut some of our friend* of the press and our other 
friends in danger of becoming ov«-rsaii«uine as to the guilti- 
ness of <!m' officers of the Equitable Society and the prospect 
of their meeting with punishment condign !•» their offence* ( 
Most of them wire recently regarded ns worthy men, and 
though we hear suggestions of crimi nai 1 prosecution of mime 
of them, we presume that nil of them still regard themselves 
ils {arsons of probity, even though they may not be com- 
mitted to that opinion as to one another. It is very unusual 
fur any nutn to stumble into Sing Sing without some pre- 
liminary suspicion that he win doing things that might land 
him there. We an’ pretty sun- that no officer of the Equitable 
ever harbored u suspicion of that sort, and we an* pretty 
confident — rash as it nj«y seem to say *o — that none of them 
is in the least danger of thnt expe rience. 


That the Equitable luts been managed os an insurance 
company should be manag'd hoInhIv now believes. Money 
may have got into pocket* that it did not belong in, and there 
may be successful lawsuit* to get it out again. Hut it should 
be remembered that although the Equitable management bns 
iwen condemned by a committee of it* own director*, ami by 
the State Superintendent of Insurance, and by the news- 
papers, and by public opinion, the official* who an* mo-*t 
blamed have neither had their day in court, nor have ns 
yet devoted much attention to their ilefeiice before the public. 
For a long time they were too much engrossed ill accusing 
one another of misconduct to pay due attention to self-exculpn- 
tion, and lately the hurricane ha* lieen so brisk thnt there 
was not much use of trying to fare it until it* force was 
partly spent. It is pretty well ogri*cd now thnt an insurance 
company ought to be run exclusively in the interest of the 
policy-holders. Hut tin* Equitable wa* n stock company, and 
the stock wo* valuable and was believed to Ik* morally entitled 
to Dome emoluments. Mr. Tlvnr. owned stock and seems to 
have drawn an ineome of almuf $ 1 ." 0.000 from the aoeiety. 
lie has since -old part of his stork for n sum which nuv 
easily yield an ineome of $1?. r i.000; so it is conceivable that 
Im* eotuidered that lie was not getting more out of the aoeiety 
than his holdings entitled him to receive. Let the EquitnbU* 
Ik* reformed by all means, and thoroughly . but let us not 
blind out *tri|*d suits to all the officers who have been accused 
of atrocious malfeasance* until their side of the story has 
had a full and impartial bearing. 

We refer elsewhere to the definite powers vested by statute 
in Atforney-Cipneml Maykr in the matter of the legal action 
which may he taken bv him as a result of the investigation* «»f 
the former conduct of dir* affair* of the society. The statement 
by Mr. Pai i. Mngrov that his attorneys have l>een instructed to 
«s»nfer with the Attorney-General on the subject of Air. Mug- 
ton’s own investigation* into the conduct of tin- business of tin* 


society indicates a desire for complete eoiqM-rat ton mi the 
part of tlie Equitable'* new management, from which tlu* 
ptdicv-lmldcrs may reasonably expiet the hastening of pr.<i* t- 
legal action iu their interests. 

It is sufficiently unfortunate that two lawyer* of the stand- 
ing of ex-Attorncy-Gcnernl IUkviox and IkkiiKMIck N. .ItriMON. 
selected by the government as Kpeeial eouimel in pnMXtdiug* 
against the Atehison. TiqK-ku, aild Santo Fe Kuilruud for 
granting unlawful rati**, should have retired from the case 
Is-emise of a differcmi* »f opinion between them and tin- 
AttoriH‘y-(icm*raI ami the President. Tlw special counsel 
ailvised eriluiiml prosecution of the officers of tile railroad 
eompuiiv, including President Rii-lkv ami Secretary -of-the* 
Navy Pai'L Moktwn, the former vice-president of the dan- 
puny. They n*|ioiietl to the Attorney -General to that effect. 
Mr. M> stui replied that lie found in tlu* report no testimony 
relating to the conduct of any except minor officials of the 
railroad, and especially nothing connecting Mr. Kiclkv ami 
Mr. UiiKTiiS with llie departure from the published rate* in 
favor of tlu* Colorado Fuel ami Iron Company which was to 
be the basis of the proposed pmaccutinn. He submitted that 
some evulenet* ought to precede the accusation. ami be di- 
m-Ud. by order of the President, that proceeding* (for con- 
tempt of an injunction) should lie begun, not aguin*t (lie 
officers of the Atchison, but against tlu* corporation only. 
Messrs. Harmon ami Jl'PsoN replied that guilt wu* always 
personal, and that so long as official* could hide behind their 
corporation* no remedy could Ik* effective. So. with pro- 
testation* of ri^iss-t for Mr. Mnof>Y. they retired from tlu- 
easc. Mr. Mooov reported the matter to the President in a 
letter in which Iu- reviewed tin* ease, ami reiterated hi* in- 
ability to find in the evidence taken before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission anything t« 1*011111**1 Mr. Rit'LEv or 
Mr. AIoktox with the misconduct in question. 

These letters were publi-lu-d in the newspaper* on June 
and along with them the President’s reply to Mr. 
in which he agree* with his conclusions, ami sustains his 
opinion that proceeding* should h«* brought against the rail- 
road ns a eori*oration and not against it* officer* individually. 
Anticipating. 110 doubt, what has hnp|ienei|, that he would be 
charged with protecting Mr. Moams' itnpro|K*rly from prwseeu- 
lion. the Pins* i< lent set forth his position at length. lie -aid 
shat about tlu* time the injunction was obtained against the 
Atchison road injunction* were nl*o obtain'd against other 
Western railroad*. Subsequently it «leve|opcd I hut thesi* oilier 
roads were giving unlawful rclwite* to the Johnson Harvester 
Company. No one had suggested prosecuting officials in that 
case, yet if officials wen* prosecuted in the Atchison ca*c, 
the same course must Ik* followed in the other, which would 
involve prosecution of officers of every road running out of 
Chicago, lie cited other instance*. a* tin* suit brought against 
tin* Northern S* i eurifi«* Company, when criticism was moth* 
that criminal providing* should Ik* taken against the di- 
rector*. and the fir-t priM-ccditig against the Hepf Trust, to 
show that the practice had been to pro against corpora- 

tion* as such, and not against their individual officer* utiles* 
then* was evidence against them individually. Furthermore, 
lie disclosed a letter to hinwlf from S«vrr*fnry Morton in 
which thnt geiitli-nian went over the whole matter of the 
failure of the Atchison to revise its arrangement with the 
Colorado Coal Company after the injunction had l>een issued, 
and dis-lated that it was an oversight iu detail for which he 
personally wn* no more to blame than he would have been 
for a misplaced switch. The Prcaidcht also gave out his own 
letter to Mr. Morton in reply to the above, in which lie ex- 
pressed hi* full con faience in tlie Secret ary V Statement, nml 
recall* the very valuable *up|>nrt am] assistance that Mr. 
Moktov, alone among imilmnd Mien, had given him when he 
first undertook to get the law against rebate* enforced. 

It i* objected that the Pred'lont** defence of Mr. .Morton 
is not good law. it* thnt the Atchison case and the Johnson 
Harvester <*«*<•* were not similar. It i* also objected that Mr. 
Morton was not the only railroad timii who testified ns to tin* 
universal disregard 0/ tin* antirebab- law when the Interstate 
Conmiorre Commission desired evidence on which it dtlH 
take action. The President ha* lieen widely ccimund for 
hi* action. It is proclaimed thnt * tf* save Put. Morton 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


from the necessity of defending himself Mr. Ruokevixt ha* 
practically issued a general amnesty to all railroad law- 
t>n*ker».” It is undoubtedly awkward to have Mich num 
is Ju<hrc Harmon and Mr. JunsoN retire from proceeding* 
ibej w-woed rtiiitH-nlly fit to conduct. Possibly they were 
right ami Mr. M«»W anil the President are wrong, and it 
would have h*-en better to k-t them conduct the proceeding* 
os thr.v cli«t*c. ami let Mr. MotrTo.N demonstrate his innocence 
in court, llut so far as Mr. Morton da concerned the fact 
momirio notorious and indisputable that no mi I road mini in 
the country has done more than he to break up the system of 
onlinrfu!. ami rebates. Every honest railroad man has 
bathed dint system. It has been (and is) a great evil. Be- 
lles the unjust iliscriaiination between ship|M*r* which it has 
inrolnd, it has turned the freight department of every rail- 
road in the country into a school of surreptitious illegality, 
in which every new employee was systematically trained in 
tfrM Inu-brv akimr and in all the deceits and subterfuges 
which work of that sort involves. So long as the antirebate 
law was universally disregarded no single railroad could do 
luidi»« successfully under it. Mr. Morton has done what 
he ctiflld— a great deal- — to get the law enforced and do away 
will a condition of affairs that bred injustice und corruption. 
Thill a nun whose testimony had lawn so useful as it was 
tu Ms-urp the better enforcement of the law should have gone 
hack to his ruilrrad iuhI knowingly compassed the further 
violation «f the law dom not tuvm likely. We fully believe 
him when la- says he was not personally to blame for the 
failure in certain particulars of the Atchison road to obey 
the injunction order. To proceed against him criminally 
for limit failure would hr- to give sum 1 1 encouragement to 
aa-u OB the inside of the railroad business to do anything for 
it* purification. 

During the week eliding dune 24 the papers in the Rowf.n- 
[j«>Mls cutrv.vcrsy were made public, and although Mr. 
Ihom declared that lie should not renounce the determina- 
tion to prove tluit Mr. Loomis, when minister at Caracas, was 
improperly connected with the asphalt company, it Kerned 
ptrolmble tluit Secretary TaPTs decision, sanctioned hs it was 
h}‘ President Roosevelt, would meet with general acqui- 
■ and that interest in the subject would soon die away. 
The matter, however, was again forced into the foreground 
'■f diwui-ion by the discovery that Mr. Loomin, who had 
been n-pritoniuled by both Secretary Taft and the President 
fur participation in private speculations, for the furtherance 
of which he might find his position as minister at Caracas 
useful, was not only to be retained in the office of First 
Awistwit Secretary of State, but was actually to be singled 
out for the discharge of nn especially honorable function, 
that of sp end envoy to represent the United States in France 
Jt the embarkation of the remains of John Paul Jones, ami 
jbo to investigate the method* of transacting busim-sa fol- 
h'wrd in American cnihassio* and consulates. 

Me ‘ball pa** over the comments of Democratic newspapers, 
which aught be looked ujsm us prejudiced. and confine our- 
•dvc* exclusively to expn— <ion- of opinion in independent 
" r Rtpnblimn journals. In the judgment, for instance, of 
the Phibtldphiii Public Lcifycr ( independent), the American 
psipk have a right to ask that France “shall tint Ik- exposed 
in tbc -light involved in the -ending on such nn iHvasimi of 
an official mi recently tl»e -ubjeet of so pointed a rebuke.** 
Tts- Pnhlir /^Jr/.-r also thinks that the people will resent 
•s-iug •*Dii>rcjiri-Miii(d bv n person of whu*e discretion the 
i’ro;ik»it und Secretary of State have so unfavorable an npin- 
"'*• The Springfield ticpuhliran (iudiiN-ndclit) is pututkil 
tu tiiukrstund “ jn-t I tow Loomis heeomes qualified to move 
»!• higher in the <iiploinntie service, or to remain where he 
*'■ I' think* linn the sooner Mr. Lni.min is let down and out 
the letter, fur it finds tluit “there ha* been full d< •monstrn- 
lion of this nmii"* abundant di-qualifiration for State Depart - 
t»«t sod diph limit ie nrriw." The Brooklyn E'tqlc (indo- 
JS'tahtit Democrat) is eonvineed that no foreign government 
wuuld like to receive Mr. Lmiuis oii Midi a tleclaration 
a« Mr. Tot has made for him. and there i* no promotion to 
which i be Senate of fin- United State* will be likely to c*>n* 
-ent, whatever tin- Pro- i. fen r may attempt to do for Mr. 
Issiuiv Tlie t'li vi-hind Plainricolrr. which could not imag- 
ine that the First Assistant Secretary of State was to he «-nt 


a* special envoy to France, suggested that “ Looms may be 
allowed to stand u little while upon the order of hi* going; 
that is all. The day of hia public usefulness is ended; the 
incident is closed.” 


The Washington Pant (independent), which also could not 
foresee that the First Assistant Secretary of State would 
prove to lie one of the men whom the President delights to 
honor, pronounced it “evident that Mr. Lmimih’s usefulness 
lias been seriously impaired. An official found to have com- 
mitted 4 grave indiscretions,' which are dismissed with pointed 
but really considerate criticism, is hardly in line for diplo- 
matic promotion.” The New York Evening Po*t (inde- 
pendent) declares “Loomis's appointment an insult to Franco 
and to public tlecetiey in this country.” By his action in the 
Morton and Loomis ami “Mr, Roobrvelt gives the lie to 
all his preaching about the need of upright officials.” The 
Kveninq Post adds. “ What has become of the pet phrase 
that so often came lightly from Air. Roosevelt's lips about 
having in office only such men as were 'clean as a hound’s 
tooth T’ The Hartford Conran f (Republican) reminds in* 
that “ tlie United States do not maintain a diplomatic service 
for the purpose of furnishing opportunities to the iia-mls-rs 
of thin service to make money for themselves,” ami pointa 
out tluit “ this rule is the one that hears u|iuu the case of 
Francis B. Loomis when he held the post of Amcricau min- 
ister to Venezuela." He was absolved of actual bri lie-taking 
by Secretary Taft, but rebuked for failing “to hold himself 
utterly aloof in any personal participation in plans fur in- 
vestment* and exploitation of the country to which he was 
accredited.” The Baltimore American (Republican) concur* 
with independent newspapers in deeming “ Mr. Loomis’s 
usefulness at an end, whether in tlie State Department or 
in the diplomatic service.” The Indianapolis A’cir* (inde- 
tM-mk'iit Republican) wants to know: “What about Loomin' 
Ho in not yet out of it. The President’s condemnation of 
Bowen does not acquit Looms. The President’* decision to 
retain Looms in tin* service of the government dws not help 
him. That he lias the approval of the President, except, for 
lit* ‘ indiscretion/ is not important. Presidential statement* 
of opinion as to the character of men are not conclusive.” 
The conclusion of the Indiami|ic|i* News i* that the couduet 
of Loomis will have to In- investigated by Congress. 


Wo mill not dwell u|K>n the ominous significance of this 
consensus of opinion on the purl not only of independent 
newspapers, but of many authoritative mouthpiece* of the 
Republican party. Seldom ha* any President called forth 
more severe animadversion. Tvi.er and Johnson, when de- 
nounced by the journal* of their own party, found champion* 
in the independent or opposition press. Where will Mr. 
Rooskvki.t now look for a defender? We wonder if he com- 
prehend* what soriou* Mow * he ha* dealt to his own reputation. 
Undoubtedly it is n fine thing to «tand by one’s friends; but 
the duty is not unqualified. There wa* a time when Mr. 
Roohkvrlt would not have added “ right or wrong.” 


It seem* a great pity that Secretary IIay should have re- 
turned to this country, after a reeut«crntive trip abroad, only 
to I** stricken again with illness. When Mr. Hat went away 
it w«» generally known thnt the exacting duties of his office, 
the magnitude of the question* with which lie had dealt, and 
tlie weather-beating to which all pilot* arc exposed had made 
a re-pite imperative. He sailed for Europe in keen bodily 
distress, and so eager was the country for new* of hi* condi- 
lion that the ship was pursued by wireless telegraph until 
assurance* came that lie had improved. Now the news eoines 
from Mr. If tv’s summer home in New [lamp-hire that, while 
he i* not critically ill, it has been necessary to *uninion 
physician* from Boston to attend him. Their bulletin* have 
been fairly favorable. TIm- service* wliieh Mr. Hay lias reu- 
dend bis country have made him remarkable among the 
diplomat hit* of the world, and it is hardly going too far to 
say that the trust of tlie entire country ha* been and still 
in repo-cd in him *n n degree that forgets party lines. 

In appointing a committee <if five to investigate and re- 
port U|w>n the inethml* of doing business in the exeeutive 
departments of the government tlie Pn-*i<k-Dt ha* taken -i 
step which promise* to do away once and for all with tin* 


905 


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HARPER’S W E E K L Y 


iNWHury “ml and to put the departments of the 

government on a sound business footing. The committee 
chosen by the President consists of Assistant Secretary Kkki*. 
of the Treasury; FRANK 11. Hitchmkk, First Assistant 
Postmaster-General ; Lawrence 0. Mfrhay, Assistant S« v re- 
in ry of Commerce and Labor ; J.oies K. Garfield, Commix- 
siotMtr of Corporations; and Giffori* Pixfitor, forester, De- 
INirtment of Agriculture. The selection of these young men, 
all of whom have seen energetic service under the direction 
of the President, insures at least a thorough overhauling of 
present methods. Their instructions from the President arc 
to “ have in view securing an improvement in business meth- 
ods,’* particularly along the following lilies: 

I. In the prepunition ol decisions lor ministerial approval, ex- 
|t»*rt know ledge of actual condition.-, affecting or affected by such 
conditions should govern, as distinguished from n knowledge of the 
record alone. 

1 Salaries should lie commensurate with the character mid mar- 
ket vulue of the service performed, and uniform for similar service 
in all departments. 

3. Hover mnent supplies, except such as arc mini red to meet 
emergencies or for immediate use in the field, should Is* standard 
ized and purchased through a central purchasing office. 

4. It is the duty of the accounting and auditing officers to fa 
cilitate executive work. Fiscal restrictions or regulation* should 
not interfere with executive discretion, should Is- uniform, and 
should he us few und simple as is consistent with accuracy and 
safety. Systems of IsHikkceping ami accounting should conform to 
the most approved modern business methods. 

3. The existence of any method, standard, custom, or practice 
is no reason for its continuants- when a l»etter is offered. 

tt. The comparative cast of all work for which cost keeping is 
po**ililc should be a sex- rt a I tied as between offices ami departments, 
and as between the government and private enterprise, and should 
Is* followed by the adoption of standards of maximum cost. 

7. There should Ik- systematic interdepartmental cooperation. In 
the adoption of method* am! the performance of work, every step 
which is nut clearly indi*pcn*ubl<* should Im- eliminated. 

8. As between the adoption of u uniform standard und the actual 
efficiency of any office, the formrr must yield. 

!». Xo reemumendation for change slomhl !*• made until after 
full consultation with all executive officer* affected. 

10. There should la- published an official gazette to contain all 
executive orders, statements of change* in organization or per- 
sonnel, reports of important work la-gun. in progress, or completed 
l»y any department. 

II. A resolute effort should Ik- made to secure brevity in corre- 
spondence ami the elimination of useless letter-writing. 

It may be safely assumed from the above that in instituting 
this investigation the President contemplate* no liuif-mensurc* 
or partial result*. Indeed, it is known that Mr. Roosevelt 
considers the establishment of tin* Federal departments on 
a business basis to be not the least legacy he may he able to 
leave to his successor in office. 


Tin? two ranking peace plenipotentiaries who have been 
designated by Japan and Russia to meet at Washington to 
discuss and formulate the terms hy which hostilities in the 
Far Hast may be terminated show the high character of this 
tribunal and the care each nation has exercised in its choice 
of chief envoy. Japan has named Huron Kamfka, her Min- 
ister of Foreign Affnris. mid Russia has likewise named M. 
Alexander NeUOoFF, her ambassador to France. Both of 
these dipb minis occupy the foremost positions in their re- 
spective empires, and both have played the game of diplomacy 
for many veurs. Baron Kamfra was Civil Governor . of the 
Liaotung Peninsula during the Chino-Japenese war, and after- 
ward was appointed Chief of the Political Bureau of the 
Department of Foreign Affairs. Shortly after the assassina- 
tion of the Empress of Korea Bnron Kamfra wus sent to 
Seoul as minister, and on his return to Japan became Vice- 
Mi n inter of Foreign Affairs — a post he held until appointed 
minister to the United States. He served two years at Wash- 
ington, and was transferred to St. Petersburg a* a mark of 
distinction. During the Boxer uprising he was sent to Peking. 
He has been Minister of Foreign Affairs for nearly four 
years. M. Nkmdokf has been in the diplomatic service since 
his youth. With General loviTIKFP, he was one of the pleni- 
potentiaries who signed, in 187$. the treaty at San Stefuno 
which ended the Ru*so-Turki?h war. For fifteen years after 
this he was ambassador to Turkey, and then went to Rome in 
n similar capacity. Tn 1IMKJ he was transferred to Paris. 
In addition to the two chief envoys each nation will send other 
diplomatic dignitaries to take part in the negotiation*. There 
lire many more or less officially colored suggestion* as to 
these, and among the nauic* mentioned are those of Kotaatn 


Takaiiira, the JapuncM- minister at Washington, Marquis Iro, 
Japan's great statesman, and Marshal Yamauata. Chief of 
Staff of the Japanese War Department; and, on the Russian 
sole, Baron nt: Rosen, the new ambassador to the United 
Stales, is mentioned. 

The riots in Russian Poland, while they have assumed 
formidable extent and force, appear to tin- watching world 
ns only another futile effort of the people to overthrow the 
autocratic structure. Time anil again the world bus pity- 
ingly viewed these scenes — they are on nearly every page 
of Russian history — and after u little while has seen the peo- 
ple lashed into subjection — the subjection of a dug which 
suffers the blows for the sake of an effort to break its chain. 
The dog will be subdued sooner or Inter, because that seem* 
to be its fate, but it will lick its wound* and await the day 
of another revolt against its kcc|>cr. Russia lias learned 
how to deal with her people when they rise. She hurries troop* 
to the scene, and then the volleys begin. There is no dis- 
crimination, the soldiers are drawn up. the order to fin* is 
given, ami men. women, and children go down. The moral 
effect of these volleys is tremendous; they mean more thanj’ 
tin* bullets they hurl. The latest despatches give the casualties, 
nt Lodz a* 1200, and state that more than five hundred per-f 
sons killed in the riots have already been buried. It remain* 
to be men how long the people will stand this before crawling 
back to their homes, defeated again. The uprising is political, 
in the name of the Social Democratic party, and it will fail, 
like its predecessors, for lack of organization. The man who 
can lead the Russian people in successful revolution has not 
yet arisen. Father Gainin' was almost this man, hut he failed. 
TIip reason seems to lie in the fact that the most assuredly 
successful revolutions have begun nt the top and worked 
downward; this uprising hits begun at the bottom and strives 
to reach the high places. And just so long as it does Russia 
will have her troops ready to tire the volleys. 


Various reasons nr** assigned for the action of Joust F. 
Wallace, Chief Engineer of the Puunma Canal, in placing 
his resignation in the hands of Secretary Taft. It will tie 
recalled that when the President reorganized the Canal Com- 
mission Mr. Wallace was Hindi* a member of the executive 
committee of the commission ns well ns being retained as 
Chief Engineer. His salary was increased to $35,000 a year, 
and it was the expectation of the President that Mr. Wallace 
would remain with the commission until its* work was dime. 
Now it is stated that in hi* recent conference with Secretary 
Taft, Mr. Wallace demanded lhat he Ik* given pbniary power 
on the isthmus, and that unless the entire administration of 
the **anal zone, together with the work of construction, were 
placed in his hands hi* would n**jgu. It is further stated 
that Mr. Wallace was influenced in tendering his resignation 
by a largo offer to engage in other engineering work. 
Whether these report* are true or false does not particularly 
concern the public at this time. Tt seems evident, however, 
from the position taken hy Mr. Wallace that he has neither 
the judicial temper or temperament to warrant the President 
in considering the possibility of giving him greater jaiwer 
over the isthmus. 


Secretary Taft, in his recent speech at Xew Haven on the 
administration of the criminal law, struck a blow at an 
existing legal condition which has already aroused much dis- 
cttwiou, Mr. Taft imintcd out the absurdity of |M-rniittiiig 
a defendant to take tlie witness stand but not compelling him 
to do *o. District-Attorney Jfroaie. in commenting upon the 
speech of Secretary Taft, said: “ How nb*unl it is to have a 
defendant sit by during his trial and speculate oil the peo- 
ple’* ease, and then if he finds it weak stay off the witness 
stand; hut if he feels that he ran heat it by taking the stand, 
go on in his own defence? Can't this community trust its 
own judges to give any man n fair trial? How much better 
il would be to allow the prosecution to call him if In* didn't 
want to take the stand.” Mr. Jerome said also, in *up|x>rt 
of Mr. Taft’s contention, that experience had shown that a 
convicted man with means who is ready to use all his re- 
source* ill the fight has it in hi* power to make it exceedingly 
slow and highly expensive for a prosecuting official to bring 
him to puni*hniciit. It i* to Ik* ho]ied that these opinion* 


1HWI 

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HARPERS WEEKLY 


will curry sufficient weight at least to modify the absurd con- 
ditions t toted in the provision a of our erimiual law. 


Major-General Lko.mku Wood, who has just returned frum 
Manila to pay a Hying visit to President Roosevelt, admits, 
with some reluctance, that the tariff is the greatest drnw- 
Iwek to the prosperity of the Philippine Islands. He says 
it «eem« hard that the Americans who an- investing their 
money in tin- island* should have to pay tariff charges to get 
goods into their ewn country. It is his view that for a suc- 
cessful development of the Philippines this condition must 
|«e oliangisl. and he believes it eventually will Is*, so that the 
fits' importation of the islands’ products into the United State* 
will lie permitted. Upon the general affair* of the Philip- 
pine*. General Wom says that condition" are n*«lly better 
than re|>orts would worn to indicate. 


It now remains for the legislature at Albany to try Justice 
Wakhkn II. UiNiKF.it. of the Supreme Court, and to remove 
him if the charges against him lie sustained. The question 
of the jurisdiction of the Legislature in this ease ha* been 
setthsl by a unanimous vote of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, ami in all probability hy the time tlii* meets the 
render’* eye the resolution of the Assembly Judiciary Com- 
mit Ice. preferring charge* against Justice IIookkh. will have 
been reported to the Senate. It is thought that the fate of 
Justice Hooker rests mainly in the bands of fourteen Demo- 
cratic Senator* in the Legislature. Should they remain firm 
in their protest against hi* removal it may be impossible to 
obtain the necessary two-thirds vote of the Senate, and the 
result will lie a dismissal of the charges. 


It is a fact, which for some time ha* been almost as well 
known ou the further side of the Atlantic as on this, that 
New York has a larger number of capacious, up-to-date, and 
sumptuously apjtointed hotels than have London and Paris 
pul together. Neither the British nor the French capital 
possesses a hostelry comparable for magnitude with the Wal- 
dorf, or for splendor with the St. Regis. The Cecil i* dwarfed 
by the former, ami neither Claridge’s nor the Ritz can vie 
with the latter for magnificence. Forty-second Street i* 
evidently destined to figure for a long period a* one of the 
great arterial thoroughfares of New York, uud on its southern 
sole will be thrown open at no distant date two of the largest 
and finest addition* to the list of mctro|>olitau hostelries. 
One, of course, will lie the Hotel Belmont, which rovers the 
plot facing Fourth or Park Avenue between Forty-first and 
Forty-second Street, ami which, it has been rumored, may 
embrace also the Murray Hill Hotel (fronting Park Avenue 
between Forty-first and Fortieth street*), being capable of 
enniMetioii ’herewith hy bridges and tunnel*. It is well known 
that this hotel will have the advantage of underground con- 
nection with a station of (he Subway. This advantage will he 
shared by the Hotel Knickerbocker, an AxtuR hotel, which 
is to stand on the ,’ite of the old St. Cloud, at the southeast 
corner of Fort.v*«i*emid Street ami Broadway. It i* aimouneed 
that work on this structure, which has been for some time 
in abeyance, i* now to In* forthwith resumed, and that tin* 
coat of the structure and decorations, originally i-stimulcd 
at $2,2*41,1 MM). i* to In- increased to JM/laO.IKHI. It is also as- 
serted that Mr. Jiiiis J smib Amtor i* to erect a new ami large 
restaurant hotel oti the block between Forty-fourth and Forty- 
third streets. on the west side of LougHen* Square; that is to 
say. on the plot ju-t south of that occupied by the Hotel Aster, 
which i* the property of Mr. William Waldorf Antor. 

The Petiusylvania Railroail Company has announced that it 
will rear an immense hotel oil the Seventh Avenue front of the 
property acquired by it for the terminal of its North River 
tunnel. This hotel will have a frontage of -Kilt feet, covering, 
a* it will, flu* whole space between Thirty-first atid Thirty- 
third street*. A* a rule, rail way- terminal hotel* have not l**en 
very prosperous but the Pennsylvania Railroad may estab- 
lish a new precedent. One of the la**t sites for a hotel in 
New York, both actually and prospectively, is that occupied 
by the Plaza Hotel. That hostelry ha* already been closed, 
and we an* informed that tla* structure is to l»e pulled down 
irnmcdiaU l.v, ami to U* replaced by a new and imposing edifice 
to la* built around a large open garden or courtyard, like 
that which form* the fmitire of the Hotel Ritz in Pari*. 


Still another contemplated addition to the hotels of New York 
should be mentioned. Hitherto the Hotel Ausouia has held 
the record for magnitude among apartment hotels. The place 
of primacy will be wrested from it by the hotel which Mr. 
William Waldorf Aktor is credited with an intention of 
erecting on the south side °f Broadway, between Seventy- 
eighth and Seventy-ninth street*. The building which is 
here to he raised will cover the whole block extending from 
Broadway to West End Avenue, ami. like the new Plaza Hotel, 
will Ih* built around an extensive garden. We should note 
that this new hotel, like rhe Belmont and the Knickerbocker, 
will he connected with a station of the Subway. 


With the coming of every year utnateur sport, particularly 
college sport, i* taking on more and more the character of u 
business proposition. This ia not to say that such sjairt is 
to la* taken too lightly. Iiccuu-e it i* only by serious con- 
sidenition of it and almost fanatical adherence to it* require- 
ments that success may la* achieved. But the existing con- 
ditions *o closely approach professionalism that in some 
quarters it is difficult to distinguish between the uiunteur 
and the professional. A* to the prominence athletics have 
attained in our colleges and the ninlergraduatos’ estimate of 
the relative value of an A.B. and a university initial on a 
sweater, this is j» subject which ha* been di*eu#s«*d ami debated 
to tla* point of exhaustion, ami may bo generally considered 
a* a matter of personal preference. The nll-im|M>rtaiit phase 
of tin* matter is the growing atmosphere of professionalism. 
The day ha* come when the professional coach i* as powerful 
a factor in college management as 44 Prex ” himself, and tlie 
pay of these instructors i* very large. There is no questiou 
of the value, iii one sense, of such u conch to an eleven, a 
nine, or a crew, hut college contest* have, through him. 
come to be contests of the skill of these coaches a* much a* of 
tla’ men who follow their methods. 


Those who seek a token of the difference in social 
conditions a* they exist in the eastern and western sec- 
tions of this country will find it well expressed in the 
customs which prevail in each during the summer months. 
In a word, the East considers summer as a vacation period; 
the West accepts it largely as one of the four seasons, 
differing front the other three only in its degree of heat. 
Such a thing as “ going away for two or three week*. 44 
the joyous announcement of the New -Yorker, for instance, 
lias little echo in a Western office, although there are in- 
dications that the custom of granting a holiday in summer 
is gradually creeping Westward. The scope of the vacation 
proposition is very wide in the East — in New York. From 
president down to office-boy every employee of a business 
establishment looks forward to a vacation; the president takes 
it, the office-boy expects it, and each gets it. Whether the 
|H*riod la* net*ord«*d a* a reward or a* an acknowledgment 
of a necessity is debatable. Saturday, in the East, 
has long b«***ii considered a “half-day. 44 and little by 
little it is passing entirely as a business day, especially in 
summer. But the West continue* to work from spring to 
spriiig. with short vacation* for a few day* only, and none 
for tin* great army of worker*. In England the idea ha* still 
another quirk; there domestic servants exact a vacation every 
year. Thi- is coming to l»o tla* cu-toni in New York. 

Time* an* not dull: then* i* abundance of news; and yet 
then* creeps into the pa|M*r<- a rumor of ini|N*ndiug crinoline. 
It come* from London, from Pari*, from Chicago, from Pitt«- 
burg — that is, the rumor come**, but crinoline doesn't, arid 
won’t. TIk* evil-doer* who invent fa*hioii* would be glad 
to distribute any new fashion that made women’s clothes 
cost more and require more material, aial that iniule all 
gown- now in use or in "took look hojadessly out of date. 
Fashions are changed in order to -ell gr*»d*. They are 
changed just a* much and just a* often a* the traffic will 
licar. The fu*hioiimniigera would doubtless be glad to itnpo-c 
erinoliiu* on the Christian nations (the other nations don't 
bother much with fashions), but it cannot be done. There 
i* not room enough in Now York for crinoline. It could 
not exist here. M< Aihmi would not tolerate it. No fashion 
ih*it will not do for New York can pervade the United States; 
so tla* country is safe. 


out 


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HARPERS WEEKLY 


Investigating the Equitable 

l.N view iif thr announcement by Mr. Paul Mobton. tin* new lirad 
uf the Equitable. that, entirely independent of tl.e Khu K and 
Mkmmiickh report-, he is now making on hi* own uceount h search- 
inp inmtitutinn of the former conduct of the society’s alfuirn, 
the result* of which he will place at the service of Attnmey-t Jen- 
cral Mates. it may lie wifely assumed that he stand* ready to 
aid the Attorney -(Jeneral and the District Attorney in every way. 
The assurance has also lieen given to the District Attorney by 
t rnvernor Hhuiixk that if Ihe establishment by legal evidence of 
any of the facts alleged in the H Eft MUCK* report constitute* crim- 
inal misconduct in the county of New York on the part of any 
person,” the evidence taken by Superintendent Hknukuk* will 
lie pluecd at the disposal of the District Attorney. 

Iii some State* the Attorney -General is active prnseeutor in 
criiuinal cases. In the State of New York the district attorneys of 
the various counties ure the o flic tain charged with the investiga- 
tion and prosecution of crime. The Attorney-tJenerul has the power, 
either himself or by direction of the (Sovrruor, to take charge of 
any prosecution in any county of the State, but this is u course 
which ha* lieen resorted lo in the State of New York only under 
exceptional circumstance*. Tls-rc have ls*en instances where the local 
district attorney has not properly performed hi* duly, or where, 
owing In the difficulty of the prosecution, he Im* called upon the 
Attorncy-Dcncml for assistance, or where some law relating to 
the administration of a State department flike the Agricultural 
law) has lieen violatei]. Onlinarily, however, the At turner -< Jen- 
era I d»ms not interfere with the prosecution of crime by the dis- 
trict attorney of any ••minty where the crime ha* been committed. 
To this general policy theie ia but a single exception, namely, 
the prosecution of violations of the election law. which is a duty 
specifically cast upon the Attorney-funeral l»v statute. 

In cooperating with the district attorney, however, the Attorney- 
fSeovrnl has errtuin power* defined by statute. Interest naturally 
arise* a* to just what these powers are. 

The New York (’ode of Civil Procedure provides that an action 
may la* maintained against the trustees, director*, managers, or 
other officer* of a corporation for the following purpoaea: 

]. To compel such officer* to account for their official conduct in 
the management and disposition of the fund* and property com- 
mitted to their eliarge. 

i. To compel them to pay to the corporation which they repre- 
sent any money and the value of any property wlsirh they have 
mspiired to them selves or transferred to others or lost or wasted 
by a violation of their ilutirs. 

Z. To have an officer *u*|*ended from exercising his office where 
it ap|M-nr* that he has abused his trust. 

-I. To cause the removal from office of a corporation official U|ion 
proof nr conviction of misconduct. 

The Attorney' -General can bring actions for all these purposes, 
and i* the only person who can bring an action to *u*prnd or re- 
move a corporation official. The other actions can be brought by 
stockholder*, trustee*, directors, or the corporation itself. 

In addition to these general powers i -on t aims! in the New- York 
code there i* a specific provision known ns Section 38 of the in- 
surance law which provide* as follows! “ Any director or officer 
of an insurance company doing business in the State shall receive 
no money or valuable thing for negotiating, procuring, or recom- 
mending any loan from uny such corporation, or for the selling 
or aiding in the *alr of any slocks or securities to or hv such cot 
poration. Any person violating the provision* of this section shall 
forfeit his position as such director or officer, and be disqualified 
from thereafter holding such office in any insurance company.” 

It i* interesting that there smuts to be no record of any act ion 
brought to disqualify any director or officer of an insurance com- 
pany in the State of New York for violating Section 30 of in- 
surance law above quoted. 

There arc numerous complaint* enumerated in the report of Su- 
perintendent IlKMMttrKH, which inav If briefly summarized a* fol- 
lows: <1) The profiting by person* having trust relations with Ihe 
Kqultublc Society bv reason of those relations; (2) The wasting 
of the fund* of the society in lurrying out improvident con- 
tracts and in paying extravagant salaries out of proportion to the 
service rendered; (3) 'Dir ii-ing of subsidiary companies, formed 
for the most part by person* connected with Ihe Kqiiitalde Society, 
as the means of financing large transaction*. 

The organization of the suliaidiary companies ami of the safe- 
di-pn-it companies was evidently considered ami prrfcctt-d under 
shrewd legal advice, therefore it i* quite likely that tbo«c of the 
directors or officers who may vigorously defend any suit* brought 
hy the Atlorncy fJeneral will interpose numerous obstacle*. 

The results which the Attorney-fJeneral may seek to attain are: 

< I ) The return to the treasury of the Equitable Society of profits 
from the syndicate operation* of underwriter*: 12) The accounting 
hy the directors for the payment by them of compensation for 
certain services f including lawyers’ fees) which it is claimed were 
either not performed or were unconseionnblv disproportionate to 
the service rendered ; (3) The adjudication of the courts in regard 


to the leases with some of the safe-deposit companies. The most 
important result, however, is to Is- the determination of what the 
rights of the (ml iev -holders arr. It is believed that the Attorney - 
fictteral has the power to accomplish this last result, although well 
informed lawyers say that any litigatiun on this subject will lie at- 
tended hy many difficulties. 

But. after all. the *ure*t safeguard the policy-holders have lit** 
in the character of Mr. Rvax’h committee — in the honesty of Mr. 
1 ’i.rvkland, of Justice O’Hntiw. and of Mr. W tCBTIXullor sc. 


The Prospect of an Early Peace In the 
Far East 

Account MI to the latest telegrams from St. Petersburg, the Rus- 
sian government has selected it* plenipotentiaries, although their 
names have not yet been published, There is no doubt that the 
Mikado’s advisers will quickly take a corresponding step, and 
there is now reason to hope that the peace conference may Is'gin 
in Washington during the second week of August. This is a de- 
sirable outcome of President Rooskvki.t’h exemplary effort* lo 
prevail u|>oii the belligerent* lo enter into dim! negot ial ion* with 
each other, with a view to a speedy termination of the war. It 
will la- lemcuds red tb.it the res|Mittse of the Tokio government to 
the suggestion of our Executive was prompt and sUuiglit forward, 
although it was obvious that, occupying in Manchuria, a* Japan 
then did and doc*, a |>o*ition of matked superiority to her Muscovite 
Dpjsincnt. she had much to gain hy delay. She signified a willing- 
ness to send ptenipotentiariea to the place and at the time, to be 
fixed upon by agreement between the parties, for the purpose of 
arranging with Ihe Czar’s representative* the ronditions of s peace. 
For a time, however, it seemed doubtful whether the Russian auto- 
crat would evince a like frank and equitable spirit. According 
to a de*pat«-h from St- Petersburg, da In I June II, Count I.avih 
noitrr, the Czar's Ministrr for Foreign Affairs, informed thp Amer- 
ican ambassador that while Russia would accept “ in principle'” 
President lb risky m.t'h invitation to open direct negotiathms fur. 
pence with Japan, the commissioner* named by the t'zar would la- 
in no «en*e plenipotentiaries, but would confine themselves to 
hearing Japan’s proposals, and eonimuniratitig them to the Rus- 
sian government, which would then deride whether, in it* judg- 
ment, they constituted a ln*i* on whirh it could m-gotiatp. It wa* * 
not easy to perceive in what sen*** fount I..\m*i»oiik» could regard 
such an evasive reply as an acceptance in principle of Mr. Roost: - 
VKLT’n proposal. Cnprcjndircd onlooker* Were unable to discern 
jtnv trace of " principle ” in a proceeding which, had it lieen car- 
ried out. might have plared the American President in the posi- 
tion of having hern used a* a ratspaw hv the diplomatist* of St. 
Petersburg. Apparently, fount I-amhisiuit mi*undi-i »(<**! thr rel- 
ative situation of the belligerents. Jap.m is th~ victor, not the 
vanquished: it is not a victor’s business to sue (nr peace or to 
name the term* on which it would I*' granted iu advance of a*«tir- 
I anres that they wotthl have u reasonable chums- of acceptance. 

( It i*. then, no longer premature to consider what i* likely In 
lie the outcome of the conference. It i*. at the flr*t glance, patent 
that the attitude ini|io*cd by rirci i instances on the fltar'* plenl- 
|H>t«-nt iurii-s i* an rxpeetant, not to say a suppliant, one. They 
Itave nothing whatever to demand: they have much to surrender. 
To get off a* cheaply ns po-»ihh- — that will Is- the limit of their 
fspirations. What, on the other hand, may he expected to he the 
irreducible minimum of Japan’* demand* - * Naturally, they will 
lie considerably greater than they might have lss-n la-fore the 
capture of Mukden and the destruction of Riukstvknnkv’k tlect. 

It is prolsible that they would Is; less could the conference Is- 
liclil today than they may Is* after the collapse of I.imkvitcII’h 
army. It is quite coneeivahh-, imlcisl, that Imt fm the .Mikado'* 
liinw illingness to seem d»«courtcon* to President RooHEvri.T he 
would have prefern-d to |m»>I|»oiic all talk aland n |a-ace until 
after the oeeurrenrc not only of l.lXIKvin ii's dcfi-.it. bid also of 
llie fall of Vladivostok. The future welfare of Japan requires her 
lo deni a ilmth-lilow to Russia’s dream of asistulenev in i-astern 
Asia. Were the huge force under General I.IMKVTfCII annihilated 
or diH|a*rs«sl. and had Vladivostok — a much |e*s iinpn-gn ible naval 
fortress than Port Arthur- — ls-t-n compelled t«- surrender, the 
Mikado might reasonably feel assured that Russia would renounce 
forever the hope of securing an icc-fre* port on the Pacific-, and 
.thiil hereafter, in her efforts to gratify her craving for access to 
the sea. she would follow a line of Jess resistance. Moreover, six 
month* or three months hence. J.i|*m would Is- justified in exact- 
ing n larger pecuniary ind. -minty than she would Id- likely to ask 
for now. while I.lMCvmn s.1 ill holds the field and Vladivostok 
leniains intact. It must, at the Mine time. Is- manifest to far- 
sighted Japanese that even if |h-jicc were made to- morrow. cer- 
tain things will have to Is- insisted on. otherwise the struggle 
for preponderance in Manchuria would have lo Is- resumed here- 
after. when, perhaps. Japan might In- unable to rely upon (.rout 
Britain as a shield again*! the interference of outride powers on 
Russia’s side. Evidently Rn*sia must evacuate every square inch 


JW8 

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«>f CliiiH-M 1 Manchuria. and sin* must turn over to Japan or Hi inn 
tin* Manchurian branches of the Silurian Rail way. A* for Port 
Arthur mid Dalny, which Russia held under a twenty -five-year 
lease from China, the rights of the Itiwe, presumably, will |um 
to the ,ln|uiH i M- conqueror. The protectorate which -I a pan hn* 
asserted, in RuwkV despite, over the Korean |* ninsula will 
have to be recognized formally by the St. Petersburg government. 
Perhaps the whole island of Saghulieu, purt of which wan wrenched 
by the Czar from the Milcudo wlu-n the latter was nimble to de- 
fend himself, will have to be ceded to Japan. All the Russian war 
vessels, whieh. afraid to confront the Japanese at sea, have sub- 
. mitted to inti-riunent in neutral lmrls>rs, will le demanded by 
the victor. Vladivostok, if not surrendered, together with the 
' riparian district of whieh it forms a part, will have to be dis- 
’ mantled and neutralized ; and doubtless, also, a pledge will be ex- 
| acted from Russia, analogous to that extorted from her after the 
Crimean war. that she will not keep even the germ of a naval 
force in. the Far East for a quarter of a century. 

There remains the question of pecuniary compensation. A large 
|ieeuniary indemnity i- indispensable to Japan, not only for the 
rrpayment of the foreign bams rendered necessary by the war, 
for the reorganization of her finances at home, and for the erea- 
lion of a navy equal to that of any European power, with the cx- 
erption of lireat Britain, but also for the construction of extensive 
public works in Korea and Yezo, if not likewise in Saghalien and 
the Liaotung peninsula. It Ls true that when the word indemnity 
•was first uttered in news|n»|ier discussion* of peace, it wa* re- 
pudiated at -St. Petersburg, on the ground that Russia, in none 
of her wars, had consented to pay money. It wouid have been a 
tqflh'ient retort to say that rverylhing must have a la-ginning. 
A» n matter of fact, however, tin- Grand-duchy of Muscovy paid 
a pecuniary tribute to the Tatars for upward* of two centuries, 
and in later times was forced repeatedly to buy off the Swedes 
and the Poles. Russia ought to have paid an indemnity after 
the Crimean war. anil could have Im-iii forced to do so had not 
Xahileos III. betrayed his British ully, and shown himself far 
more eager to prreipilute a peace than was NK’I10 I.ah'm successor. 
Czar Aijkxanhek II. Jnpun has a better moral right to exact an 
indemnity from Russia than Germany had in 1871 to extort one 
from Frauee, fur there is now grave doubt whethei it was not 
Hixmamck, rather than XAVOU30X III., who was the aggressor in 
IH70. On the other hand, no candid observer of events will deny' 
that the provocation to the present contest in the Far East came 
from the St. Petersburg government. 

A* regard* the proper amount of an indemnity, it may be use- 
ful to recall some recent precedents. The allied power* wrenched 
from poverty-stricken china, a» roni|M-n*ation for the short-lived 
Boxer rebellion, $:tf.'t,onu,OUO in gold, though tin* loss incurred 
by the raptor* of Peking in men and money was relatively slight. 
The outcome of the comjiarat ivelv brief war betwien -Japan and 
China in iNIb'i was not only the cession to Ihr former |M>wrr of 
Formosa. the Pescadores Islands, the lx*o-ehoo archipelago, the 
Liaotung peninsula, and the coast strip of Manchuria running 
from the mouth of the Yatu to Mu- mouth of the Lino River, but 
also a pecuniary indemnity of $175,000,000. When Ru**ia. France, 
and Germany subsequently forced Japan to retroee<lc to ('hina the 
Liaotung peninsula ami the Manchurian roast strip, an additional 
money indemnity was substituted. The Treaty of San Stefano. by 
which in 1878 Russia brought to a close her last war with Turkey, 
imposed U|*»n the conquered power not only imfiortnnt territorial 
concessions, but tin- payment of *7 00 , 000 . 000 , a sum eventually re 
■lured, however, to $105,000,000 by the Berlin congress. It is well 
known that Germany in 1871. though her war with France had 
I a -«tcd only about halft a* long us ha* the present contest between 
Japan and Russia, compelled her defeat**! enemy not only to give 
up Alsace-Lorraine, but also to pay a billion dollars. It will be 
di*pute<l I*y no reasonable onlooker. who l«*nrs in mind the un 
paralleled proportions of the pending conflict, mid the enormous 
sacrifices of men am! money made by Japan, that the victor is 
amply entitled to at least as large an indemnity a* that whieh 
Germany received from Franre. The I'okio government will evince 
moderation if it consent* to accept n "inn merely equivalent to 
Jibe expense* actually incurred by it during the war. expenses 
[ which were recently computed at about $700,000,000. 


The Gravity of the Morocco Incident 

Al.Tliornii, during the week ending June 24. there seemed .to he 
*oinr abatement of the friction between the German amt French 
Foreign Offices, a friction mused by Kinperor Wii.uam'ii declara- 
tion that the Anglo-French ugr«*-ment with reference to Morocco 
ought to he submitted to an international conference. and although 
some compromise may Is* hit ii|X>n by which the claim of Germany 
to equal privilege* in the Shereclian dominion* may he satisfied 
without any sacrifice of Freinli dignity, ami -len without an 
entire renouncement of thr cxeept ionsl |Misiti**n in N'orthwest. 
Africa apparently assured to France by her *-nnvention* with Eng- 
land and Spain, it doc* not follow that the Kuro|*eun situation 


will lie immediately ami permanently clarified. The promptness 
with which tlic tieruian sovereign availed himself ot the pretext 
for protesting against the assumption by the throe Western Euro- 
pean power* of a right to settle a question in which Germany 
wa* somewhat interested, without the consent of the Berlin gov- 
ernment. was fraught with a significance of wider scope than tlie 
subject of dispute, and Isire writ ness lo n lively consciotis- 
iii-ss of the incontrovertible fact that event* in flip Far East have 
made WlM.lAM II. temporarily irresistible on the Kuro|M-nn Conti- 
nent from a military point of view. The mere proof of ability to 
eomjiel Franre sensibly to lower her pretension* in Morocco and 
materially to qualify an arrangement with England and Spain 
which, had her Russian ally retained his former power and pres- 
tige. she would defiantly huve insisted upon maintaining in it* 
integrity, was of itsidf culi-iilalcd to demonstrate the moral a*- 
pendency of Germany, and her posw-ssiou of a specie* of hegemony 
in Europe. Should the French Foreign Oilier feci constrained to 
admit, wliat Germany assort*, that the international conference 
proposed by the Sultan Mi’Lai Anon. - Aziz would In- entitled to 
review, and in whole or iu part to set aside, the Anglo-French agree- 
ment conreining Morocco, it i» ohviou* that France would occupy 
with reference to Germany a position not cs*en*ially dissimilar 
from Dial held by the Transvaal Republic toward Great Briluin 
before the late war in South Africa : for, it will hr remembered, 
while the Boers were otherwise independent, no treaties made 
by them with foreign powers possessed validity unlra* they could 
secure the sanction of the British government. To cite another 
rase nearly analogous, it is plain that when Russia allowed the 
Treaty of San Stefano to be revised at the Berlin congress she 
virtually acknowledged that, exhausted as she was by her war 
with Turkey, she was powerless to prevent the assertion by Ger- 
many, which convoked the con gress , of a specie* of overlordship 
on the European Continent. 

There ia no doubt that Chancellor vox Iti'Ki-ow deserved the 
thanks and the reward* which he received from his imperial mas- 
ter for his admit selection «>f an incident, on whieh to base a 
demonstration of the preponderance acquired by Germany through 
the transient erasement of Russia from the list of great military 
powers. The ground on whieh the Berlin government objected 
to the execution of the Anglo- French agreement regarding Morocco 
ia unquestionably plausible. The convention concluded at Madrid 
in 1880. to which not only Great Britain, Fnuire, Spain, and 
Italy, hut also Germany, the I'nited States, and several other (low- 
er* were parties, contained a clause guaranteeing to each of the 
signatories the treatment of the " mo*t-fnvored nation." I neon - 
*i»t*nt on its face with this convention 1* the Anglo-French agree- 
ment. whieh, while assuring to all the powers which took (tart in 
the Madrid conference equal safeguards of life and property, and 
equal commercial privileges in Morocco for the period of thirty 
years, indisputably delegated to France supervisory and tutelary 
function*, whieh almost inevitably would lead to the ultimate as- 
sertion of a protectorate over the Khereeflan dominions. When 
such a protectorate should huve been established, it is clear from 
the nature of things that Germany would erase to enjoy the treat- 
ment of the most-favored nation, which, of course, would be France. 
After the lapse of three decades, tile German would find himself 
as subordinate to the Frenchman in Morocco as In* now is to the 
Frenchman in Tunis or to tin- Englishman in Egypt. The Berlin 
Foreign Office took the position that a prospective infringement of 
Ge. many's treaty right* in Northwest Africa required Germany's 
ussent, and that when Franre undertook, in conjunction with 
(•rent Britain, to plan such an infringement, without so much a* 
an intimation of her purpose to Germany, she was guilty of a 
violation of international comity, not to say a gross In each of 
courtesy. There is much lo Is 1 *aid upon the other side, hut, evi- 
dently. the plea of which the German (’hanrellor availed himself 
was a specious one. in relianre upon which In* could invite the 
cooperation not only of hi* Austrian and Italian allies, but also 
of the I'nited States, for all three of those powers partiripated 
in the Madrid conference of 1880. The plea, indit'd, is almost 
too good for tin* Emperor Wii.i.iam'k immediate design, for it dis- 
ables him from making with France a private compact limiting 
the seo|M* of the proposed international conference. For, obvious- 
ly. if Great Britain and France had no right, hy a dual agree- 
ment. to supersede the Madrid convention without the consent of 
all the signatories, neither would Germany and France have any 
right to (to so. 

We repeat, however, that the seriousness of the tension created 
twtwccn Germany and France, a seriousness attested by the rapid 
decline of French government Iwmls on 111- Faria Stock Exchange, 
is due not sn much to a conflict of interest* in Morocco, a eon 
llict whieli. dnuhtle«*. i-mild he ullay>sl with the genera) consent of 
the (towers represented iu a new conference, as to the indication 
of a resolve on the jwrt. of the German Emperor to profit by the 
remarkable extent to which events in the Far East have given bin 
a prepotent influence iu Euro|»e. To-day he exhibit* his ascendency 
by rearranging the affairs of Monaco. Who shall say in what 
direction hi* next move will Is* made? Will Holland he the next 
object of his threatening attrition* 


009 



The Abuses of our Mail 


Service 


Why two-third* of the toie.1 losses in running our government machinery, amounting this year to 
$20,000,000. occur in the Post-office Department. — Why this branch of the public service I* run at enor- 
mous loss, while the postal departments of Great Britain and Germany earn million* annually. — The 
principal causes of losst the railway overcharge, the abuse of the franking privilege, the second-class 
mail graft, the rural free-delivery deficit, and the rhoney-order evil.— Suggestions for improving the service 

By Henry A. Castle 

Formerly Auditor for ths Post-office Department 


AT the present writing. 

/\ Treasury expert* e*- 
timaic the deficit in 
.A u«r national rev- 
enues — Hint is to 
any, the margin on thr wrong 
aide between receipt* anil ex- 
penditure* — for the floral 
year nearing its close, at 
.000.000. 

The 1 *o*t mu *tc r-( Sencra I ha* 
officially estimated the defleit 
in the revenues of the postal 
*ervice for the Mine period lit 
gl4.340.0nM. 

If these e*tiuiates shall 
prove to lie approximately 
correet we nix* confronted 
with the significant fuel that 
one-half the total ln*se* in 
riintiitig our government mu 
ehinerv occur in the |*o*| 
oilier l)«-|iarl im-nt. And while 
publicist* are formulating 
new schemes of taxation, l»n»i- 
ni’** men. accustomed to deal 
with plain (innneial exhiliit* 
of proflt- nnd lo*s, will look 
one nnother in the fare and 
anxiously inquire why. in a 
purely business enterprise like 
the Poat-offiec, having money 
transactions aggregating more 
than a thousand million dol- 
lars a yenr. with no dividend* 
to pay on *t«rck. or interrst 
oil bonds. there should Is* an 
enormous loss, nnd not a *mtg 
proflt. 

Hot even the figures almvn 
given do not tell the whole 

*lorv. To the defleit predicted should Is- added Icgitimutc expenses 
of the service which, under the system of bookkeeping in vogue, 
do not appear, hern use they «re not charged directly against the 
postal revenues. One of these item* i« the salaries of the em- 
ployees of the IVed-olTice and Treasury depiirlments in Washing 
ton’ who are engaged in postal work, amounting to nearly 
Allot lii r item is a fair allow' a nee for lent, light, heat. 


3 


l‘natuttt*lfr-f!rnrral f/iwm H, C>. 
cMtahlinh thr 1 ‘ohI-o/Jht Ihjtartmt 


and janitor* for the government 
limlding* in which post-office* 
in all large eities are located, 
which lin* been e*t imatrd at 
*3.UU0.(MM>. Therefore, the total 
hiss in our mail system during 
the current fiscal year will 
probably amount to ’ Fit MUNI.- 
ihki, nr alMHit two-thirds of the 
whole government deficit. 

The plain eili/.en is all the 
more |>crplcxctl In these dls- 
.igi ecu tile revelations when he 
learns that lu«l year the Itrit- 
ish l*n*t office i outside of Its 
unprofitable telegraph service) 
produced a aurplus of $-2,(MM).- 
iNMi. while that of tiermany bil- 
lowed rloselv with a profit of 
«|.).IHM>,IMMI. ' 

Although tin* po*t ;il service 
touche* directly every mull, 
woman, und child in the I'nited 
State*, there i* little |»»piilar 
comprehension of it* magnitudr 
and imiMirtam*'. 

The |*o*1 office Ih-pu r I infill is 
the grcwti**! of tlir K«*leral de- 
part uients in many res|ieet» it 
is greater than nil the others 
combined. It* total of re- 
ccipl* nnd ilislnirsements. in- 
clinJiiig the money order system, 
will Is- $1 ,200,01 m’i.IMNI this year. 
The po*ia I employee* ruinitirr 
over 240.INMI. We have more 
postmasters tliuii soldirr*. We 
have more names on the po*t- 
ofilee pay-rolls than in nil the 
other In. inches of the govern- 
ment. including the army and 
the navy. This service I* growing more rapidly than any other 
feature of our administrative economy. Kverv step in its growth 
involves new problem*, new peril*. new eoinplicntion*. Set it* 
nrgnnixutiiiii is crude and illogical; many of it* method* are anti- 
quated; its wholly irindei|uatc lu-ciiunting system i* an invitation 




r/i/goH. i rho la hi kin if Str/tn to 
it on a Sound Huxinr* * Footing 


to fraud. 
There i* 


lough dynamite hidden in wveral of it* blind 





1*70 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


In blow I ho lid off at some in* 
np]M>rtuiir moment, and aston- 
ish tho nation with revela- 
tion* compared with which 
all past " ar.intlala ” will lio 
tamo ami volcel***. 

Hut a condition, not a the- 
ory, now confront* us. We 
are wariutl of u prospective 
deficit proator than any 
known in po*lnl history — 
nearly live times a* pieat as 
in 15MIS; preater than the en- 
tire expenditure* of the de- 
partmont in 18(15. 

Wlint i* the cause of this 
lo**, and whore can we And a 
remedy ? 

It may be broadly stated that 
every branch of the |*>*>tal 
system lose* money to a 
printer or lew* extent except 
the transportation and deliv- 
ery of tlr*t-cla*M mail-matter, 
in olher words, the post- 
oilier business ha* numerous 
rnmiliiation*. but the two- 
eent letter pays for it all. 
with an (inappreciable con- 
tribution from fourth-class 
( M merchandise ”) mail. 

Hut there are a few leadinp 
sources of heavy loss, which 
mnv In* separably catalopiied 
ami hriellv considered. They 
are: 

Kxi-essive pay to railroads 
for cuiryinp the mails. 

Hu* ii»t of carry inp free 
franked matter, not only for 
the Hissl-ofllee Department it- 
self, hut for all the executive, lepislative. and judicial depart- 
menta of the poverninent. 

Tiie abuse of second-class rates. 

Tbe rural free-deliverv service. 

The postal money-onler system. 

As evidence that the poverninent is taxed excessively by the 
ruilioads for transporting' its mails, the following comparative 
lipures have recently been piven: The averape ebaipe by railway 
companies for mail-matter is $1 17 per ton per mile on a minimum 
of 2tHI pounds a day: 8 cents on a daily averape of 5000 pounds, 
and 5.8 cents on each additional 2(8)0 pound* averape. But the 
express companies will carry for patrons HMl pounds 1000 miles 
for (3 50, which is 7 cents per ton tier mile, and the railroads 
themselves carry 100 pound* of freipht llHK) miles for from $1 
down to 35 cents, or from 2 cents down to tlie fraction .7 cent per 
ton per mile. And paasengera are individually ticketed, includinp 
|00 pounds of bappnpe free, at what will approximate 1(1 cents 
per ton per mile. 


The rates paid to the rail- 
road* hove not l>ecn reduced 
since 1878. 

In the mean time, as ev- 
erybody knows, operutinp ex 
|H-iiscs. as compared with the 
tonnape trun-portrd. have 
•wen enormously lessened. 
How height chnrpe* have 
•wen lowered. Mr. Juinc* .!. 
Ilill. most astute and inlelli- 
pent of railway unpnntc*. 
testified. May 3, 11)115, la-fore u 
Senate committee. in these 
words. 

" In 1882 the averape 
freipht rate was nearly 2.52 
cents per ton per mile; the 
rate twenty one years later 
was .857 cent, one third what 
it was twenty -one years be- 
fore." 

On the same occasion the 
“ proud llcsh ” ot the question 
at issue was gingerly handled 
thus: 

Nrnalor t'omkci. “ It is 
some advantage to Hip 
roud to carry the mail, is it 
not ?" 

l/r. Ilill. “ It is an advan- 
tage to the people alonp the 
road ami to us and for every- 
Irndy." 

St nalor Forakrr. " Nobod v 
is allowed to stop the mail, 
and they miplil stop a coal- 

car T” 

ilr. Hill. ** That is an ad- 
vantage 1 had lint tlinupht 

of.” 

Undoubtedly the railroads could well aflord to ratry the mail* 
free, and in many countries they do carry them free, in considera- 
tion of the franchises they have obtained from tin public and of 
the incalculable incidental benefits they receive. More than once, 
when all other resources had failed, our Federal authorities »lc|qa*d 
in and by military force pave protection to railway property in 
order that the passage of the mails might la* uniiu poled. Ib-sides 
the protection enjoyed generally by businesa men and corporation*, 
the railroads pet this special, invaluable help — and arc, in a sense, 
paid for ncceptinp it. 

A former Cnited States Senator is authority for the statement 
that the poverninent pays the railroads each year $io.immi.«mmi 
for carrvmp the mails, while the same lines curry the same amount 
of express for less than $4,000,001). Tbe ex-Senator add*: “The 
New York Central Kailway, for carrying the United Stall** mail 
from New York to Chicapo over its main lines, receive* each year 
3% per cent, of the value of those lines, as well as of all rolling 
stock, and of terminals in New York. Chicapo, and other cities. Yet 




// oic Jltnl in Hulk i$ Identified — .1 Culled ion of Tao s taken from L nihil States Hail bags 


DTI 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 



when it »«» moved, after 
proving thrw fact*, Hint thin 
compensation !*«• cut down 
twenty, and afterwards ten, 
per cent., it votnl down 
in committee of the Senate." 

The fuel i* that the rail- 
road n will rrerive thin year, 
includin'.' rental* of pust-olllrc 
cam. nearly $40,01 10,000 for 
carrying the mail*. The 
allotments are made on the 
basis of supposed weight* — 
but the weight* are taken 
only for thirtv day* onee in 
four years, it is all crude 
guesswork, with ample fa- 
cilities for padding during 
the weighing period. Hence 
the railroads practically 
charge what they please. 

Conservative estimate* have 
placed the overcharge for in- 
flated weights at 910,000.000 
a year. And it is claimed, in 
addition to all this, that thr 
department pays the roads in 
cur rentals each year more 
than the entire cost of the 
postal-ears used. 

The railroads have readv 
replies to some of the criti- 
cisms on their alleged graft, 
ami find easy access to com- 
mitters of Congress and de- 
partmental authorities in pre- 
senting their arguments, 
aoine of which are eon 
vcniently ignored by the 
critics. The ratio of the 
dead weight of cars to 
amount of mail carried is a legitimate element of the calculation. 
Muil-ears cannot be londed to their full capacity — there must lie 
convenient space for sorting and distributing mail cm roulr. Hence 
a cur weighing thirty tons may only carry three tons of mail. 
Then, too, all the employees and officials «»f the department trav- 
elling on its business are curried free by the railroad*. 

But, in spite of all modifying extenuation*, there i* seemingly 
good ground for the prevailing sentiment that the compensation 
fur carrying mail by railroad ought to lie materially lessened. 

In this connection we are all interested in the following au- 
thoritative statement as to the amounts paid to American rail- 
roads for carrying the mails, in comparison to what the railroads 
in foreign countries receive for like service. 

The I’nited States pays the railroads, for carrying mail, about 
$4 1, 000, (MM) per annum. This sum is further increased to $40,000,- 
000 when rental of mail-car* is included. 

In France, the railroads, in return for their grants of right of 
way, carry the mail free. The only exception i* 


eminent iw» a |M»«lal-rar of 
its own: then the railroad re 
eeivea about a cent a mile. ul 
most nolhiug. (or hauling got 
eminent car*. 

In Switzerland, prior to 
government ownership, the 
railroad* rrcrived nothing: 
their concession from the gov- 
ernment provided that the 
railroad company should car- 
ry tlie mails tree. An ex- 
ception was made where the 
eo|il|Mliy eat had less than 
three-and -u-hulf percent, divl- 
alelial |>er Hlllllllll. 

Iii (aerinany the railroad* 
haul one mail-ear free. Where 
a second or more ears are 
needed, the government pay* 
the company, if a government 
car, live pfennig js-r axle 
|wr kilometer, or ten pfennig 
if the ear l*-longs to the mil- 
road company. Thi* amount* 
to from eight to twelve cent* 
a ear per mile. renreaent mg 
barely the cost of hauling 
the car*. 

In Austria the same regu- 
lation* prevail a> in (ier- 
inany. except hauling extra 
ear* average* limn ten to fif- 
teen cent* j«-r mile. 

Italy pays nothing to the 
railriaids for earning the 
mail*, a* it i» provided in the 
i-once**iotis made to tran*- 
portation companies that the 
government mail* must Is- 
car rid free. 

Belgium's laws are similar to those of. Italy. 

In Knglnnd. even with the immense pared* curried 

by the British government, instead of. a* in tlii* country, by ex- 
press companies. the money received hv the railroad* for earn- 
ing the mails i~ only about one-ninth of the amount paid by the 
United .States. 

More money is paid every year by thr United States to the rail 
roads for carrying the mail than i» paid by all the nation* of 
Kuropc conthinrd for nil kinds of mail tran*|KiitiUi-ni. 

Klnewhrrr than in our country the higher rute of the letter |Mi*t 
seem* to la- levied because of an expedited service. In any other 
country low-class nuitter goc* by slow trains — the “ I'arccl* Bust " 
we bear so much alsiut goc* by freight-train at small cost to iln- 
rcwmie*. Here, all our mail goes on the fastest trains each road 
sends out. 'Ilii* is doubt les* our explunution of the extravagant 
nnt. 

The abuse of the franking privilege i» one of the most costly 
|mt forma nee* to whirh our jieople are treating Ihcinselve* at their 


I nliMtthnt) Unil-btlfin from mi Incoming Simmer info n I'hulc on 
Ike Simmer ” (Jenrrol l‘oat mnaler " 


where the gov- 



Ckrka aorling incoming Mail on Ihmnt lk> l)< imrimait'a lloal, thr “ (Jrm-ivl I’oahruiatcr ” 


Digitized by Google 




/.<Ni</uirj l/ui/ inlfmlrtl /or \ etc York on Truck* on Hoanl the Steamer " Hettrral 1‘out mauler “ 


own expenw. A conservative estimate llxc* tli«* loss In the postal 
revenues from the (ns- mail fn«*ilit i«>» enjoyed by the various «!«•- 
partmrnt* at. K15.non.non rwy year. 

t'nfnrtunatcly no adequute amounting methods are provided for 
ascertaining the magnitude of this free business m what should 
justly !*• charged In it; approximate estimate* onlv run In' mndr. 
Nobody srrnis to rare to know definitely what this inrohus amount* 
to. but if the administration of so great an enterprise were in 
private or corporate bunds there would unquestionably In- a pro- 
vision for knowing exactly what proportion of the cost this element 
of the t<|<inti<>n should bear. A <Jrplor»ble incident «*f lining private 
business under public auspices is the utter i mi i (Terence which pre 
vails as to questions like this, which ought tn rotnuiaiul general 
interest. 

The ” trank " is a menacing evil of our mail service, saturated 
with fraud, deceit, and demagoguery. Its uttiT depravity lias been 
known and commented on for many years. K (Torts I lave been made 
to curtail it. hut in some- particulars it is worse than at any pre- 
vious •.luge ol our history. 

Kvery branch and department of the government, loads the tran* 
mission of its mail - matter, legitimate and illegitimate, on the 
|Hmtal service. Congressmen and the department* m»t only semi 


free of postage letters, report*, speeches, and all kinds of sn called 
“ public documents.'' but often shipments of machinery, fire-proof 
safes, and other articles scarcely less ponderous than pig iron, on 
the pretext that they are in some mysterious way connected with 
the public business. 

The franking abuse leads directly to the “ free wed " graft and 
to the printing of thousands of tons of useless public documents — 
all of which is an enormous burden on the Treasury, aside from 
the cost of transportation. In brief, our present loose-leaf scheme 
of postal franking is dangerous, corrupting, and enormously ex 
pensive. 

The franking franchise should he curtailed at every possible 
point. Iron-clad restrictions should hedge in its use by all public 
• •(ticials. Then adequate appropriations should In' made to cover 
the actual cost of this gratuitous service. Kvery franked letter 
or parcel should Is- weighed, and the postage debited to the proper 
account. All branches of the Federal service would then show the 
real expense* of tlieir operation — and the Post-office deficit would 
be transformed into a surplus! 

The abuse of the second -class mail rate, which formerly coat 
the service many millions annually, has been resolutely grappled 
1 1 'on ( in urH on fHlr/r 993.) 





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The Dictator of Europe 


By Sydney Brooks 



Em/ieror Mu hum. uJiw .1 lliluilr lominta France in 
made kirn the moat roNK/iicuoua Figure of the I lot/ i 


of the first political mo- 
ment. Should Fiioit, or 
should she not. float an 
other Russian InanT M. 
llrlni'M*, for reji sons of 
•.inti* |Milii v. wu» strongly 
in-i-tent that she should. 
M. Rouvier. for reason* id 
finance, «4» equally em- 
phatic the other way. 
From the moment *urh a 
disagreement on «neli a 
Mllijprt diM'linnl itself M. 
Itelcuws/-'* resignation 
■Mine merely a matter of 
time. 

Itut though I have ev- 
ery reason !<• tielievr that 
in any ease M. l»clca**o 
could not have remained 
in office for another twelve 
month*, ami probably not 
for another six, the pre- 
ei*e moment and eirru in- 
stance* of hi* retirement 
constituted an undisguisa 
hie triumph for fieinmny. 
It was Hcnnany who. by 
bringing French policy in 
Morocco to n temporary 
iw/aor, gave, a* it were, 
the signal -if attack to the 
force-, in the i'hatnher and 
<mt of it. that had heen 
lying in wait to full upon 
M. Dr Ira**/- for reason* of 
their own. Not only did 
(•er many provide them 
with an opportunity, hut 
she al*o furnished a new 
and decisive weapon. 
That weapon was the 
nienai'r of 4 Franco-tier 
man war. Without nu>\ 
my a -ingle battalion the 
Wilhelm*! ra**c contrived 
to convince France that, 
linle** \|, 1 1*' It -a were 

sacrificed, i mjituTe with 
liermnny would follow. 
To Ihi* •-ml the situa- 
tion in Morocco aud all 
the re*, m i ins' 

pres" had In-c 
with a skill 


of the 
exploited 
that »a* 


ln*on*. Jaar t}. Bn I 

T IIK full of M. 

Delias*/- leaves 
William II. the 
dictator of 
Europe. 1 do not 
mean to say that the over- 
throw of the French For- 
eign Minister was brought 
ul*Mit nolelv by the rx 
ertions ami pressure of 
fierman diplomacy. Much 
else contributed to it. 

From the very outbreak of 
the Husso ■ Japanese war, 
indeed. M. Delra **/•’« posi- 
tion had Is-gnn insensibly 
to decline. The ulmo*t in- 
credible coinph-feiiess of 
the Russian collapse weak- 
ened it still further. I'p 
to the very last moment 
he hail, I ladievr, scouted 
the |MMsil>ility of war . and 
when war came, the long 
series of Russian disasters 
surprised no one in France 
more than himself. His 
calculations were thus 
falsified twice over, and 
though he did not allow 
that for one moment to in- 
ti ueinc his loyally to thr 
(Mini Alliance, though, in- 
deed. hi» loyalty seemed 
only to increase as Rus- 
sian misfortunes multi 

f lird. the mere fact that 
lie ally of France had 
*> stupendously collap-eil 
made u temporary ship- 
wreck of French policy, 
and reacted with shatter- 
ing force upon the Parlia- 
mentary jwmitinn of the 
French Foreign Minister. 

The clearer it lici-ninr that 
the allium** for the time 
I icing reused to provide 
that guarantee of security 
which has always hern its 
chief value in French eves, 
and that for all practical 
purposes it might just us 
welf not he in exist- 
ence, tin* greater lierume the disquietude of the French peo- 
ple and the readier was their inclination to criticise the 
minister who stood before the country as the special champion 
of Franco-Russian relations. The Socialists, especially. with the 
terrible M. .laurih* at their head, could not forgive thp *t*n<-hncss 
of his loyalty to a power that has never shown itself less dis- 
posed to’ listen to the Socialist doctrine of human rights than 
during the last eighteen ninnlha. Again, the .Nationalists had 
no love for a minister whose contribution* to the prrstige and 
Stability of the Republic were on M. wale of achieve- 

ment. and who had cut cheerfully athwart their dearest prejudices 
by coming to an agreement with (Jreat Britain. The Free-Think- 
er*. too, su*|ieited the sincerity and strength of the Foreign Min- 
ister's iintirlcricalism. and the Dreyfuxnrd* raged against him as 
extremists always rage against moderates. Moreover M. Delons*/- 
had lieen in office for seven years. That in itself, while it gave 
him authority, exposed him to the jealousies and intrigues of 
rivals who resented his monopoly of power and felt themselves 
overshadowed by hi« preeminence. He never cultivated, he prob- 
ably despised, the small art* of managing men. His work alr 
soria-d him. he felt himself perfectly adequate to all its de- 
mand-. and lie disliked either to consult with his culli-agues about 
it or to discuss it in the Chamber. Ministerial reticence with him 
I ieva me almost monastic silence. All this Blade for a certain 
lack of cordiality between hiiusetf and some infills lit ini sections 
in the Chamber and some still more influential interests nutside 
of it. N'oIhhIv. f think, expected him to remain lor long in M. 
Rouvier’* cabinet M, Kmivier is an able, energetic, mid admit 

politician. who knows all that there i« to know about the power 
of lo haute fiitanet , and likes especially to lie informed of, and to 
supervise, whatever is being done in the cabinet over which he 
presides. Indcr Bresson. Diipiiv. IV a Meek- Ron «rau, and Combe* 
an almost alwolutely free hand had In-cii ullownl to M. Del- 
cassiV 

With the advent of M. Rouvier, however, all this was changed. 
The Foreign Minister found that he was expected to consult 
with hi* chief and to defer to hi* authority in a way lluit lie 
did not relish. There w:i*. therefore, from the *1art the -nine 
want of harmony lie tween M. IMca*s<* and M. Rouvier as existed 
long ago between Rainier* ton and Enrd .lohn Ru*«ell. N'or 
wa» it long before the two men came into collision over a matter 


not unworthy of Bismarck or favour at their moment* of 
greatest astuteness. M. Helen***' him-elf remained through it nil 
imperturbable. He was mnvin<x-d that tieruiany wu* merely bluff- 
ing: that she should In- met with courtesy, hut without con- 
cession*: and that France should wait for her to formulate her 
grievances in Morocco officially. In other words, he did not lie- 
lieve that there was any danger < f Count von Billow u*ing the 
Moorish question a* Bismarck n»»-d the Snhleswig Holstein tangle 
and the candidature* for the S|Mtii*h throne. Recognising ull 
along that Morocco in this roniH'etion -toisl f«*r something greater 
than itself, and Hint under cover of the Sultan the W 'ilhelm-tra— e 
was really striking at the Anglo Fretn h tutnifr, M. Ilclcus-c still 
held that with putieiue, limine**, and careful -i-lf-continence. by 
doing nothing to aggravate the situation, by disregarding every- 
thing on the Herman side that was not purely official, and by fol- 
lowing in Morocco a policy of quiet persistency, with time, a- well 
a- England and Spain, for an ally, it would he possible to foil the 
diplomacy of Hennany even on ground of its own choosing. He 
may have been right: I cannot pretend to decide. But it *»» 
clear tluit neither the mhinct. nor the ( handier, nor the vast ma- 
jority of hi* fellow citizens, shared his confidence. They -imply 
saw that over a question of minor iiiilimuil interest they were pro- 
voking the resentment of Orrmany and exposing themselves to the 
po—ihility of a serious qtiarrcj. That wu* enough for them: some 
what |H-rha|>s unheroicu]ly, hut pacifically and discreetly, they cal lei l 
a halt, “dropped" M. Delia and intrusted hi- *ui-ee*«ur with a 
more or less national mandate to ap|N-usc. or at least effect n set 
th incut with, their dreaded neighbor on the east. 

That i» for Hrrmanv a wonderful triumph. It will remain a 
wonderful triumph, even though Herman policy in Morocco, in 
spite of its initial sucres*, tail* in the long run — a* it very j*>*- 
»ibl> may— lo win the odd Dirk. For we now had it decisively 
established that while Russia re mu in- hogged in tin* Far Eastern 
morass, while the Dual Alliunce. in other word*, continue* for all 
effective purposes to lx* semi|Mirnly/.ed. Frame will support no 
minister whose policy Involve*, or s**-ins to involve, the risk of 
a rupture with Hcrmany. She hits Isiund Imr-clf almost auto- 
mat unity not only to jiciice, hut to a state of dependt-lice ujion the 
gixxl-w ill of Hcrniany. that amounts practically to a return to the 
days when Bismarck was a* mm h the French ns the Herman 
(Co Rf inti erf on /aijrc VS9.J 


BT4 


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■■M B* 



M. ROUVIEH. PREMIER OF FRANCE. WHO. AS HEAD OF THE 
FOREIGN OFFICE IS THE LEADING FIGURE IN FRANCE 
TO-DAY IN THE CRISIS DUE TO GERMANY’S FOREIGN POLICY 

The retirement of If, DrUasst', former French J/irti>/rr of foreign 


Affaira. 


as the result of hie fail it rc to check mate < Jer- 


Deled***, former * '™ rh u "' ' important changes «n the political and diplomatic situation in 

■hrittf in Uoiaero, has /hr functions of the Foreign Office, and JJ. Dele anad i* mo longer 

Premier, M. Rouc.er, ha* «****£™ [f/^preZnt notition of Fmpcmr XV, It, am in Furman politic, 
• factor in the affaire of the gorcrnairnl. For an cellmate at / 
the reader it referred to the article by J/r. Sydney Brooks beginning 


France. The French , 


_ , , Furo/nan politic, 

the opposite page of thin issue of ffir - Weekly ’’ 


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New York’s New Pla.ygro\md 

By Theodore WMers 


I ONCE took it trip to Coney Island with a pnrfnaor of psychol- 
ogy i° r the purpose of studying the New York mob at play. 

" 1 mn told that erstwhile dignified rltiirnk indulge three 
in all «orta c»f childish antics." he remarked on the wav to 
the bench. "Strange bow people ran ho far forget them 
w|vr»! It wilt tie instruct ire.” 

It uii*. During the day I wa» edified at thr spectacle of a doc- 
tor of philosophy astride a wooden horse, on which he roeked to 
ami fro and at whieh he yelled vigorously in an effort to win a 
race against other woodi-n horHH sliding rapidly down a metal 
runway. And In-fore the day ended 1 had seen this name citizen 
** looping the loop " and ” humping the bump*." balancing himself 
on jumping stuirway*. throwing rings over cwnes, rxi-laiining at 
the beauties of scenic railway*, and, in short, performing the 
Miinc eliildish antics that every one jH-rform*. whatever his or 
her Italian in life, when on a visit to Coney Island, 

The professor delivered a lecture, later, on the psychology of 
crowds, in whieh he used hiin*elf as an illustration of how the in- 
dividual may la* influenced by the mob: hut there is more in 
Coney Island than mere inoti intlueiice. Time was when the plaev 
was shunned by ultrarespectable New-Yorkers, who went instead 
to Manhattan Beach: but nowadays Coney is visited by all classes, 
and the demand for the peculiar brand of relaxation which it sup 
plies has Income so great that the concessions and the crowd have 
overflowed into Brighton mid Manhattan Itcaeh. with the result 
that the whole shore is heing made into one great playground for 
the people of New York. The IS«K*r war is being fought again 
daily hark of the Brighton Beach Hotel: a Japanese village is I ic- 
ing built against the Manhattan Beach Hotel, and the space be- 
tween is Is'ing laid cut for special concessions, scenic railways, a 
large new railroad station, etc,, and it will not lw long before the 
place will hear ahotit the same relation to ohl Coney Islam! that 
f Sreater New York hears to old Manhattan Island. It will Is- 
the most remarkable umiiseiueiit-gtound in the world, and by all 
odds the largest. 

The reason fot this popular expansion is obvious. If tlie visitor 
ran divest himself of the tremendously compelling atmosphere of 
the place and view it di spat ssinnat civ. he will find that there i« 
hardly a concession on the ground w\iieh does not appeal directly 
to the emotion*. In this the coaresaionaairr copies the method of 
appeal of great literary and dramatic masterpieces, hut lie goe* a 
step farther. A Issik or a play appeals to trie emotions through 
the intellect. One must sit and reud a book and imaginr the 
situations depicted: one must sit and witness an actor in the 
throes of strong passion*. But in Coney Island it i* the H]>cctutor. 
as it were, who is made to |ierfnrni. To lie sure, thrre are some 
concessions, such as the Galveston Flood, or Creation, which fol- 
low the traditions of the theatre hv giving u show upon a stage, 
with special reason* therefor, hut in the most successful show* 
the patron i* himself juggled with, stood upon his head, or 
whirled through space, or shut up to the moon, or dropped into 
the i towel* of the earth. It is the key-note of Coney Island's suc- 
re** : it is why over one hundred thousand persons go there Sim- 
dav after Sunday during the summer season. The professor of 


psychology coil Id sit unmoved during the running of a great horse- 
race like the Siihurlian, but the moment he found himself jostled 
about by the wooden liorsc in Coney's Steeplechase, with a pm.pict 
of heating his wooden eompetitors. be la-eanM* at once a very ele- 
mental being, yelling and plunging and strenuously intent upon 
winning a little pink ticket for a free ride. 

In fact, the eoNceaaionmrirc is constantly on thr lookout lor some 
new way of exciting old emotions, and a trip over the l-lund in ran* 
that a whole gamut of them will la* played upon. The nun who 
invented the scenic railway bit upon a principle of attraction 
which ha* brought him a fortune To sit in a car which passes 
liter natclv from light to darkness and darkness to light und 
make* siiddi-n and dizzy descents ul twenty feet or more is to 
haw one's mental und phvsicul sensibilities excited to the utmost. 

The Trip to the Moon is nothing more than a mimic representa- 
tion of just what one might expert to experience on a real trip 
to that planet. The crowd is tt-ln-rod on to a slightly rocking plat 
form fashioned like an air-ship, and i" easily led to imagine that 
it is rising through space, because the star laden scenic sky sur 
rounding ihe ship is made to drop rapidly and silently, and the 
enormous wing* of the ship Happing out horizontally prevent any 
passenger looking downward over the rail. A convenient storm 
nh«4-urrs the view entirely after a while, and lion the moon, a 
circle of extinct volcanic cone*, appears near at hand, and you step 
out of the ship into a grotto, through which a dwarf leads vou to 
the king anil iptccii of the mooli. T1u-e are two midgets. w)io are 
so glad to see you that tliev sing a weary song of welcome ffor 
which no one should Maine them, a- they do it thirty or forty 
1 lines a day), and conduct you to a dragon'* mouth. w)iit-h nja-n* 
and allow- you to walk into hi- stomach. The way i* treacher- 
ous. for the floor rock* and the wall- of hi* alimentary canal are 
clammy, so that the relief which one feel* on getting out of him 
at la-t i* sufficient to counteract Ihe surprise of -mldt-iily finding 
oneself nut in a street on earth. 

Now this show is utterly unreasonable from any scientific stand- 
|H»iut. hut no one appear* to think it strange that a king’* grotto 
should la* found on a burned out planet, or that Hip dragon'* tail 
should reach dnwir to earth. There must lie some climax, and 
perhaps that of Is-ing swallowed alive is u« good a- any, and the 
sudden exit i n I • brightly lighted I.una Park is iiImmiI ns near u 
portrayal of a pleasant awakening from a had dream as could be 
Invent e*l. 

In the show known as Hell flute there is n well-reasoned mulif 
bused upon an ancient and very human dread — that of the whirl 
|mh>|. I’oc used it with fin*- effect long before the art of the con 
wna heard of. In an open-fronted building in I fren in- 
land ha* been constructed a fifty foot whirl|NMil. The water swirl* 
terrifyingly toward* th>* cent re. and boat* crowded with passenger* 
describe * constantly narrowing circle, until before the eyes of 
the astonished spectator* they dive into the middle of the pool. 
It i- u clever devive. that of admitting all tlie world free to see 
the bout* take the plunge, for every one is eager immediately to 
take the plunge for him«elf and sec w hat hap|M*ns lieneuth the pool. 
A* a matter of course, it i* very pleasant down there. The " pool ” 



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HARPER'S WEEKLY 



i, mrrriy u spiral trough made 
„f wood and iron, through 
uliich the witter carries the 
Imutk In the centre, where the 
, lilts 1 .wldenly dips anil allow, 
thetn to »lip beneath the outer 
rim. of the "pirn I into a «ub- 
(rmtncaii channel which follow. 

„ (art turn, eon roe under the 
huililing. There are scene* by 
the way intended to corrob- 
ciriite the impuliir conception of 
l hr rurth'. interior, and these 
4 re about as true to nature it. 
throe which we found nn the 
mnon. -«i that hv the time the 
.jnetator. above nrr Iwginning 
to anndrr whitt ha. happened 

the boat. the paiwenger* have 
had ■ surfeit of subterranean 
hnrrora. and are .hot up 
through une aide of the pool to 
the •urine*. 

lone} f-laml i» the auothro- 
*i. of emotion. - Shake 'em 
up; Shake 'em up!" yell* the 
Iwrker in front of thr animal 
.how i which the crowd patron- 
ire« in the hope that one of the 
lion* will bite hi* keeper), 
and that i* what they are do- 
me all om • the Island — 

" shaking them up”; actively 
when they loop the loop. pas- 
sively when that same (anker. 
dr**.ei| and painted to resemble 
*n automaton on a mimic-box, 
suddenly la-gin* to imitate the 
jerky motion, of such a figure 
(or tin- U-iietlt of the gaping 
crowd. Kvcry one in the rrowil HnOp-nhol /ruui fo/inuf thr Hti'lii 
know* the mun i« human, and firi-pc* Irra pull in ; / up a 

every one knows that every one 
else knows it. and yet each man 

peer. into the face of hi* neighbor in the hope that some one 
may be fouled by it- 

7V crowd that .|ieiids hours in front of the ** hump. ” know* 
well what will happen to any one who uttenipta the descent. It* 
knowledge, however, i* not greater than that of the humped. *iin-e 
they an- m-ruiteil from the erowd. yet the inline joy that i* ex 
hiluti-il when a man or a woman grow head over lux-ls is lm*cd 
partly on the conscious delusion that the fallen ones did not 
know what w*« in *torr. The public may always be depended upon 
to help the conn-a.ionn.iiri* deeeiv* it. In fact, there i* an axiom 
known to playwrights awl novelists which hold, that the expex-ted 
iiuy often U- made more interesting to an audience than the un- 
expected. 

I "he young people who Hock past the " Flatiron " building in 
Steeplechase Phfk know well enough that n glut of wind from an 


ha «ui u„ w lheir 

lr.ralW.rh,., 1 ' „„i jJJJ 

"“‘'I iMienlou, in 
”} .‘l' "T 1 - h “' a* iiiimbtr 
of those who walk by the 
doe* not diminish fo^ that rla 
«m. The crowd, which 
fur a penny » look into tl.e 
moving-picture machine* bear- 
ing signs which deny the pleas- 
•■re to "all persons umle? „j*. 
tern years of age. M know Well 
enough that there can 1- noth- 
ing on view to which M,. 
Anthony ( mn.tnrk could p,,,. 
stbly object. hut that doe* not 
ease their curiosity. 

There is hors.- - piny i n m„. 
rooliah II. wise ” — a mere 

mn/e of mirrors witbin-doors. 
There i* religion, awe em- 
braced In the contemplation of 
” Oration." u pnnoiamic »p.-, 
tacle lllu.tra ting the story of 
ficneaia. Xo one could pnssiblv 
hflp living affected by that 
vivid panuruma of old earth in 
tlie ruuking. accompanied by 
the solemn voice of the 1«*- 
luier. who. with the show man's 
instinct for the verity that 
lurk* in incongruity, prove* 
hi. ease l»y adhering almost lit 
vnilly to the Scriptural ac- 
count. Not even when Adant. 
in all the nakedm-** of a suit 
of underwear which wrinkles 
a* he walks. i» discovered by 
Hv*. similarly attired, do*-* the 
WVtlO lose its spell. At least 
no one suggests that the .pee 
taeh- ha* come perilously near 
to blasphemy. 

The gambling instinct i« 
playtxl upon llirough the offer of the man with the weighing- 
machine. who engages to charge yon nothing for hi. talent, or 
hi* lack of it. rather, if In- fails to guess within three pounds of 
your weight. There is emotion in such scenes a*- the Galveston 
Flood and the .lulin*town Flood: and I am umap-d that sonic .me 
ha* not attempted a reproduction of the horror, of the Slocum 
disaster. What an opportunity to give the Ufa./ New Yorker the 
sensation of his life by nutting hint on it stage steamboat, letting 
it burn to the water ‘a edge, and rescuing him at the last moment 
with a stage police-tug. while dummy ps»**cnger. hum to death 
in real lire or drown in real water. I venture to predict that 
such a horror would lie both denounced mid patronized by all 
who were fortunate enough to escape from the real steamboat. 

Simu-tbing like thi* i. surely coming to Coney Island if the 
appetite of the mob goe* on increasing. The place has developed 


* Hi Ihr “ finer IV.tr " sboiring 
Ti>i' ward in thr Hi lling 



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HARPER'S 



NEW YORK’S NEW PLAYGROUND-A BIR D j 
CONEY ISLAND FROM MANHATJ 1 

Wl.hm ten y.mr. Con.y ho., home Ih. chief noo-r-bv recreo-tlon plmc. ' ' h * ^‘/s. r« 

Mr risssr ? 




E VIEW SHOWING THE CHANGES 
BEACH TO WEST BRIGHTON 

Al>»h. with** iK* ar <* * 8 ‘ me roldlion lo old Coney Island that Greater New York 

” ‘ rtsder lt ra i cr im P r <>vemont* and extensions already planned, will make Coney Island 
«rred to the article beginning on page 97 b ol this Issue oi the "Weekly" 


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1 Nnrfic tlurinij Ike “ ftori' ll'nr" S/orlarlc — \Htukinti Ike Him l bon it 


u aort of emotional Frankenstein wliosr desire fur the bizarre 
In eon*tantly on tli«* irnttaM'. I vilUrd nrvmil allow* in which 
the audience Hud uln-mli ln-guo In uhnw "ign* of diwappnint- 
iwnt 

ln»teud of jo*tling hi* putrrm* about until llu-ir teeth rallied. the 
court naiomunrt' tried to appeal to their *en«r of the liruut iful by 
menu* of it *tage *|iertarb*. One of t he*e iIiiiwk u trip to fai- 
«iir part* of the rnrtli. New York Harbor, tin* <N*mn, and finally 
tln> " far off purl * - pu**ed In-fun* uur rym in puunruinir pro- 
vision while wi* were *ealed comfortably. \Yp were a small iniiU- 
enre; but Had we l**en placed upon tin* deek of a stage »team*hip 
which rocked while tin* •ornery moved pant ii*. if after a while 
we Had lawn allowed to get off tlir boat and *tand upon tlir *bore 
of those fnr off land*, there would have lieen won of ua, even 
though we Had been mnipellrd to return to the I'nilt-d Sutm rid 
the stomach of a “ dragon." 

To be Mire. Mieb nn arrangement would mil for added in- 
genuity, mikI it would cost more in proportion, blit ingenuity i» 
the body pulio* of t*oney Inland ju*t »» emotion i* it* nervmm 


system: and Ha fin grt-ul expenditure, that i* \ allied m> an ml 
verti«ing a»»et, "Fire and Kwrne* " ami "Fighting the Flame* ’* 
are moving pirlurc* viewed from the front The niidiem-e reeog 
ni/e* itself in the people who walk the streets, throng the shop*, 
sit in the reatauniiila, lounge in the linrn*>m*. dng in the ehureh. 
and linally |*cri*h in the tire. Itut what look* quite simple from 
the front i» eomplirMti-d at the rear. The populace of these iniita 
lion town* i* rompo*ed of hundred* of person*, all of whom mud 
la- drilled to art tln-ir jnirt*. Some of the*** are nu-re moodier* 
of the mob ; other*, a*, for instance, the woman who*e imby i* 
rescued from the fire and who*r heart rending «rrea ni* net one on 
edge with up])relieii*ion, ir.u*l need* be theatrie.ii arti«t* of no 
little talent. Tile dwelling. them*elve« are const flirted of fire- 
proof material filled in by part* which burn merely for the «ake 
of the scenic rffeet. In each room of the holism i* a huge |towder- 
blower. o|M-ra|e<| by c-omj>re**ed air from the lank: wi that when the 
flame* bur*! from the window* they are nol the n'*o|t of haphazard 
ehunee. hut liar! of a nyatnn whieli operate* like clockwork and i* 
the reniilt of inventive ability on the part of the s«*cne manager. 



tioutr of lb- iliuiir lint I it -b If,* H«nf III Ik. Sprltirlt , “ Tkr foil of foil Irthui " uf ,j lulrnnl 


Iisii 


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Bn-nkftul-hour at the Ifomir llaapilnl 



The O/i* nil iny-riHtm in the Hospital al Moaetiie tchrrv Japaneae llmim led n i’c f'onfntid 

SCENES AMONG THE JAPANESE WOUNDED HELD AS 
PRISONERS BY THE RUSSIANS AT MOSCOW 

The phologriipha ahi,.e aeenea nniong the Jafatni %r iroundctl i rho an ht hi ha the Itiuaianx an prinoncra in hoapital al Uonroie. 
in addition to lh“Hi irho, if* dexerilud in the Inal trick's i*iu* > of the " llVri/ij." nr* - confinut in turmri* in h'urofn an Unaani. 
The defeat of a tfi<*”i<iu /»»rrr iimi- \aonhanehcatzu *>« ./uitr .**, together irilh the hktlihtnnl of a awrcrssful ronaanimalion 
of the approaching peace nepol in I ions. pm, it hi the probability of mi tarty exchange of prisoners and termination of I hi tear 


l*HI 


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By KATHERINE CECIL THURSTON 

Author of “The Masquerader" 


SYNOPSIS OK PRECKIHMl CIIAI-TEItS 

.laws Ml I bank)-. an old rsillcge frlcud of IN- tils Asshlin. visit* the 
•■tier f»r ihe flist time Iti thirty year* at lit* ancestral eatate l«i souib- 
rru Ircla-xl. Hr llnds Asshlin mm It rhanwd. After dinner Asshlin In 
duces Milliunke to play cards with Iiltn. ami they play until early 
morning. Mlltntnkr (Innfly wlnnim:. After Mllhank* leaven his liosi In 

S o to hi* mom, t'liMlairh. Asshlin* eldest daughter. meet* him In the 
all. and beg* lilm not to garolde with her father again, a* It la 
thimigh hla passion for play that Aaahlln In brliijclnir ruin to himself 
and hla family. The nett morning at Itreakfaat Mllimiike nnda on hla 
pinto a cheek from Aaahlln In payment of hla loaaea. That night Aaahlln 
propose* nnuther game of card* Mllbanke refuses to play, and drop* hi* 
host's cheek Into the fire Me tells Aaahlln that he consider* him weak 
and worthies*, and returns to Fugland the next day. Three years 
after. Ml I ltd like receive* it letter from t'lndagh telling him that 
Aaahlln hna been seriously hurt In an accident, and urging him to 
come to Ireland. Mllbanke hasten* to hla old friend* home, and 
Hilda A-ahlln on hla death-bed, and In grent dlalreaa of mind over the 
future of hla children, who he know* will be left pennlleaa n« o 
result of hla dla*lpiii Ion*. Mllbanke promises to be responsible for 
their welfare A famous specialist Is summoned from linhlln to ■ on 
suit with the local surgeon, and after a careful examination by the 
two physicians. Mllbanke Is Informed thnt Ilia friend's <-oiullrion la 
hop* less. Late that night Aaahlln diea Mllbanke asks riodagh to 
marry him At tir»t she refuses him : but when she learns that tier 
father's estate will I*' pur under obligations to Mllbanke by his bene 
factious, she consents to become bis wife 


CHAPTER XV 

AND thus it came about that i lodagh Asshlin tntered upon a 

/\ new phase nf that precarious cumlilion that we rail life. 
The impulse that had induced her to accept Milhanke’a 
•A. A proposal was in no way complex. The knowledge had sud- 
denly liccn con v e y ed to her that, through no act of her 
own. she Imd been placed under a deep obligation: ami her primary 
— lu-r inherited — instinct had been to pay her debt «» speedily and 
as fully ns lav within her power, ignoring, in her lack nf worldly 
wisdom, the fact that such a tiurguin must of necessity possess 
obligations other than personal, which would demand subsequent 
settlement. 

However unvrraed she may be in the world’s ways, it is scarce- 
ly to lie supposed that any young girl, under normal conditions, 
can look upon her own marriage as an abstract thing. Hut the 
circumstance* of t’lodugh'* ease were essentially abnormal. Mil 
I ut tike'* proposal — and the facts that brought her to accept it — 
came at a time when her mind and her emotion* were numbed 
by her first (loignunt encounter with death und grief, and for the 
tunc being her outlook upon existence was clouded. The present 
seemed something sombre desolate, and impalpable: while the 
future was something absolutely void. 

For two days after the scene in the glen she and Mi lb* nice 
avoided all allusion to what had taken place between them, lie 
appeared possessed by an insurmountable nervous reticence: while 
she. immersed in her trouble, seemed almost to have forgotten 
what had occurred. 

On the evening of the third day, however, the subject was 
again broached. 

Mil Ini nkc was sitting bv one of the long dining-room window*, 
reading by the faint twilight that filtered in from the fast-dark- 
ening sky. The light in the room was fitful, for, though the table 
was already Inn! for dinner, the candles had not yet l*e«-n lighted. 

With his Isiok held close to hi* eyes, he had been reading 
studiously for close upon an hour, when the quick owning of the 
floor behind him caused him to look round. A* lie did so lie 
closed his hook somewhat hastily and rose with a slight gesture 
nf embarrassment, for the disturber of his pence was Olodagh. 
Hut it was not ao much the fact of her entry that had «tnrth-d 
him ns the fact that, ffir the l!r «1 timr since her father’s death, 
she was arrayed in her riding habit. 

Shaken out of his mini, he 111011*! to her at once. 

“ Are you — are you going lor a ride?" hr n*kcd. in unconcealed 
surprise. 

('lodagh nodded. She was drawing on her thick ehnmnis gloves, 
and her riding-crop was held under her arm. Had the light in 
the room been stronger he would have seen thnt her lips were 


firmly set and lirr cvr* bright with resolution. Hut his mind was 
abtuulicd l»y hi* surprise. 

" Hut i* it not rather — latet” he huxurded. anxiously, with a 
glamv toward* the window. 

She looked up astonished. 

" Late?” she repeated, incredulously. 

Then the look of faint))' cuiilcruptuoii* tolerance that some- 
times touched her with regard to him (Kissed over her face. 

“Oh no: not at all!” she explained. “I'm u*ed to rifling in 
the evening. You see. Holly must lie exercised; und I'd rather it 
was dark, the first time 1 rode after — ” 

Her voice fullered. 

Milliunke heard the tremor: and, us once Indore, his sense of 
|u-rsnnal timidity fled Indore hi* spontaneous pity. 

” t'ludugh." he said, suddenly. “ ullow me to ride with you. 
I was a fairly gf>od horseman in — in my day." 

There was pathos in the deprecating justification; but Clodagh’a 
attention was caught by the words alone. 

“You!'* she said, in blank u man-men I. 

Then something in the crudeness of her tone struck upon lu-r. 
atifl she made haste to amend her rxelu mat ion. 

“Of course it's very, very kind of you." she added, awkwardly. 

At her lowered tone Milliunke colored and took a step forward. 

“riodagh." he begun, with a Hash of eourage. “I think von 
might allow me lit be more kind to you than you do. I think 
I might give you more protection. And it has neeurred to me 
that (M-rhups we might to announce our — our engagement — ’’ 

He halted nervously. 

As soon 11* he had la-gun to speak t’lndagh had walked away 
from him across the room, and now she stood by the ruantcIpieoL- 
looking down steadily into the lire. 

“ Flo you agree with me? ’ he asked, moving nervously towards 
her. 

There was an embarrassed silence. And in hi* pcrturlMtinn 
he glanced from her bent head to the picture above the chinutey- 
piecc. front which Anthony Asshlin'* ardent face showed out a 
vague patch nf color against it* black background. 

" t’lndagh,*’ he said, suddenly, “allow me to tell Mrs. Asshlin 
that you have promised to marry me." 

Hut -till t’lndagh did not answer: 'till she stood gazing enig- 
matically into the burning logs, her slight figure und warm youth- 
ful face fitfully lighted l»y the capricious, spurting tinmen. 

“ Clodagh!" he exclaimed. And there was n note of uneasiness 
ill his low. deprecating voire. 

Then at ln «1 she turned, and their eyes met. 

“ Very well!” she said. 11 n icily. “You may tell Aunt Fup. Hut. 
if you don't mind, I'll rifle by myself." 

Thai night, at ihc conclusion of dinner, the engagement was an- 
nounced. All the members of the A*ahlin family were seated about, 
the table, when Milhanke. who had practically eaten nothing during 
the meal, summoned 1 «i« wavering courage and leaned across the 
table toward- Mrs. .\s«hlin. who wa* sitting upon his right hand. 

“Mrs. A*shHn." he begun, almost innudibly, "I- that i*. Clo- 
dash and I — " He glanced timidly to where Clndngh sat erect 
and immovable, at the head of the tahlr. " f 'lodagh and I have — 
have an announcement to make We — that is, I — ” He stammrrrd 
hopelessly. “ Mr*. Asshlin. ('lodagh bus made me very — very 
proud and verv linppv. She ha* consented to — to Is* my wife,” 

He took a deep, agitated breath of wordless relief that the con- 
fession was made. 

There was a long pause. Then suddenly Mrs. Asshlin extended 
both hands towards him in a hysterical nut hurst of feeling. 

"My dear- dear Mr. M illmnke." she said. “What a shock! 
What a surprise. I should say! What would mv poor brother-in- 
law have thought! Hilt Providence ordain- everything. I’m sure 
I rongrntnlnte von— congratulate you both — " She turned to Clo- 
ds gh. “Though, of course, it is not the time tor congratula- 
tion* " She hastily drew out her handkerchief. 

As she did so little Nance rose softly from the table and slipped 
unobserved from the room. At Milbatike's word* the child’s face 
had turned terribly while, mid she had cast an appealing, in- 


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Credulous look at Clodagh. Bui C1odt(th, in her self-imposed 
stolidity. hint seen nothin); of the expression* round her: and now. 
an her winter Irft her place and crossed the room, the significance 
of the action went unnoticed. 

For a moment the only sound nudihle in the room was the 
cracking of the tire mid Mr*. .Willin'* muffled weeping; hut at 
last Milbunkc, agonized into action, put out hi* hand and tom-lied 
her arm. 

“ Please do not give way to your feeling*. Mr*. Awhlin!" he 
urged. “Think — think of Clodagh!" 

Thus appealed to, Mrs. Asshlin wiped away the half-dozen tears 
that had trie'll led down her cheeks. 

" You must forgive me." she murmured. “ We Irish take things 
too much to heart. It — it brought my own engagement haek to 
me — and. of course, my poor Laurence's drath. I hope, indeed, 
that it will la? a very long time before Clodagti — ” 

Hut the words were broken by a clatter from the other side of 
the table as young 1-aurencr Asahlin opportunely knocked one 
wine-glass against another. And in the moment of interruption 
Clodagh pushed hark her chair and stood up. 

" If you don’t mind. Aunt Kan." she said. " 1 think i’ll go to 
bed. The — the ride has tin'll me. flood night!" And without a 
glanee at any one she walked out of the room. 

But »he had scarcely crossed the hall before a *tep behind her 
eau.-s'd her to pause: and, looking lau-k. she suw the figure of her 
cousin a pace or two in the rear. 

In the half-light of the place the two confronted each other: 
and t’lodagh lifted her head in a movement that was common to 
them both. 

“ What do you want ?" she asked. 

Asshlin stepped forward. 

“ Tisn'l true. Clot" he asked, breathlessly. 

t’lodagh looked at him defiantly und nodded. 

Yes," she said. “ Tis true." 

For a moment he stared at her incredulously, then his in- 
credulity drove him to speech. 

•* But, tin." he cried. ” he's sixty If he's a day! And you — " 

t'lodagh flushed. 

“Stop. Urry!" she said, unevenly. “ Father was neatly sixty." 

But Asshlin a sense of the fitness of thing-* hail ls>eii uroitseil. 

"That's all very well!" he cried, scornfully. M l*nele Denis was 
all right for a father or an uncle. Hut to marry! Clo. you’re 
mad ! ” 

t'lodagh turned upon him. 

“ How dare you. l«arryT“ she cried. “ You are horrible! I 
hate you!" 

Her voice caught, and with a sudden, passionate gesture she 
wheeled nwav from him and 
began to mount the stairs. 

The action sola-red him. 

With impetuous remorse be 
thrust out his hand to de- 
tain her. 

" Clo ! " he «a id. “ I sav. 

Clo!" 

Hut she swept Iris hand 
aside, 

“No! No!" slie ex- 
claimed. " I don't want you! 

1 don't want you I I never 
want to speuk to you again. 

You are hateful — detest- 
able — " 

With a fierce movement 
she pushed past his out- 
stretched arm and 
the stairs. 

In her ImmIiooiii Hannah 
was hovrriug about between 
the wash-stand and dressing- 
table. a lighted candle in one 
hand, a carafe of water in 
the other. At the sight of 
her mistress she luid both 
her burdens down with a cry 
of delight. 

"My darlin'l" she ex- 
claimed. " An’ it is tli rue! 

Tini heard the word of it art’ 
he carrvin' the cheese out of 
the dinin'-room: hut. sure. I 
wouldn't belave him — " 

But t’lodagh cheeked her. 

" Don’t be a fool, Hannah!" 
she cried, almost fiercely; 
and turning her face from 
the old servant's scrutinizing 
ryes, she walked across the 
room toward* the lied. 

For a moment Hannah 
stood like an ungainly statue 
in the middle of the room: 
then she nodded to herself 
a nod of profound ami silent 
wisdom— ami tiptoeing out of 
the room, closed the door !*•- 
hind her. 

Instantly she was alone, 
t'lodagh lagan to undress. 

With hysterical impetuosity 


flew 


up 


I'Mtuih. nlm trim ulniiilin 


she tore otT each garment and threw it untidily upon the floor: 
then slipping into lied, she buried her Hot face in the pillows and 
burst into a violent, unreasoning torrent of tears. 

For ten minutes she cried unceasingly ; then the storm of her 
misery was checked. The door-handle was very softly turned, and 
little Nance slide into the room. 

She entered eagerly, then paused, frightened by the scene before 
her: hut her hesitation was very brief. With a sudden movement 
of resolution she sped across ihc space that divided her 
from the Iasi, ami laid a cold, tremulous hand on t'lodagh's 
shoulder. 

“t’lo," she said, " is it true! Are you going to marry him! 
Are you going away from here!" Her voice sounded thin and 
far away. 

t'lodagh raised herself on one elbow ami looked at her sister. 
Her fail* was flush til. her eyes were pretermit u rally bright, 

“Why do you want to know!" she demanded, angrily. “Why 
is everybody (adhering me like litis! Can’t I do what I like*! 
Can’t I marry if I like!" 

Her voice rose excitedly. Then suddenly she caught sight of 
Nance's quivering, wistful little face, and her anger melted. With 
u warm, quick movement she held out her arms. 

"Nance!" she cried, wildly. “Kittle Nance) The only person 
in the world that I really love!" 

CHAPTER XVI 

That night t’lodagh frll asleep with her wet cheek pressed 
against her sister's and her arms clasped closely round her. 

Next morning she woke calmed and soothed by her outburst 
of the night before, and after breakfast was able to enter into 
the primary discussion concerning her marriage without any show 
of emotion. The conclave, at which she. her aunt, and Milbanke 
alone were present, took place in the drawing-room, and was of a 
weighty and solemn rharacter. The Hist suggest ion was put for- 
ward by Mrs. Asahlin, who. with the native distaste for all hurried 
und definite action, pleaded that an engagement of six months ut 
least would Is- demanded by the conventionalities before a mar- 
ring* could taka place; but here, to tba oavprtat of his Hat cam, 
.Millmnke displayed a fresh glewni of ;he determination and firm- 
ness that had inspired him during the days of sickness and death. 
With a reasonableness that could not Itc gainsaid In- refuted and 
disposed of Mrs. Asshlin's arguments, nod with a daring born of 
his new |Mmitioii made tlm startling proposal that the wedding 
ceremony should Is- |a-rforiucd within the shortest possible time: 
and that, to obviate all difficulties, t lodngh and lie should leave 
Ireland immediately, journeying to Italy to take up their resi- 
dence in the villa that he had 
already rented at Florence for 
his own use. 

Immediately the suggestion 
was made Mrs. Asshlin broke 
forth in irresistible objection. 

“Oh. tail wlint would peo- 
ple say!” she cried. “ Think 
of what people would say. 
With the funeral scarcely 
over." 

Milhankc looked at her 
gravely. His matter-of-fact 
mind was as far as ever from 
comprehending the ramiflea 
tions of the Irish character. 

" But, my dear Mrs. Assh- 
lin." lie urg“d. “ do you think 
we need really consider 
whether people talk or not! 
Surely we who knew and 
loved pour Denis — " 

"Oh. it isn't that! No 
one knows better than I do 
what a friend vou have 
been — ” 

Milhunkr stirred uncom- 
fortably. 

“ 1*1 rase do not speak of it. 

I — I did no more than any 
Christian would hare donp. 
What I mean to suggest — ” 
But again she interrupted. 

’* Yes. yes : | know. But 
we must consider the county. 
We must consider the 
county." 

But Imre Clodugh. who was 
standing hv the windowr, 
turned swiftly round. 

" Why must we?" she 
asked. “ The county never 
remembered father till he was 
dead. If I'm going to Is* mar- 
ried it's all the same to me 
whether it*« in three weeks 
or three months or three 
years." 

Millsinke colored, not quite 
sure whether the declaration 
wa* propitious or the re- 
verse. 

“ Certainly ! Certainly ! ’’ 


>/ lift I hr 

round 


it i inlaw, tunud sir if tty 


983 


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he broke in. nervously. 1 think your view is a — a very 
sensible one." 

Mra. A*shlin shook her bend in speechless disapproval. 

“ And wkat i» to become of Nance?” she asked, after a mo- 
ment V pause. 

A^ain Milbaiike glanced uneertainly at ('lodagh. 

’* .My idea." he began, dcpreralmgly, “ was to place the child 
at a pood English school. Hut for the tir*t year or two I think 
that perhaps C'ludngh might be allowed to veto any arrangement 
1 may make." 

(.'lodagh stepped forward suddenly and impulsively. 

“Do you mean that?" slu* asked. 

He bent bis head gravely. 

" Then — then let u» take her with us to Florence. "Twould 
make me happier than anything under the sun." 

Tlie words were followed by a slightly dismayed pause. Al- 
though he strove bravely to eon.-eal the fact, M i Ilian ke s face fell. 
And Mrs. Asshlin became newly and markedly shocked. 

“My dear ( 'lodagh — " she U-gan, sternly. 

But Milhunkr nut up bis band. 

" I’niy sav nothing. Mrs. Asshlin !” he broke in. gently. “ Clo- 
dngh's wishes are mine." 

The blood surged into ('lodagh** fnee in n wave of s|>onlaiieous 
relief. 

“You mean that ?" she said again. 

Once more he bent his head. 

“Then I'll marry you any time you like," she said, with a slid 
den impulsive warmth. 

And in due time the day of the marriage dawned. After care- 
ful consideration, every detail had been arranged and all diffi- 
culties smoothed away. The ceremony was to take place in the 
small, unpretentious Protestant church at Carrigmorc, where. 
Sunday after Sunday, since the days of her early ihildhood. Clo- 
dagh had listem-l to the Word of (Sod, and tuul sent up her own 
immature supplications to heaven. The marriage, which of neces- 
sity was to Is- of the most private nature, was tixed for the fore- 
noon; and it lmd been arranged that immediatelv upon it* con- 
clusion (’lodagh. Xunce. and Miibanke should repair to Mrs. A Mil- 
lin'* cottage, from which, having partaken of lunch, they were to 
start upon their journey 
without returning to Or- 
ris! own. 

The wedding morning 
broke gray and mild, pre- 
saging a typical Irish day. 

After a night of broken 
and restless sleep, (’lodagh 
woke at six, and slipped 
out of bed without dis- 
turbing Nance. 

For the first moment or 
two she sat on the side of 
her bed. her hands locked 
behind her loud, her bare 
feet resting upon the un 
carpeted llonr. Then sud- 
denly the sight of the long 
cardboard box. that had 
arrived from Dublin the 
day before, containing the 
new gray dress in which 
she was to be married, 
roused ber to the «ig 
nifleamv of the hour. With 
a swift movement she rose 
and crossed the room to 
the window. 

The view across the bay 
was neutral and calm. 

Over the sea to the east a 
pale and silvery sun was 
emerging front a flint of 
mist, while on tin* wntcr 
itself a white, almost 
spiritual radiance lay like 
a mystic veil. ('lodagh 
took one long, comprehen- 
sive glance at the familiar 
scenes then, as if afraid to 
trust herself too far, she 
turned away quickly and 
Itcgan to dress with noise- 
lea* haste. 

Twenty minutes later 
she crept down -stairs ar- 
rayed in her old black 
riding-habit. 

Where she rode on that 
morning of her marriage, 
what strange and specula- 
tive thought* burned in 
her brain, and what, se- 
crets — regretful or antici- 
patory — she whispered 
Into l'olly's sensitive ears, 
no one ever knew. At 
half past eight *he rode 
into the stable - yard, 
slipped from the saddle un- 


aided. and threw the mare’s bridle to Burke. For u full minute 
she stood witli her gloved hand upon the neck of the uniinal that 
had carried her so often and so well: thin, with a sudden, almost 
furtive, movement she In-iiI forward and pressed her face uguin*t 
the cropped inane. 

“Take care of lur, Tim!*' sin* said, unsteadily. “Take care of 
her: I'll come' Iwick some day, you know." 

And without looking at the old inun. she turned and walked out 
of the yard. 

She met no one on her way to the house; but as she passed 
across the hall she was suddenly arrested by the sight of Milhniikc 
descending the stairs, already arrayed in a conventional frock coat. 

Unconsciously she paused. From the lli-t she had vaguely un- 
derstood that he would discard his usual tweed suit on the day of 
the wedding ; hut the actual sight of these unfamiliar clothes came 
as a shock, bringing home to her the imminence of the great event 
as nothing else could |MK*ihly have done. He looked unusually 
old. thin, and precise in* the stilt, well-cut garment* — a cirrunt- 
sinme that was unkindly enhanced by the fuel that he was pal- 
pably aud uncontrollably nervous. 

There was a moment of eiiilsirrussed silence. Then, mastering 
her emotious, t'lodugh advanced to the foot of the stairs, holding 
out her hand. 

He responded to the gesture with something like gratitude. 

" You have tiren out early," he said, hurriedly. " Have you 
been taking a last look round?” 

< 'lodagh nodded ami turned aside. The smart of her recent fare 
well still burned in her eyes aud throat. 

He saw and interprets! the action. 

“ Don't take it to heart, my dear!" he said, quickly. “ You shall 
return whenever you like. And — ami it will Is- my proud privi- 
lege to know that you will always find everything in readiness for 
you." 

( 'lodagh 's Itcad drooped. 

“ You are very good." she said, in a low. mcrhnnical voice. 

For a space Miltoinkr made no response; then suddenly his 
fingers tightemd nervously over the hand lie wa* still holding. 

“ Clodugh," be said, anxiously, ** You do not regret anything? 
You know it is not too late— even now.” 

t'lodugh glnlicrd lip: and for one instant a sudden light 1ea|a-d 
her eves; the next. 


had drooped 
su id. ** I re- 


• of ad Munition /Mittal front H/> to li/> 


pret nothing." 

Milbanke's Angers tight- 
ened spasmodically. 

“tiod bless votl!" he 
said, tremulously. And 
leaning forward suddenly, 
lie pressed his thin lips to 
lier forehead. 

And so Clodagli'* hist 
boat was solemnly burned. 

The hours that followed 
breakfast and saw the de- 
parture from Orristown 
were too tilled with haste 
and confusion to make 
any deep impression upon 
her mind The lust fren- 
zied packing of things 
that had been overlooked ; 
the innumerable fu re- 
wells. all more or less 
harassing; the scramble 
to la* dressed, and the en- 
tering of the musty old 
Imrouche that hud done 
duty upon great occasion* 
in the AsNhlin family for 
close upon half a cen- 
tury — were nil hopelessly 
- - and mercifully — con- 
fused. liven the drive to 
Carrigmorc with her uunt 
and sister tilled her with 
a sense of dazed unreality. 
She sat verr straight ami 
-HIT in the MW gray 
dress, one hand Hn*|ied 
tenaciously round Nance's 
warm fingers, the other 
holding the cold and un- 
familiar ivory prayer-book 
that hail Iwrn one of Mil- 
banke's gift*. It was only 
when at las* the carriage 
drew up before the little 
church and she |wis*ed to 
the open gateway be- 
tween two knots of gaping 
and whispering villagers, 
that she realized with any 
vividness the inevitable 
nature of tin- moment. As 
she walked up the narrow 
pith to the church door 
she turnisl suddenly to 
her little sister. 




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With 


"Nuncp — " »hr nu id. 
brent hle**ly. 

Hut tin* t ini** for aptceh 
was M^rnl. A« \u n iv raised 
a bright, excited fmv to her*, 

Mrs. Asshlin hurried after 
tin-in aero** the gras*; ami 
together the three entrred 
the chiireti. A iiioment later 
Clodagh saw with a faint 
*cn*e of perturbation that 
the building war not empty. 

Ill a shadowy corner clone to 
the altar rails Milhnnke w«« 
talking in nervous whispers 
to the rector who was to per- 
form the ceremony. 

A few minutes Inter the 
little party was conducted up 
the aisle with the usual mur- 
mur of voices and rustle of 
garim-nta; and. in what 
-corned an incredibly — a pre- 
posterously — short space of 
time, the service had begun. 

During the first portion of 
it I'lodiigtr* eyes never left 
the brown, clean - shaven. 

Iienevolent face of the rector. 

Try as she might, she could 
not realize that the serious 
woids. pouring forth in the 
voice that a lifetime had ren- 
dered familiar, could be 
meant for her. who. until the 
day of her father's accident, 
hud never personally under- 
stood that life held any seri- 
ous responsibilities. It was 
only when the first solemn 
que-tinn was put to her. and. 

-tartlrd out of her dream, 
she responded almost iiutu- 
diblv, that hrr eye- turned 
upon Milhnnke standing op- 
posite to her — earnest, agi- 
tated. precise. For one sec- 
ond a sense of panic seized 
her; the next, she had blind- 
ly extended her left hand in 

olN-diciiee to the rector's injunction, and felt the chill of the now- 
gold ring as it was slip|M-d over her third linger. 

After that all-important incident it seemed but a moment be- 
fore the ceremony was over and the whole party gathered to- 
gether in the vestry. With a steady hand she signed her mime 
in the register; then, instantly the net was accomplished, she 
turmd instinctively towards the spot where Nance was standing. 

Hut before sbe could reach her sister's side she was intercepted 
by Mrs. Asshlin, who stepped forward, half tearful, half exultant, 
and embraced her effusively. 

“My dear child! — my dear, dear child!" she murmured, dis- 
jointedlv. “May your future Iv very happy!" 

Clodugh submitted tilcntly to the embrace; then, as her aunt 
reluctantly withdrew into the background, she became conscious 
of the old rector's kindly presence, looking closely into her face, 
lie took lu-r hand in both his own. 

“ (iod Idess you, my child!" hr suid, simply. “ I did not prruch 
you a sermon just now. In-cause I do not think you will require 
it. You are a dutiful child, and I believe that you have found 
a very worthy husband." 

At the word lui-Umd Clodugh looked up quickly; then her eyes 
dropped lo hrr wedding ring. 

“ Thank you." *he said, almost inaudible. And an instant later 
Milhnnke stepped forward deferentially and offered lu-r liis arm. 

In silence they pa«ed down the aisle of the church, in the 
centre of which Mood the old alone font at which Clodugh had 
been christened, and on which she had ls-en wont to fix hrr eye* 
during the Sunday service while the rector preached. All at once 
this inanimate friendly object seemed to take a new and unfa- 
miliar air — seemed to whisper that Clodagh Asshlin existed no 
more, and thut the strungci who tilled her place was an alien. 
Her fingers lightened nervously on her husband's arm mid lu-r 
steps involution ily quickened. 

Outside, in the cairn, gray, misty atmosphere, they lingered 
for a moment by the church door, in order to give Nance anil Mr*. 
Asshlin the opportunity of gaining the cottage before them; hut 
both were ill at ease, self-conscious, and acutely anxious to cur- 
tail the enforced solitude. And iL was with a sigh of relief that 
clodagh saw Mill-iink,- draw out his watch as uri indication thut 
they might start. 

Alsmt the gate the little group of curious idlers had ls-en aug- 
mented. And as Clodagh Mopped to the carriage an irrepre* siN«- 
murmur of admiration passed from lip to lip. succeeded hv a 
cold and critical silence as the bridegroom — well bred, well dressed, 
but obviously and incongruously old — followed in lu-r wake. 

Clodagh comprehended and construed this chilling silence hv the 
light of her own warm appreciation of tiling* young, strong, and 
iM-autiful. And a* she stepped hastily into the waiting carriage 
a llush of something like shame rose hotlv In lirr face. 

The drive In tire cottage scarcely occupied till minute*, and 


'emrnt of mu r prim Clotingh I unit'd lo ihf Uf*'n H'lHiloir 


even had they desired it there 
was no time for conversation. 
Milhnnke sat upright and 
enilNirraased ; clodagh lay 
back in her corner of the 
roomy tuuouchc. her even 
fixed resolutely upon the win- 
dow, her finger* tightly duall- 
ing the ivory pruyer-hoolc. 
One fact was occupying her 
mind with a sense of anger 
and loneliness — the fact that 
her cousin Larry had not 
hern present in the church. 
Since the night on which her 
engagement had Item an 
nnunci-d the feud la-tween the 
cousins hail continued. Dur- 
ing tin* week* of preparation 
for the wedding Larry had 
avoided Orriitown; but 
though no overtures had been 
made. Clodugh had never 
doubted that lie would be 
present nt the ceremony it- 
self. And now that the ex- 
die incut was passed she real- 
izes! with a shock of surprise 
thut she had been openly and 
iininiMtakahly deserted. 

The thought was upper- 
most in hrr mind as the car- 
riage stopped ; and when her 
aunt came forward to greet 
them her first question con- 
cerned it. 

*' Where's l-urry, Aunt 
KanT" she asked. 

" My dear child, that's 
just what I have been asking 
myself. But come in! Come 
into the house!” 

•Mrs. Asshlin was ilustered 
by the responsibilities of tin* 
moment. 

" Why wasn't lie in 
church T" Clodugh asked. 

Mrs. Asshlin tlyew out her 
hands in a gesture of per- 
plexity. 

" Hoys are incomprehenBibh* 
■Id enough to have forgotten 


" How can I tellT" she said, 
things. I'm sure — cr — •liimea i* not 
that 7" 

She glanced iirdilv over Iter shoulder. 

Mill-alike looked intensely cntli mussed, and Clodagh colored. 

" Well, we'd better not wait for lairry." she interposed, hastily. 
" You know- what a time it takes to get round to Cloghal with 
thut liig barouche." 

Min. Asshlin Is-cumc all assiduity. 

“Certainly! Certainly, my dear child! Mr. Curry and his 
brother are already waiting. Won’t you cuuie in!" 

With hospitable excitement she marshalled them into the dining- 
room and seated them al a table spread with good things. 

The room into which they were Ushered, though small, was 
bright and cheerful; and. notwithstanding the season, there were 
flower* u|M-u the table and mantelpiece, lint even under theae 
favorable « <oud it ions the lunch was *«iiieely a success. Mrs. Aaah- 
lin wit* gmuinc enough in her effort* at entertainment, hut the 
guests were not in u londitmn to lie entertained. Mill-unke was 
intensely nervous; CliMlagli *nt straight and rigid in her chair, 
uncomfortably conscious of iiisultordimtlr mint inns that crowded 
up at every added suggestion of departure. Kven the reetor'N 
brother — a bluff and hearty personage, who. out of old friendship 
for the Asshlin family, hud consented to act as l*-st man at the 
hurriedly arranged wedding -felt his spirits damped; while little 
Nance, who sat close to her sistrr, made no pretence whatever at 
hiding the tear* that kept welling into lu*r eye*. 

It was with universal relief that at length they lose from the 
table and filed -ait into the ball. There, however, n new inter- 
ruption awaited them. In the shadow of a doorway they caught 
•Jght of Hannah, arrayed in her Sunday bonnet and shawl, and 
still breathless from the walk from Orristuwn. 

At sight of the little party she came forward with a certain un- 
gainly shyness, but catching a glimpse of Clodagh, love conquered 
even - lesser feiding. 

" la-l me have wan last look at her!" she exclaimed, softly. 
"That'* all I'm wantin'." 

And as Clodagh turned impulsively towards lier she held out 
her arms. 

"Sure. I knew her la-fore any wan of ye ever sat eye* on her!" 
slie explained, the tears running down her cheek*. " t!o on now. 
iiiias — ma’am.” *he added, brokenly, pushing Clodagh forward 
toward* the door, and turning to Milhnnke with an outstretched 
hand. “tJood-by. *ir! And find bless you!" Her soft, singsong 
voice fell and her hard hand tightened over his. “Take rare of 
her!" she added. '* And don’t lie forget tin' thut she’* nothin' but 
a child still, for all her fine height and hrr good looks." 

She 'poke with crude, rough earnestness, but at the last words 
her feelings overcame her. With another spasmodic pressure ahe 
/I'oniiiturd on pegr 991. f 


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Correspondence 


WHAT IS JAPAN GOING TO DO? 

I'llCUM ff*|t'A*K, Nkw York. June X , IWi. 
To the Editor of Harper'* Weekly: 

Sin, — Both in your column:* mid in thoae of (lie daily pw bare* 
appeared article* dealing wilh the Inwn to be drawn from the 
occurrence. conduct, and the almost assured ouinmir of the war 
in the Far Ka*t. A fear ha* Im‘cu ex|imwl that civilized na- 
tions, and particularly the United State*, will have much to fear 
twith from the commercial and political rivalry of .la pan in the 
Far East and from her military and naval prowe**. 

The experience of long residence in Japan and intimate acquaint- 
ance with the Japanese lead* me to voice what I ladirve muat la* 
the opinion of most old resident* in that country, namely, that a 
fear that the Japanese will enter into a kern commercial and 
|»olitical rivalry with civilized nation* i* well founded. 

Japan ha* made ceaseless attempt* to inquire foreign terri- 
tory. Formosa she annexed a* a result of the war with China. 
Sire tried to do the an me with Port Arthur and adjacent terri- 
tory. but was hoiked by the vigilance of Europe. A few year* 
ago she would gladly have acquired the Sandwich Islands, Korea 
is now Japanese territory in all but name. A* a pretext we com- 
monly hear it said that Ja|uin i« an overcrowded country, nod 
must have room for expansion. This i* untrue; Japan i* not over- 
crowded. and if she were, mom for expansion is provided in the 
rich island of Yezo. where it could be carried out without great 
hardship to the native population, which is not, a* in Chinn and 
Korea, numerous. 

Japan's object is simply commercial and political expansion 
for its own sake. This may la- a perfectly legitinuite object, but. 
nevertheless, it requires of the United States that die look sharp- 
ly to her growing interests in the Far Fast. Something more 
than tike dictate* of conscience will be needed to make Japan 
adhere to her < informal I pledges to maintain the open door in 
territory that comes under her control. 

As to the naval and military excellence of the Japanese there 
is less cause for American apprehension. When the events 
of the present war come to be viewed in their proper perspective 
it will lie seen that Japan's easy victories on the sea have Is-cti 
due rather to the startling unprepa redness and inefficiency of the 
Russians than to any singular excellence on the part of the Jap- 
anese. And it will proluihly he made plain that on land the Jap- 
anese won. first. l>v sheer force of overwhelming numbers; second, 
by their acquaintance with the territory gained in actual war- 
fur**: third, by their nearness to their l«se, and the superiority 
of their supply-train. It will la* seen that in fighting qualities 
ami iu ma mi-uv ring the Russian has shown himself the equal of 
tile Japanese. 

We have little to fear from any ineitlciencv on thr pint of our 
navy, and with our navy doing her part cur army need never be 
placid upon the defensive. I am, sir. 

John Coi.e MrKivt. 


A DO<; THAT REASONED 


diction of governmental supervision with the object of abolishing 
and stamping out the iniquitous practice now prevailing of grant- 
ing to a limited numlier of shipper* *|M-ciul rates ind arrangements 
which enable them to monopolize to their own profit that whu-li 
should la* granted to thr public at large. I quote from the article: 
" President Tuttle of the Boston uud Maine Railroad testified 
that, in his opinion, Isith rebates and discrimination* are thing* 
of the past. . . . He further emphasized hi* belief that, even if the 
practice of rebates and di-w intimation* bad not gone by, the law 
Is ample for the protection of the public uguinst it.*' 

Then- i* the whole milk in the mcoanut mo*t naively expressed. 
President Tuttle, a* well as every other railroad official ami every 
traffic manager of every trust, shipping combine, or private cor- 
poration controlling any considerable amount of tonnage, knows 
that “ there i* something doing." They can keep on appointing 
investigating committees rotnpo»i*t| of Senator* and ambitious and 
mercenary |a>liticiai«* to represent the government on on*- side, and 
foxy railroad officials on the oilier side, and discus* the advisa- 
bility of enlarging the scope and authority of the Interstate t'nin- 
inrrcc t'oinmissioM and placing the rat*- making power in their 
hand*, etc., etc . ad libitum, and what does it all amount to? If 
the public ut large ami the Interstate Commerce Commission and 
President Roosevelt and the investigating committees and the 
railroad official* actually want to know wliat is going on «ab 
ro*a. why don't they get hold of the clerics who actually do the 
work of " skinning " the rates for the benefit of the favored few. 
grant them immunity, and insure them a fixed cmupi-tency by ap- 
(Miinting them a committee for suppressing and alsdisiimg the 
crooked work that they have been compelled to carry on at the 
instructions of their employer*? 

I am. sir, Railroader. 


THE ATTRACTIVE WOMAN AGAIN 

Nkw Yuan. Janr x. mi. 

To the Editor of Harper'* Weekly: 

Km. — I wish to protest against your various letter-writers who 
are demanding all sorts of high and mighty qualities for woman. 
My requirements are simple enough: her "four attributes " may 
safely he condensed to on* — A Sense of Humor. Without that 
she is the salt without it* savor, the llower without |M-rfume. 
the automobile without u chauffeur. Women I have known who 
possessed a sense of humor have Wen everything else delightful. 
Hei-.nj-.i- aren't most women all right anyhow ? 'liny are. It is 
only those without a hciim* of humor who drive us out of Paradise. 
I remember saying to one once. “ What I am piaviug for is high 
life on a low income." She lookrsl at me with perfect solemnity, 
and said, ** I)o you believe in the efficacy of prayer?” “ Vcs." 1 
said. “ I do." “ Well." ahe said. " I am glad of that, but I don't 
think youi aspiration* an- very high." And as I remained silent 
she added. “Still, I suppose, to want high life on a low income is 
l tetter than low life on a high income." Then I tied. Hence this 
letter. I am. sir. R. V. 


Kvnhas ClTV, June tl, 005. 

To the Editor of Harper'* Weekly: 

Sir, — I have read with much interest the articles in Harpeu'h 
Weekly on the reasoning of animals. I lag to communicate to 
you what I believe to he a striking example of animal reasoning. 
I)an. a handsome Gordon setter, wns accustomed to sleep in the 
stable. Iteing quite a favorite he was often allowed in the bouse, 
especially ill severe weather. Having been taught to fetch the 
morning paper, which was thrown into the yard by the carrier, 
Dan fell Into the habit of using this method to gpin admittance 
to the house. If be came to the door without the (taper he was 
refused admittance, due morning the carrier failed to bring a 
paper, and, having been went away from the door. Dun was much 
puzzled what to do. An investigation of the premises revealed no 
paper, and u* the dog was thought to have lost it he was soundly 
scolded and left out in the cold. Evidently the scolding did some 
good, for within a few momenta Dan turned up with the morning 
papci iu his mouth, Ity way of chastisement for the delnv lie 
wn.i still refused admittance. Very possibly thi* me thod of ad- 
iiiinistering justice did not agree with Dan’s notion of the way 
in which dogs should Is- treated; nevertheless, he was not to Is- 
deterred from gaining his obj«*ct When, n few- momenta later, a 
Member of the family opened the door to go out Dan was wail 
Ing patiently with anotficr morning paper. Sulksequcnt develop- 
ment* revealed the fact llml two of the neighbors 1 psi|M*r* were 
missing. I urn, sir, 

CHtnnv G. Brown, 


THE REGULATION OK RATES 

ltRooKi.vn. Jimr X. rxa. 

To the Editor of Harper' a It'rdtfjr; 

Km. I happened to pick up your edition of June Iff at jwige 
S'JJ. and my attention wa« immediately attracted to the photo- 
graph of Commissioner Jud*on Clements, in the lower right- 
hand corner, who is apparently testifying to sonic stupendously 
ini|x>rtant question irifii hi* left hand mined, and <-n reading the 
article. " Tl»e Government and the Railroads." I immediately rec- 
ognized the appropriate ap|dication to the whole icft-handi-d find- 
ing of the uiigiist committee who have Ik-cii investigating the ques- 
tion of discrimination in freight rates, rebates, and the ad- 
visability of (daring the matter in the hand* and under the juris* 


Nkw York. June X, ms. 

To the Editor of Harper '* Weekly: 

Kir, — I wa* interested in your eorres|»ondcnt'» letter regarding 
the four nccesaarv attributes of the perfert woman, mid I t*-g 
Iu suggest the following: Tlie religious sense : domestic loyalty, 
charily; generosity. It seem* to me that a woman with those 
qualities, nr attriiailes. would have u countenance very pleasant 
to look upon, though it might not la* what i* commonly known as 
beautiful. She would nl*o In- the (MMsessor of a broad and liberal 
mind, for u woman who (tossessen “ charity " does not gossip, or 
judge others. Generosity would imply that she would l«- helpful 
and a good friend — verv powerful, not to say comfortable, traits 
in man or woman. Ami Jnis sensing domestic loyalty she would la-. 
ii* near a* I can judge, n perfect woman. One word more on the 
subject of woman's la-nut y. I grant it* at tract ion: Imt I must say 
that some of the ls**t anil noblest women I tone known lime been 
the |ea*t la-autifill in the accepted sense of the term. 1 deplore 
the cultivation of Is-nuty in woman at the expense of higher, more 
valuable, and more enduring attrihulcs, and it has often seemed 
to me peculiarly and affect ingly unjust when I have observed the 
path made easy by every one for a woman of beauty, while Ih-i- 
plilincr. but |m-i!ui]>* superior, sister trod often ii|nui the thorns. 
Your corrrs|HUident. therefore, who mentions ts-aiiiy ms a u**e*-s- 
«arv quality in woman I eon*i«Ier wholly in the wrong. 

I am. sir, ” Aftat Seventy.” 


Nkw York. June X. 

To the Editor of Harpe,'* Weekly: 

Kir. — I have read with much interest the letter from your corre- 
spondent discussing ihc qualities that go to make the ideal woman. 
The writer i* evidently a man. which account* for certain amusing 
features of the ideas advanced. He assume*, tarilly, if not ex- 
plicitly. that the jwrfect woman necessarily exist* for the com- 
fort. consolation, and delight of the op(«n*i1e sex, Kbe must Is*, 
we are told, "affectionate ' and " docile." and she must have “a 
high reverence for maternity.” in addition to n ” suiw of religion.” 
Itnr. ns to the first thru* qualities required, suppose she has no 
desire to marry and never intends to- Must -lu- -till continue to 
1*- atTecI innate and docile, and to ravcrciir. iii iiernitv' Another 
thought uiriirs to me: What alsuit hu t a* an all-hnpurtuut requisite 
for tin- pi-rfi-ct woman? I am. *ir. 


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HARPERS WEEKLY 


The Dictator of Europe 

( Com fiini'd from ftagc 97 4J 

Chunccllor, mid when French foreign policy 
wa» really df reefed from Berlin. From that 
position of subjection France had rescued 
herself by forming the Dual Alliance; to 
that position of subjection she returns now 
that the Dual Alliance has ceased to lx* 
effectively operative. Nor has it been leas 
decisively established that, in such a case, 
the Anglo-French entente is and can lx* uf 
no real assistance to her. (treat Britain 
eannot. under any circumstance*, in her 
present stale of military chans, offer to 
France that particular kind of protection 
which the Dual Alliance, so long as it re- 
mained in full vigor, could and did afford 
her. For colonial purposes, for almost ull 
extra-European puijiose*. the entente not 
only remains Intact, hut has before it the 
prospect of a constantly increasing useful- 
ne»». It has removed once and for all the 
danger, that only it very few year* ago was 
an imminent danger, of a colonial war lie- 
tween Droit Britain and France: and the 
probabilities nrp that both in Africa and 
Ibe Far Fast opportunities will arise for 
extending and consolidating it. Hut for 
Continental luirjxises, as a sulistitute for 
the Dual Alliance, as an arrangement for 
counteracting the disablement of Russia, it 
is. and in the nature of things must lx*. 
hofieli>*s]y inadequate. That i« a function 
it was never intended, and is not fitted, to 
fulfil, and the French, while prizing it as an 
instrument that works powerfully for their 
interests and security in its own particular 
sphere, realize that to rely upon it ns a 
protection against Dermnny is to lean on a 
broken reed. Frame, therefore, confronts 
Derma ny bereft of all outside assistance, 
and with no one to de|iend upon but her- 
self: and being at this moment the most 
sincerely pacific nation in Kumpe, pene- 
trated also with the consciousness that a 
war with her eastern rival would in all 
human probability end as it ended in the 
seventies. «he rinds herself in a situation of 
extreme difficulty that is not without its 
poignant humiliations. 


A Case of Second Sight 

A Scotch minister and his friend, who 
were coining home from a wedding. I«cgan 
to consider the state into which their pota- 
tions at the wedding feast had left them. 

“Sandy," said the minister, “just stop a 
minute here till I go ahead. Mavis* I don’t 
walk very steady, anil the grind wife might 
remark something not just right.” 

He walked ahead of tin* servant for a 
short distance and then naked: 

“ How is it? Am I walking straight?” 
“Oh. ay." answered Sandy, thickly, 
“ye’re a* reeht — but who’s that who’s with 
you?” 


A Schoolboy’s View of 
Tennyson 

Tiie following remarks on Tennyson were 
recently hamb-d in *>n an examination 
paper by a schoolboy in an English Litera- 
ture Cla«s: “ laird Alfred Tennyson was a 
celebrated |w*d. and lie wrote a lot of la-iiuti- 
fill pomes with long hair. His greatest 
| sunc i« called * The Idle King.’ He was 
made a lord, hut he was a guru] man and 
wrote many nads." 


Too High A Price 

A y\ it m i_v itoioni who was getting married 
found that lie had not enough money with 
which to pay the minister’s fee. lie 
promised, however, to pay him in potatoes 
when they were ready fm digging up. The 
minister waited for some time, but no pota- 
toes were forthcoming; so he called upon 
the man and inquired the reason. 

” Well, to tell you the truth. Duvner.” was 
the reply. ” I’d like to give von the potatoes, 
but she ain’t worth it. 


Unfderbei 





•i Stats*. E»»ri ana at 

I Diamond i* the emblem ot protperiti It* briglit 
land mid rat* of Umild fir* are an **t»rla»tin* do- 


Diamond hr th* Famou* LOFTIS CREDIT SYSTEM. 
-dWote To-day lor a covi «l our Catalop. 1000 lllu«- 
Itntiont. and our Sovoosir Diamond Booklet. Wo 
gmll mall both to you free. Writs To-day! 

7 »'« * it I as, Ml Uia tiWmowl. U>* W«u r. or Us 

f 'rt Jim selivt n« •pprorsL If r n> like It |mt 

uii'. Qflli ttio |irlco slid *eo|. It. 6»n-l ths UsUbrs <11- 
H-t to in l» slittit monthly |«ri»niU. W« pay 

lr,|'r.«,i-iuwi«, W* «u no wurlly Ctmta 
r> iMibllrlti’. W • nuhs ni> Inqmlrle* of your era 
1 — r All trsessrslons are confidential 

» Nilnl: f'-»u It no. I . |,rb-m Inwmt, low. 
in your h«m« Jr»*^r a«k*fur »|«ii ■-»«*. W« 
is ordinal, ths Urrfo.c Us m— t rsllaMs Wa 
• on Crmllt bossr. Til* U'FTI* SY*»- 

TF.* rr-«luJ Hit mmol twirl it, Ooiil Mnlal- 
UUMX LkuIs tupustlloa. »Vrf«/or Cntat-ft 

lupapm Diamond Cutters 
l|lp I I Watchmaker*. leaner*. 
Uv ; IU| II ^ Dent. (, c,l. 92 Slit. St. 

Immiis 



ROMEO 

y 

JULIETA 
Sega rs. 

The Choice Products of a 
Oreat Factory. 

In AH Shapes and Sizes. 

A art ■>( uiir lianil* mailed l-KKK 



If you h«« •„ »rei» tiTnatni 

*rtUkkM tour bsitrrtn w4l iliin »>ie 

. •>»«■. U'S. itrailv i|w*, U»»m *r 

1'iiulo, nilfiBf. < ■ if (O raclus itKulf 
»••«* in., tar anil la am of ihia |M*fvO so*- 


//O ros 1 MEN ^ or SRAIMS 

iA*S 

-MADE AT KEY WEST>- _l 

■P 



Cop?ri0bt iHottce 


I.iiimasv or Ccimomkm. i 
Omit fir ms Kw,imiu os (orvaioins. • 
\V«tiitiM,row. I>. t . » 

lias. V ,\.\r. r No. lo wit AV U ,rm,m 

That "n tlw Ifstri .tuy „t June. IMS Wsndrli Prlmr. ..f ths 
L‘u4le<l Milo. Iiath itrpMilnl In this nf&c* the lltlr of a 
HOOK.thr title of wliwli Is in tile fotloWln# wools. I., mt 
••Out l hllilren's Sonic*. With lilualrjl'oos." tlie ri*ht where 
of he rlnima o isiienslnt In conformity wl|h the law* i>f the 
t 'nltefl stale* re*|m-tlna rii*iyrl«l>u. 

islsiievl) lltsaKHT I'lisi* , Ltlrarlmm or (Vwyrru, 
ily 'I homwalis Soi h*hh, Mtguur «■/ f • ;•.» rigi/i. 

I , ■ , " 1 1 I - • • • l r ■ !• Seelr-u l«- 86. IKIX. 

Maks the tost sock tail. A dellxMm 

aromatir for all oine.sccril and soda 
ubtesi-uuntolin 


Imacrtant lo •«« that II i| Abbott'* 


Extracts from Adam's Diary 

By MARK TWAIN 

“One of the funnievt pieces of writing that ha* come from the |>ei» of the veteran humorist, '* declares the 
/•kilaJetfhin AViWof these extracts from the diary which Adam kept in the Darden of F.den, and in which 
he recorded hi* first impression* of Kve. " tif course, it is all non*en*c.’’ says the critic, " burlevjue *if the 
wildest sort, but a* such it is an undoubted masterpiece.” //lustra 'erf. Cloth, ft. 00. 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK 

889 Digitized by Google 





On thr Fnnmri ttrrk of thr Hnttl< ■ shift “ Cutnvilrh " — Ntfuiii in if n f/n/r «»» thr Sh </•'« Suh intuit In/ a Jo /nun sr Shrll 

SNAP-SHOTS OF RUSSIAN SAILORS ON BOARD THE DISABLED 
BATTLE-SHIP " CZAREVITCH 

Thr fthoh-irvfihn irrrr tol.ro noon aftrr' thr ilisnhl.il Ifnssion hnlth shift " t'rorrrih h ” iros hnr. il in In On horhtir n( Tsmt/tou. 
\ffrr thr tin mil in io/tirtnt ht/ o mrrlintf with thr «• ftrrt Nim/«T \<htiirol Tni/n. thr ” t’:on r itrh ” won iutrmril ot TnintfhOt. 

whirr *hr now Inn I'll it n( hrr rrrw is ntill nhoortl. Th< iihiitnorttfihn irrrr tok< n no *’ wish •tint/." unit tfirr on inlrrrithtfl 
t/ll/o (is- ■ u( Ihi fWistnl ilml u millin' ohnoril thr hnttlr-shifi. 

fl!KI 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


The Gambler 

f CuiifiNMt'tf from I>age 9S5.J 
ichu-asl hi* Huger*, mill turning liiennti- 
neatly, di*u speared into tin; buck region* of 
t lit- cottage. 

For a moment Milhnuke remained where 
ulii* had left him. moved and Vet pernlcxed 
by her hurried words; tlirn, suddenly ri- 
m<*mlH*ring bin duties, lie I'lward the hall 
anil punctiliously olferrd his arm to Clo- 
dngh. 

"The carriage it* waiting,” he said, 

%ui Clodagh sluKik lier head. 

“ Please take Nance first.” she murmured, 
in a low. constrained voire. 

lie acquiesced silently, and as he moved 
away from her she turned to Mrs. Asshlin. 

“ 1 Jood-bv, Aunt Fan!" she said. “And 
tell Larry ‘that l*m— that I'm sorry. He'll 
know whut it mean*." 

Her carefully controlled voice shook sud- 
denly as prid*" struggled with affection and 
asmK'iation. Suddenly putting her arms 
round Mrs. Asshlin's neck, she kissed her 
thin cheek, and turning quickly, walked 
forward to the waiting carriage. 

There was a moment of excitement, a 
spasmodic waving of handkerchiefs, the 
sound of n stifled sob. and the tardy throw- 
ing of a slipper; tlirn. with a swish of the 
long driving-whip, the horses hounded for- 
ward, and the great lumbering carriage 
swung down the hill that led to the Sloghal 
road. 

As they bowled through tin* village street 
Clodagh "shrank back into her corner, re- 
fusing to look her lust on the scene that 
for nearly eighteen years hud formed n por- 
tion of her life's horizon. The instinctive 
clinging to familiar things that forms so 
integral a part of the Celtic nature was 
swelling in her throat and tightening about 
her heart. She resolutely refused to lie 
conquered by her emotion ; but the emotion — 
stronger for her obstinate suppression of it — 
luadr fair to dominate her. For the mo- 
ment she was unconscious of Milhanke, sit- 
ting opposite to her. anxious and depre- 
cating. and she dared not permit herself to 

t ress the small, warm fingers that Xuttrc 
ad insinuated into her own. 

With a lurch the carriage swept round 
the curve of the street and emerged upon 
the Cloglml road. Hut scarcely had Burke 
gathered the reins securely into his hands, 
scarcely hud the horn-- settled into a swing- 
ing trot, than the little party licramr sud- 
denly aware that n cheek had been placed 
Ilium their progress. There was nil ex- 
clamation fmm Burke. ■« clutter of hoof* 
ns the horses were hastily pulled up. and 
the barouche came to a halt. 

With a movement of surprise Clodagh 
turned to the open window. But on the 
in«ta nt there was a truffle of paws, the 
sharp, eager yap of a dog. and something 
rough and warm thrust it*clf against, her 
face. 

“Xliik!” site cried, in breathless, incredu- 
lous rapture. Then *he g lamed quickly over 
the dog's red head to the hands that had 
lifted him to the rarringc window. 

” Larry!" she said, la-low- her breath. 
Young Asshlin was standing in the middle 
of the road — red, shy. anil excited. 

“ I want you to take him, Clo,** he said, 
awkwurdly, “ for a — for a wedding-present.” 
For one instant Clodagh *at overwhelmed 
by the suggestion, and next her eyes un- 
consciously sought Milhanke**. 

"May IV she said, hesitatingly. It was 
her first faltering acknowledgment that lier 
actions were no longer quite her own. 
Milhanke started. 

"Oh. assuredly!” he said. ** Assuredly.” 
And Clodagh opened the enrriuge door 
and look Mick into her arms. 

For one moment the joy of reunion sub- 
merged every other feeling; then she raised 
a glowing, grateful face to her cousin, 

“ Larry — " she began, softly. 

But old Burke leaned down from bin seat. 
“ We'll la- lute for the thrnin,” he an- 
nounced, iniia-rturUilily. 

Again Milhanke started nervously. 

M Berlin ps. Clodagh — " he begun. 

Clodagh bent, her head. 

'* Shut the door. Larry.” she said. “ And 
— and you were n darling to think of it ! '* 
A“*hiin closed the door. 

(Continued on pegt 993.) 


THE WAYSIDE SERIES 



Many men buy a 


for their wives, 


^ ELECTB.IC 

J UST as many men go to the circus 'because the children want to go.' They generally 
wind up by using and enjoying the Pope- Waved ey as much as cither wife or children. 
In the gasoline field there is some latitude for investigation and comparison — in the 
electric field your choice is practically narrowed down to the Pope-Waverley, whose pre- 
eminence is absolute, unique, and unquestioned. 

The more you study the electric situation the more you’ll fed like owning a Pope- 
Waverley — no matter whether you operate other can or not 

Anyway you'd better write for the handsomely illustrated catalogue which will give 
you a graphic idea of the infinite possibilities of the Pope-Wavedey from the standpoint of 
both pleasure and utility. 

We nvske Coupr*, Cheltra*. Surieys, Sunkotw*. Station and Delivery 
Wyn, Price* $630 to $2,230. Al»o Trucks on specifications. 

Write for coapirtr catalogue and name of our agent nramt you. 

POPE MOTOR CAR CO. Desk w. Indianapolis. Ind. 


Model 27 , Stanhope, 

Open or Victoria Top, Price f 1.400. 


This is a series of artistic little books made after designs by Mr. 
Will Bradley, the well-known designer and artist. The volumes are 
square i6mo in size and especially pleasing in typography and make-up. 


Rip Van Winkle Old-style volume 

with frontiqmvc. $ 75 

Legend op Sleepy Hollow. Uniform 

with "Rip Van Winkle." .75 

Rubaiyat op Omar Khayyam. With 

Oriental ornaments and binding 1 00 
Book of Rcth and Estiif.r. With esj*- 

cially designed initials, etc. 1.00 

Bradley— H is Book Bound volumes 

of this unique, artistic periodical. ,Yd 5 00 
Gilbert's Bab Ballads. With over too 

drawings by the author i.tj 


•Kingsley's Persei l A beautiful, well- 

printed child's book. & -75 

Hawthorne's Paradise op Children. 

Uniform with "-Perseus." .75 

Prince Ahmed and Peri Ranoi* (fn-m 
'"Arabian Nights"). Uniform with 
" Perseus " .75 

Tine Wisdom op Conpvcics A light 

upon Chinese religion and life. 100 

Flowers prom Persian Gardens. A 

choice anthology. i.aj 

Edition de Luxe. 10.00 


1 

1 HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE, N. Y. 


Ml 


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The. .1 tuveivan rlimutr — the night After the hot teal 
tleg of the an m met. — Springfield Union. 


Room at Waohiiu/tnn in irhieh it i* fiofiMut to routine! 
the peace negotiation!!. — Omaha World-HemM. 


The Great Watt of China — .4 nearer eirtr. 
Keening Seten, 


iria — i rUere the fetter id tins are 
-Chicago fntrr-theeait. 


EVENTS Ol THE WEEK IN CARTOON 


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HARPERS WEEKLY 


(Continued from page 991.) 

~ Good-by, Nance! Good-by, sir! Good- 
by. Clo!" 

He looked bravely into the carriage, but 
hit* face vaa atill preternatural] v red. 

('lodugh turned to him ini|>ultlwlj. 

“ Larry — ” alie U-gan again. 

Hut the hfirm-M ntnrtrd forward, and the 
boy, lifting hia cap, stepped lack into the 
roadway. 

Clodngh stooped forward, waved her hand 
unevenly, then dropped back into her seat. 

While the horses covered a quarter of a 
mile she sat without movement or speech. 
Hut at last, lifting his great adoring eyes i 
lo her face, Mick ventured to touch her hand 
with a warm, reminding tongue. 

The gentle appeal of the action, the hun- 
dred nicnmrieH it evoked, was instantaneous 
mid supreme. In a sudden, irrepressible 
tide, her grief, her uncertainty of the future, 
her home sick ness, inundated her soul. 

With n quick gesture she tiling away Isith 
pride and restraint, and hiding her faee 
against the dog's rough coat, cried as if 
she had been a child. 

To be Continued. 

The Abuses of Our Mail 
Service 

(Continued from page 97.1./ 
during the past nix or seven years, and a 
few of its more flagrant iniquities him* been 
abolished. The process has been attended, 
it is alleged, by some arbitrary restrictions 
and petty interferences with lcgaliu-d 
publications, amounting practically to a cen- 
sorship of the periodical press, Until the 
courts have finally passed u|a»n all the 
executive rulings we cannot know the full 
measure of the reforms secured. 

The M-cund-rlana rate of one cent a pound 
was deliberately established for the Is-nellt 
of legitimate newspapers and periodical-., 
having in view their supposed educational 
inilticiire. This rate, lieing only a fruition 
of t lie known cost nf transmission, its con- 
cession should have linen rigidly restricted. 

Hut abuses crept in. until this class of mail 
const it ii till seventy per ernt. nf the whole 
tonnage, while it yielded only lour per 
cent, of the revenue. 

Reform was necessary. The head of the 
bureau having jurisdiction of the matter. 
Mr. E. C. Maddeu. inaugurated measures 
for curbing the serial-novel graft, news- 
agents’ *' return ” privilege, the pamphlet- 
advertising schemes, and other obnoxious 
excrescences. Many of his efforts to purge 
the mails have been successful : others have 
failed: a few are still pending in judicial 
tribunals. 

Until either Congress or the Department 
succeeds in restricting the second-class rate 
within the legitimate boundaries of its 
original and praiseworthy pur|>oac, we must . 
class the improjwr use of that privilege ! 
a lining the leading factors of the annua! I 
postal deficit. 

Tin- new enterprise of rural free delivery, 
useful and popular as it is. has become 
un enormously expensive and deplorably ! 
unprofitable feature. The appropriation for 
the current fiscal year was $ 21 , 000 . 000 . as 
against *450.000 in lono, and $8.1.54.000 in 
1003 — such are its seven-league strides to j 
the front as a monev-absorher. 

On the basis of the experience for the | 
preceding year, the loss in the rural free I 
delivery service may In- prefigured thus: 

''«rt *»f average rural rente per nmnth. .$40.54 
I ncoate I«.fl4 

i-©«* rta.no 

A» the loss is 78 per cent, of the cost, 
the deficit mused by this branch of the 
service for the year 1905 is approximately I 
* 1 11,380.000. or more than the entire loss ' 
on the postal system as a whole. Nor is 
it just to credit all the i-nllertinns on mail 
handled hv the rural carriers to that 
service. Much of the mail busine** existed 
l«efore the routes were established, and tin- 
postage collected must, pay the wind.- cost 
of the transportation from the place nf 
origin to its destination. 

What shall we do” He would In- a 
bold man who proposed to discuiiLinnc this 


great farm-illuminating service merely lie- 
i-ause it is financially unprofitable. And it 
is getting more expensive. The salary of the 
rural carrier was raised from $800 to $720 
Iasi year. He will progressively demand 
$800. $1>00, and $1000, and will doubtless 
successively accomplish his purpose*. The 
rural service will cost $50,000,000 per 
annum five years hence, and the loss will 
correspondingly increase unless more 
revenues are earned. 

Can the revenues be increased? The De- 
partment suggests a local parcels post which 
is. perha|M, worth trying. 

lire issue and payment of money-orders 
are not in any legitimate sense a govern- 
mental function. It is a feature of hank- 
ing business, and is regarded by many 
thought ful men as a dangerous develop- 
ment of state socialism. It is a compli- 
cated and inconvenient process fur remit- 
tance*. but Is carried on with such diligent 
enterprise by the Department officials and 
the local post musters who conduct its 
operations, that one who looks only on the 
surface sees little to condemn. It has l«een 
shown, however, allowing a proportionate 
share of salaries of postmasters and of 
clerks in post-offices engaged in money- 
order work, together with all other neces- 
sary items of expense, that there is an 
annual loss of $2,500,000 on the money- 
order business at the post-offices. 

Fifty millions of postal money-order* 
were issued by our post-offices last year. 
On 1 1,000,000 of these, which exceeded $5 
in amount, there was a small margin of 
profit ; on 30,000.000 small orders the fee, 
five cents for those ulsive and three cents 
for those below $2.50. there was a heavy 
bets, as tin? average nisi of printing, issuing, 
redeeming, reporting and auditing is more 
than ten cents. 11m- loss on the small 
money-orders was $2,833,000. while the 
profit on the larger ones was about $300,000. 

Thus, if the postal orders for less than 
$.*» could l»e superseded by a simpler and 
cheaper method of remitting, the heavy 
annual deficit in the money-order aervlee 
would be avoided. 

This method has been found in the pro* 
jxiscd [tost -check currency, which lias re- 
ceived the indorsement of hundred* of 
periodicals, of national commercial bodies 
ami postmasters' conventions, has lreeti 
unanimously approved by thr Post-otlU-c 
Committee of Congress, but hangs fire 
through the covert hostility of express com- 
panies. The post-clieck plan provides that 
our one. two. and five dollar hills in general 
circulation ahull he printed payable to 

“ or order.” instead of " to bearer.” 

When wanted for remittances the name of 
the payee would be inserted, and they could 
then Is* safely sent by mail like numey- 
orders, They would Is- redeemed at bunk* 
and post-office*, forwarded direct to United 
States Subtrensurh**, eanrrlled. and re- 
issued like mutilated currency. A two-ernt 
|fostage stamp affixed to a bill, when trans- 
formed info a check, would pay all tin* 
cost of redemption and reissue. 

So simple and obvious a means of doing 
away with the grievous loss on postal 
money orders should be promptly put Into 
<qietation. 

There are other features wliieh con- 
tribute appreciably lu tin* »um total of 
needless waste whereby our deficit in post- 
office revenue* is made to exist and to in- 
crease steadily. Tho»c which have been 
cited are the chief delinquents. The rail- 
way overcharge, the franking abuse, tire 
M'COnd-elaCs mail graft, the rural frre-de- 
livery deficit, and the small money-order 
nuisance must one bv one he -oihjn-icd to 
intelligent business methods if we are to 
avoid irretrievable disaster. 


One of the Nine 

A cikimiyman who was nut walking one 
Sunday came acin«* some hoys who were 
playing liosehall in a vacant lot. Going up 
to one nf them who hud jn*t la-on struck 
•nit. ho uitd. “ Young man. don't you know 
that it i- very wrong to play Im-iImII on 
Sunday' What would your father say if he 
km w about it *” 

" You'd better a»k him." was the reply: 
•* hr'* playing shor t stop," 

1MW 


^Z oe \ 



S.ANARGYROS 

The clubman's cigarette is 
Egyptian Deities. He finds 
it the accepted brand of his 
club ; he finds it the unchang- 
ing preference of his friends ; 
and for him no other cigarette 
affords the exquisite perfection 
of flavor and aroma, and an 
equal assurance of uniform 
quality. 

Egyptian 

deities 

contain only the finest, purest, 
ripest Yacca leaf ; aged, cured 
and handled throughout with 
infinite care and regardless of 
expense. This cigarette never 
changes in blend, and always 
affords the full shape and 
clear, even draught that comes 
only from the most skillful 
Egyptian workmanship. 


financial 

■ ., Bill* of cxcbuuge bought and 

|.0ll0fS *old. Cable T ran* fen U» Eu 
rope and South Africa. Con- 
0j merclal and Traveller*’ Letters 

of Credit. Collection* nru.ic. 
fjrfinit. international Cheque*. Cer- 
M * tltlcate* 01 Deposit. 

Brown Brothers & Co., 

Uamkbii*, So. M Wu.i. Strut. 

The Audit Company of Nett York 


WAND T. 1‘RPINK. 

■ ntOn Mm-rer. 
• KmiAMIr- ■ V 


Vo# l-mxtortv 

Investigation* for 

Mr i c hauls, Hanker*. Corporation!, and Committee*. 
NEW YORK. 

Mutual l.if« Building*, o Cedar Street. 
Philadelphia, Chicago, 




i.l Mt* 


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THE MINING HERALD. U»H«i 

i mining and (manual ] taper. giving valuable informa- 
tion on mining ami «*il iiidusinrt., pnnci{«J com- 
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j iiiimciiMt profit* may 1* made on absolutely >afe in 


1 vestment*. Write for it today. 
I CO., yi Broadway, New York. 


A L. WINNER & 



HARPERS WEEKLY 





ENNEN S ?alc t um 
XPILET 

owder 


THE HONOR 


i i! I HI 


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at the St. Louis Exposition 

was awarded 

Hunter 

Whiskey 


for the highest orjer of merit 
in all the elements of a perfect 
Whiskey. 


"DEFENDER OF THE RAILS— THE NEW YORK CENTRAL,"— Wot Herald . 


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spring* ■>( wonderful 
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THE ROAD OF 

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telling all about Waukesha and one 
hundred other resorts. Address 

JAS. C. POND 

Pultinvi Sireprrs Geowsl P». .r-.se, Ascot 

C.I. Parlo, Car. MILWAUKEE. W1S. 
Free RhAciiii Chor Cere 


A re » H , 

PRICKLY HEAT. 
CHAFING, asd 
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A group of original 
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who have devised some 
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Cbe Club of Queer trades 

Bv Gilbert K Chesterton 


The Vicissitudes of Evangeline 

By ELINOR GLYN 

Author of “ Tkt Vhitt of EUtahrih " 


Evangeline, an irresistible creature, with glorious hair 
and amazing eyes, is alone in the world, having but one 
confidant — her diarv ; and into these pages the reader is 
allowed to peep. Never before was there such a jumble 
of humor and charm as this wonderful journal reveals. 


Post Sv>. Cloth, i 1.50 


HARPER & BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. FRANKLIN SQUARE. NEW YORK 


Illustrated 

Price . JUS 

HARPER k BROTHERS 
Publishers, - New York 


CIk Dryad 

bv Dustin 

fiuntly 


mcCartby 


The author has boldly 
woven into his talc of 
mediaeval romance 
tology. The story glitters 
with medi.eval figures, color, and action, all done 
in this popular romancer's magic style. 

Prtrr, St JO 

HARPER A BROTHERS. NEW YORK 


PROTECTION FOR PEDESTRIANS. 

With a little more practice we shall soon he able to alp our at the arty of the moneyed classes in their 
” Destroyers" with the »(iliry of the ftanhopper and the preheatlle skill of the forest spe. After all. they 
don't te*’rA to kill us, and we can't expect them to play “ Bridge '* all the time. —From •' Punch " 


RED TOP RYE 

AMERICAS FINEST WHISKEY 

Its up to YOU 

CINCINNATI. O. VONN OenCT 

»» AHtfM MO lOUiaviLll. «« 








napoleon Bonaparte 

(HIS COMPLETE LIFE) 

and the story of the 

Trench 
Revolution 

John $. €. Abbott 

— IN SIX VOLUMES ^ 

With plans, maps, facsimiles of letters, important documents, etc., etc. 

T HE story of Napoleon and the French Revolution is the most vivid, brilliant, and 
interesting chapter in the world’s history. It has been told by many writers, but, 
we think, never in a more authoritative and enthralling narrative than this. The 
eminent author, John S. C. Abbott, has here written in his most brilliant style and imbued 
the whole work with the results of his profound studies and judgment. The six volumes 
are of royal-octavo size, bound in dark-green silk cloth, with gilt tops and uncut edges. 

They are profusely illustrated with portraits, scenes from the Revolution, maps, facsimiles 
of documents, etc. — an important and distinctive feature. 

Atlf On receipt of Si.oo we will send you NAPOLEON and the FRENCH REVOLUTION, 

vHI VI I VI j n sjx uniform volumes — all charges prepaid. If you do not like the books, send 
them back at our expense and we will return the $1.00. If you do like them, send us one dollar a month 
until the total amount, $12.00, is paid. In addition to the books we will enter your name, without ad- 
ditional cost to you, for one year's subscription to either Harper's Magazine. Harper’s Weekly, Har- 
per’s Bazar, or The North American Review. The total cost to you for both books and periodical 
is twelve dollars. In writing, please state which periodical you want. 

fiarper $ Brothers, Publishers, franklin Square, new fork 



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EDITED BY 




fL 28 ei n 

B W f 

^ L. * »*4L »* 




napoleon Bonaparte 

(HIS COMPLETE LIFE) 

and the story of the 

?rencb 
Revolution 


Abbott 

= IN SIX VOLUMES ===== 

With plans, maps, facsimiles of letters, important documents, etc., etc . 

T HE story of Napoleon and the French Revolution is the most vivid, brilliant, and 
interesting chapter in the world’s history. It has been told by many writers, but, 
we think, never in a more authoritative and enthralling narrative than this. The 
eminent author, John S. C. Abbott, has here written in his most brilliant style and imbued 
the whole work with the results of his profound studies and judgment. The six volumes 
are of royal-octavo size, bound in dark-green silk cloth, with gilt tops and uncut edges. 

They arc profusely illustrated with portraits, scenes from the Revolution, maps, facsimiles 
of documents, etc. — an important and distinctive feature. 

A| )r AffAl* On receipt of $1.00 we will send you NAPOLEON and the FRENCH REVOLUTION, 
in six uniform volumes — all {harges prepaid. If you do not like the books, send 
them back at our expense and we will return the $1.00. If you do like them, send us one dollar a month 
until the total amount, $12.00, is paid. In addition to the books we will enter your name, without ad 
ditional cost to you, for one year's subscription to either IIakprr'k Magazine, Harper's Weekly, Ham- 
per's Bazar, or Tiie North American Review. The total cost to you for both books and periodical 
is twelve dollars. In writing, please state which periodical you want. 

Harper $ Brothers, Publishers, franklin Square, Hew Pork 




"NAPOLEON AS EMPEROR" 


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N,-w York, Saturday, July 13, 1 003 


* 


C-’pyrlgkl, 1 90 S. ir Hanrt'n A IImotmihv AH ngi/t mtrvrtt 



ELIHU ROOT. WHO SUCCEEDS JOHN HAY AS SECRETARY 

OF STATE 

rt^ U , r f ,X>, ;. irAo , ••“**'«*« tok ir lint/ os Simian/ of Stulr. trot burn I'- brnuri/ to, /.vJT. „t Clinton. \ , ,r York //, , r „, 

il'l'ost .'’“"I W<mi - f« -lulrl. I •''So. mis Inilnl Slot" 1 \tt»r,»» for thi South 1. 1 IH*hi,t t,r V • ir >,,,/ / I ° ,r * 

tlrj UrKtsl/Jl C.nt tint ion of />.'/{. <A*jr/-nniM »/ /A. .luduinru Commilln. //, /,* ™ 

iwi '?* in lifijua/, dN Sirtflorit *>/ H*ir, <i«</ tfA*« l/r Ui-hinlifi inis it tilth, I in IU00 1 1., ...... _ . ' 

" '» on/nl fo Aim. ftrrgidcnt ftotmtr.il retained him in tbit offiti unlit h nsii/ntd in .luj/ua/, /;«/.( * r folio 


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HARPERS WEEKLY 


HARPER’S WEEKLY 

Vql. XL 1 X Xu. 2434 

EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


THIRTY- SIX PAGES 

New York City, July 1905 

Terms: 10 Gems a Copy — $4 00 a Year, in Advance 

Povtage tree to all Subteriben in the United but*', Canada, Mnwu, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, the Philippine Iilandi, tiuam, and Tutuila, tamos 

£»l,r,J at ttu -Vi# tar k l\H eJUr ai Utaadtlau malttr 


HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 
NEW YORK CITY: FRANKLIN SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET, W 


COMMENT 

The extraordinary good fortune which attend* the Pre*i- 
dent wan never more manifest than in hi* securing Kunr 
Rihit a* successor to John Hat. Apart from the first requisite 
of high ability, Mr. Rikit t* especially lilted to quickly gather 
up the loose thread* of affair*, because of hi* intimate famil- 
iarity with every presting question and with moat dormant 
question*. White in the cabinet hi* advice wu* nought by 
•he President and Mr. Hay in every perplexing problem. That 
he gives up an income of $30Q,(MX) a year to serve hi* country 
for $8000 i* just that prnclieal form of patriotism ami sacri- 
fice which those who know and love him have come to expect. 
And the new Secretary of State i» not a rich man. 

Of John Hay the American historian will say that hi* 
opportunity came late, but that he made the most of it. 
lie wax in hi* sixtieth year when President McKinley, 
NNin after hi* fir*t inauguration, appointed him umbuK*a- 
dor to the Court of St. Jamcx’a; and it was not until 
about a year mid u half later that In* found his true voca- 
tion at the head of our State Department. The next seven 
year* beheld the application to a congenial and umpiring 
field of a keen, sinewy, trained, stored, and ripened intellect; 
the solid and splendid fruitage of what had been a quiet 
but an incessant and incisive . study of book* and 
men. The accomplished man of letter* showed himself a 
eoiuiuminatc tnan of affair*. Modest und unpresumiug, 
he wax the last man to accept the place of primacy 
which the notions of the world now accord him. Ho 
was a worthy successor to the memorable roll of American 
Secretaries of State which include* the name* of Jr.mric- 
* son, Mammon, Monkoe, John Quincy Adams. John C. Cal- 
houn, Daniel Wkiihtkb, ami William If. Skwamo. The temper 
of hi* mind was never tried hy the strain to which our infunt 
republic wax Kubjcetcd at the hand* of Great llritain on the 
one side and of Napoleon on the other; neither was it tested 
m the furnace of a tremendous civil war. Yet, although the 
opportunity presented to Hay did not involve directly the life 
of the commonwealth, if may Iw ranked for prospective import 
with that which John Qi ivnr Adams, a* probably fir*i pro- 
pounder ot ihe Movuok doctrine, turned to august and far- 
reaching account. When the younger Aoamh la id the helm of 
state, the outflnshing of a galaxy of Latin- American repub- 
lic* in the political firmament compelled u« to formulate our 
future relation to the Wcstoni Hemisphere. Momentous, in- 
deed. wax the conjuncture, for we can now ace in retrospect 
that on the division of our government depended the fate of 
the New World. Curiously analogous wn* the occasion for 
the demon- (ration of sagacity and prescience which events 
gave to Hay. He w«* called to the headship of our State De- 
partment in the lnair when our easy mastery of Spain had 
driven home to our national consciousness and to the recogni- 
tion of a startled Europe the magnitude of the ro/e reserved 
for the huge American republic in the drama of mankind. 


The fart has sometimes been overlooked by time who have 
noted in John Hay the rare, though not, of course, unique, 
conjunction of the statesman and man of letters, that he did 
not proceed directly from the library to the council-room. 
He never received nor sought the suffrage of hi* fellow 
citizens. A legislative, a judicial, or an administrative office, 
properly so called, lie never held. Unlike Irvincj, Motley, and 
1.4) WELL, however, lie wax not suddenly transferred from pen- 
craft to btatccraft. For the functions of ambassador and 
Secretary of State he had other than literary credentials, lie 
wax an American exemplar of the theory that a protructed 
training in minor diplomatic fxfxts is eminently useful, if it be 
not indis[*ensahle, to success on that highest stage of diplo- 
macy which ix dominated by the figures of Hismarck und 
Cavoux. So far as Jolts Hav'h aptitude for the conduct of 
our foreign relation* wn* attributable to eiptrintoc, he gained 
it ax secretary of legation or rharye d'affairea at Paris. 
Vienna, and Madrid, and, above all, a* First A#*i*tnnt Secretary 
of State under Secretary Kvahtn In the Have* adminiatration. 
If a diplomatist 1m> both horn mid made, veteran* in the pro- 
fession have acknowledged during the laxt seven year* that 
Hay possessed both (he congenital and the acquired equip- 
ment. He was lucky, no doubt, a* we have «aid, in the Inter- 
national circumstance* amid which he wa* invited to exercise 
his talent*. He wn* fortunate, also, in the confidence reposed 
in hi* foresight and diacretion by the two administrations 
the foreign policy of which he was to mould »o largely. After 
all allowances am made, however, it is but just to acknowledge 
that Hay ha* left a deep personal imprint on our diplomatic 
history, and that next, perhapa, to John Quincy Adams, he 
ha* influenced most sensibly the position of our country in 
world politic*. 

Refora marking the signal and substantial achieve- 
ment* on which hi* reputation will ultimately rest, we 
may clear the ground by {Hunting out that through happy 
accident* lie wa* not responsible for certain hazardous and 
duhitublc act* in the field of International politic* during hi* 
headship of the State Department. It is too early yet to 
assert positively whether he wa* individually accountable for 
the acquiescence of our government in the bombardment of 
I .a Guayra ami Puerto Cahelln by three Euro peon powers, 
but it is certain that he quickly awakened to the grave pro- 
spective dangers of such n precedent, and must la* largely 
credited with the well-conceived cxcajic from threatened com- 
plic-Htionx through tlie concerted reference of foreign claim* 
against Venezuela to the Hague Court. He wax out of the 
country and absolutely ignorant of the DillinuHam-SakcHEZ 
agreement, by which, as it wn* originally planned, the Amer- 
ican Executive, without tin- sanction of the Senate, wa* to 
HxHume the function of collector and distributor of revenue f"r 
the Dominican Republic. He had no hand, cither, in the formal 
treaty subsequently concluded at Santo Domingo and ap- 
proved by President ltoottKVELT, and we should not be in the 
least surprised if a posthumous disclosure of his real opinion* 
should -allow that lie would have seen without regret the re- 
jection of that treaty hy the Keiirite. In the LooMM-RoWEX 
entanglement he wa* not personally involved, for before his 
return to Washington from (ho brief visit to Europe, under- 
taken in the vain hope of restoring his health, a definite de- 
cision in the matter had been reached hy Judge Taft, acting 
Secretary of State, and by President Rooskvri.t himself. We 
venture to opine that Mr. Hay, while doubtless dismissing Mr. 
Rowkn from the diplomatic service for lack of discretion and 
eaprif dc corps, would have shrunk from the inconsistency of 
administering to Mr. Ionium at once a seven rebuke and tin- 
proof of confidence implied in the bestowal of two missions, 
one decorative and tin* other highly confidential. 


If we are asked by what acts and principles Mr. Hay has 
made n profound impression on tho foreign policy of’ the 
republic, we shall find ourselves impelled to lay particular 
stress upon three achievement*. It is no fault of hix that the 
United States are not committed, definitely and irrcvoeab>\ 
to the polieie* of arbitration am] reciprocity. Had not to 
wishes been frustrated bv the Senate, we should lu I*’ 
pledged to settle by arbitration nil eontroversies not in\ •!• 
the nation’s vital interests or honor between this country a’ 1 1 
England or oilier great European power*. As it was. he con- 
tributed more than any contemporary statesman to the a**ur- 


1000 


kJ by Google 



H ARPER'S W E EKLY 


aare of practical efficiency to the international assize at The 
Hague, by referring to it the dispute with Mexico concerning 
church lunds in California, and by prevailing on tire creditor* 
of Venezuela to submit their demand* to the name tribunal. 
It was in pursuance of the same principle that he nought and 
-■cured an amicable adjustment of the Alaska boundary qu» 
tii« by a cuuuninaion on which each of the parties was equally 
itpnuruted. If tlic Senate, or rather the “ stand-patters ” 
who control the majority of that body, had permitted, he 
would have extinguished by reciprocal concession* every 
provocation to commercial warfare. If we do not include in 
the list of his most striking performances the lhy-PxvxccniTE 
treaty which happily replace* the paralyzing ClaYTon-Bulwkr 
agtmwnt. it is because the existing convention, winch has 
rcccirtd the sanction of the Senate, differs materially from 
nnd is b great improvement upon the original document framed 
by Mr. Hit. There is no doubt that in the treaty which the 
Senate declined to sanction the Secretary of State had yielded 
to Great Britain a larger measure of authority and privilege 
on the American Isthmus than we could afford to give, or 
than the British Foreign Office was ituelf ready to accept. 

We pass to the culminating and resplendent work with which, 
us events hove shaped themselves, the name of Hay seems likely 
to be linked for many generations, if not for many centuries — 
u work for which he deserves to be regarded with honor by 
nil lovers of peace and with unstinted gratitude by a quarter 
of the human race. We refer, of course, to the forbearance, 
magnanimity, and equity with which he treated and insisted 
that other foreign powers should treat the disorganized, an- 
archic. and helpless Chinese Kin pi re. It is no exaggeration to 
say that he rescued the Middle Kingdom on the very brink of 
dissolution. He pronounced it beneath the dignity of the 
railed States to take jNirt in the looting of the almost ex- 
hausted Chinese treasury, and declined to countenance the 
preposterous exaction* of a money indemnity for the Boxer 
outrages put forward by Russia, Germany, France, and other 
creditor*. Nor did his services to China end with the erection 
of n mural rampart against a merciless spolinton of her pecu- 
niary resource*, fn a circular note to the great power* lie ox- 
prwed the rrs>tcd conviction that the fate of Africa should 
not k Asiu’*, and that the venerable realm of China, the un* 
IMrallckd example of a continuous civilization, ought not to 
Is- made a victim of partition at the hands of Kurnpean 
nations. The apprul was by no means fruitless, so far as the 
British, German, French, Italian, and some other governments 
were concerned. Only Ku**iu proved recalcitrant, in deed if 
tret in word, und it w«* reserved for Mr. Hay to hc that the 
disciplining of the Czar could safely be left to the Mikado. 

One important am] warrantable deduction to be made from 
Judge Fmrraa’a charge to the July Grand Jury is that within 
a riiiMiiiably short time the public will learn tlie truth or the 
fahity of the accusation* against the former m a ringers of the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society. While Judge Foster 
avwiiksl all reference to the Kqtiitahle organization by name, 
he left no doubt in tin* mi rut* of the member* of the Grand 
Jury that this cans? erV'hre would be presented to them 
fur in vi-«t igitt ion, A nuirked feature of hi* ehnrge was hi* 
t'li-a rliat tbo jury deliberate with the utmost caution and 
fl length, even to the prolongation of the usual iieriod of *er- 
r i'i*. uimI weigh the evidence with exceptional care. He warned 
the body that no person should be indicted nnd placed on trial 
■igninst whom there was insufficient evidence. From all this 
a is readily to Is; seen that if any one of the former directors 
"f '•>*• Equitable has failed iu hi* trust, has utilized this rich 
mid imwrrfnl organization for other purpose than it* own wel- 
fare. the Grand Jury should detect it. and return the proper 
irelidiacbts. Added to this is the knowledge that Mr. Ryan 
mnl Mr, Pin, Mohto.v will lend every aid to seeure the punish- 
ment nf the guilty. 


Although, according to unofficial reports, the tenor of the 
lnti-M rimimuuicatiotu between tire Berlin and Pari* Foreign 
Olfires lias bran tnurked by studied eourtrey and conciliation, 
it ik»s re.! »|qs;nr that Germany has qualified her assertion 
tluit the future status of Morocco should Is* regulated by an 
iTili-runli.innl conference, or her refusal to restrict the aenpe 
"Nts deliberation* by a preconcerted agreement with France, 
that, nevertheless, tlie opinion prevails that some means will 


he hit upon of accommodating German and French interests 
in Northwest Africa seems to ire Viv* on the one hand to Em- 
peror William's somcwliut tardy ri-eogitition of the injury that 
might bo inflicted on Germany in a ociiflict with France to 
which England should be a party, and. o:i the other, to tire 
awakening of Frenchmon to the indubitah’c fact that, should 
the Germans provo successful on land. Franc*-' would have to 
pay the whole cost of the war, recouping Germany, for all the 
losses which the last-named power might undergo -a* British 
hand*. It in strange that Emperor William should not. Lave 
foreseen from the outset tluit whatever military ascdndepV 
events might give him on the European Continent, Enghi.nl 
would still b« able to blight the actuat nnd prospective fruit * 
of that naval, commercial, and colonial policy for ‘which the 
German people during many year* have been making such 
considerable sacrifice**. Ho preponderant i» the nea-power of 
Great Britain, that in all likelihood a war on her part with 
Germany and Franco combined would seriously cripple, if not 
destroy*, the navies of both the last-named countries, would 
sweep their mercantile marines from the ocean, and deprive 
them of all their colonies. How much more impotent would 
be Germany to withstand tire British fleet, if the latter were 
supported by the naval resources of France ! Fnless the bat- 
tle-ship* and armored cruiser*, upon which tire Germans have 
spent so many million* of dollar* which they could ill afford, 
could be sealed up in the estuaries of the Elbe and tire Wcser, 
or in the Kiel Canal, they could hardly escape annihilation; 
the merchant navy, which serves so efficiently the globe-en- 
circling trade which Germany has laboriously built up. would 
have to skulk in fortified harbor*, or pas* under * foreign 
flag; and not a remnant would survive of those transmarine 
pnsM-ssion* which Germany ha* been so eager to expand. Nor, 
without the consent of Great Britain, would even overwhelming 
victory cm land permit the Berlin government to make good it* 
naval, commercial, and colonial losaea by taking over the war- 
ship*, the mercantile marine, and the oversea dependencies of 
France. 


It ia conceivable, of course, tluit. when tire hour of settle- 
ment arrived. Great Britain might evince toward her Gallic 
ally, irreparably beaten on Inml, a fidelity and generosity 
which she herself, it must be acimitted, failcil to experience 
from Napoleon 111. when the Crimean war wn* dull'd. The 
peace of Paris, it will ho remembered, left England with an 
unwelcome addition to her public debt, and extorted from the 
Czar no concessions commensurate with his demerits. It i* 
probable that the British government, unheeding the desire of 
France to propitiate her conqueror with a surrender of her 
colonies, instead of by u furtlrer mutilation of French soil, 
would act u|Min the principle that the laborer i* worthy of his 
hire, and, remembering that it* own [Nirricipation iu a Franco- 
German conflict was prompted by self-interest rather than by 
sympathy, would not merely decline to give hack any of the 
gain* wrung by Great Britain from Emperor William, but 
would sanction only with tire utmost reluctance tire acquisition 
by Germany of the French war- ships and tlie French trans- 
marine (lepeniirueiea. To ratify such a transaction would be 
voluntarily to place tire one rival whom England has cause to 
dread in tlie front rank of naval and colonial power*. A Mdntc 
of patriotic duty would not [>crinit a Hritish statesman to in- 
dulge so far the feeling of condolence for a prostrate coad- 
jutor. Neither, of course, would tire British taxpayer, ulreudy 
sufficiently loaded, take u|mn hi* shoulders any part of the 
pecuniary burden which Gerinany would im|io*c on France. 
Fnder such circumstances, a peace dictated, like that of 1.S71, 
at Versailles would doubtless not only exact from tho French 
Republic n huge money indemnity, hut would subject it to a 
territorial dismemU-rurem which, |M-rha|»s, might lop off 
French Flanders, what is left to France of Lorraine, the 
opulent province of Champagne, and even the whole strip of 
territory that lie* cast of tire Saonc ami Rhone, and that once 
paid allegiance to tire Holy Roman Empire, With Irer 
domain thus stunted. France would seem reduced irremediably 
to tire level of a second-rate power. Our conclusion i» tluit, *<■ 
long a* Russia remains incapable of rendering substantial aid. 
it i* tire duty of French statesmen to avoid at almost any tem- 
porary sacrifice of dignity and of relatively insignificant in- 
terests in Northwest Africa, a war in which their British ally, 
being master of the *■#, might dnner, hut France would have 
to pay the piper. The experience of 1H7U should have taught 


1001 



H ARPER’S \\ I£ li K L V 


Frenchmen the expediency uf i> wallowing Itumiliiit i«»n f«»r a 
whihvjQ-lyiug on tin* quein-hhi* vitality of their gallant mil inn. 

/ Although the t'V«rif.tb( uwurred at Odessa in the week 
/ending July I wire- fur « time cloaked in mystery. the ominous 
sigtiifieum-c of the mutiny on the Russian battle-ship A’lirnt 
Pvtrmkin lim hpen emphasized by subsequent eviiil*. /Tii spite 
of the It.J.^ijiii censoraliip, which recently has been enforced 
with cxcc^’iotial rigor, it has k-nkisl out that the receipt of 
the new* from Odc--*a was followed by n revolt of the large 
farce of sailors Mtati'Hinl at I.ibau on the Hal tic, ami there* i# 

•a import that a similar outbreak took place at Ileval. The 
- 1 ill Inter account a of mutiny ut Cronstadt. the acuport of the 
capital, ami of tiring by Russian war- ships upon Sebastopol, 
will, if confirmed, indicate an organised ami concerted re- 
bellion. Meanwhile, the extensive mobilization of troops order- 
ed by the Ku-siau authorities in the districts of St. Petersburg, 
Moscow. Warsaw, and Kicff, is encountering much obstruction, 
ami it has come to l>e extremely doubtful in the eyes of n*oe- 
tionists wln-tlicr it is any longer safe to put arms in the hands 
of tile reservist*. Threatened as they are by revolt mid anareby. 
the advisers of Nk'IIiiI.W II., like tin- adviser* of IsH'W XVI. at/ 
n similar conjuncture, arc, seemingly, at cross-purposes, ;ukT 
impotent to bit upon a definite and |iersistent programme/ 

There is no doubt that the Kniax Pofempkin, which was 
launched in October. 1SHM), is tin- most formidable battle ship in 
the Black Sen naval force, uut only because of her size — her 
displacement is lai,4«0 tons — but hceausc of her up-to-date 
equipment. Tin* next most redoubtable vessel is the Oeorgi 
Pt>biedomi*t*rff . built in 1 Ht>2, of 11,080 tons displacement. The 
four otltcr tirst-ela** battle-ships are of less efficiency, while thu 
two second-class battle-ships and tlie six unprotected cruisers — 
Russia has no armored cruiser* in the Black Sea — are of com- 
paratively little importance. Whatever may be tin- ultimate 
part played by this fleet — whether the St. Petersburg authori- 
ties shall retain control of it, or whether it shall full for the 
most part into the bunds of insurgents — it is evident that its 
relations tn a national uprising, whether coercive or cvnprra* 
tive. would be mural rutber than material. The ports of the 
! Black Sen, even though they should he dominated by the guns 
«•( u mutinous navy, an- geographically too remote from the 
i*o re of the Russian nation to afford an effective fulcrum for 
l he revolutionary lever. To appreciate the significance of the 
ulniost contemporaneous mutiny ut Liluiu. we should bear in 
mind, not only that this fortified jiurt contains a large arsenal, 
and shelters most of the few remaining wnr-*lii|* of Russia’s 
Baltic fleet, but that in such a locality the revolutionists 
would gain an advantage of vital import, to wit. a has* 
for military operation* far nearer t*» St. Petersburg than 
would be secured by ascendency on the Black Sen littoral. 

To what extent the disaffection which evidently )H*rvadcs the 
navy lias spread to the army cannot, as yet. 1 m- estimat'd. 

It is certain that the other day at IxkU one ngiment refused 
|o fin* upon the tM-ople, and was iinnudiati ly scut elsewhere; 
gnd about the temper of the reservist*, whom it wa* intended 
to cull under tla- is dors, there is grave misgiving in official 
circles. From St. Petersburg come rumoi-s that even the 
(uiurd regiments an* evincing a -editions spit it, and that the 
Cossack* alum- nn still ilsolotcl.r trustworthy. Mon* than 
one violent change of rukrs has been brought about in Rus- 
sian history under the ffouxe of IIum ixoit by the def'-etion o / 

(he very soldiers on whom the n*igning sovereign kUppoffti 
himself able to rely. If .some regiments of the liniH-rial Guard 
could be gaim*d over by the revolutionist*, it is very doubtful 
whether the loyalty of tin* bulk of the anuy would survive the 
shock. It will U- remembered that the refusal of the (Sardes 
Fram-aises to fire upon the Parisian populace started a mutiny 
which gradually involved the rank and lib* of all the regiments, 
except the Swiss and the German, in tin- service of Loci* 
XVI. \Ve should probably ascribe to a belief that tla* autoc- 
racy is losing its grip, not only upon the navy, but also upon 
the army, the hold course pursued by the deputation of 
zmnitvoUts, lately received l»y the Czar at Peierliof, which, on 
its return to Moscow, published n mutlifestn declaring that all 
of their sulnstantial requests had been refused by Nicholas II. . 
and denouncing us a mockery the t*|iocie* of eon*ultative c-oun- 
eil proposed in the interest of the bureaucrats by tla* Minister 
of the Interior. On no other theory except the assumption 


that the |H>sitifiii of the autocracy is felt to be preeuriou* can 
W account fof, the astounding step taken in the week ending 
July 1 by rim 2 **m*tvo* of St. Petersburg ,*md Moscow, file step, 
namely, of informing the Czar that mile** the reform* to 
which la* was *uf»|stMvI to have phdgcd himself in hi* late 
ambiguous lity-e arc put in effect within about a fortnight, 
they will arrogate (lie right of organizing a constitutional 
which would be. of course, a revolutionary — government within 
their respective disttirts. The men who make this announce- 
ment must Ik* (lerfectly aware that by doing *o they risk their 
neck*. Having nun k* it. they must necessarily clour up their 
ranks and go forward. They now occupy a position some- 
what similar to that assumed by the iiicmlit-rs of the Con- 
tineutal Congress when tky signed the Declaration of Imlc- 
pcndencc. “ must hang logethei,” John IIamvk k told 
ttleUI. “We must, indeed,” add'd BlJNJA.UIN FmaNKLIX, “for 
otherwise we shall all hang separately.” 


So far a* w»yMwrvcd, none of the college* gave an honorary 
ilcgrce tin* year t<i Mr. Tltau ih Lawson. \Yl«ili«- influence of 
tin- activities y/ this diligv -lit citizen and others who follow the 
same trails ap|M*ars in a large pro|Nirtioii of the orations that 
illuminat'd tla* last wi-ck of June. And what it tremendous 
unloading of more or b**s digested thought the jLineriean Om- 
ni* iieeinent season witnesses! Il i* sometime* thrown at us 
reproachfully that as a people we maintain only two or three 
reviews for the discussion of serious subjects without the aid 
of pictures, wlierea* such |ieriodical* flourish numerously and 
with vigor in Great Britain. We might rrply that though we 
an* not very strong in review*, so far as men* nuniltcrs an* 
concerned, we huve in tin* Commencement season an insti- 
tution which is not duplicat'd aii.vwlmre else, and in which, 
in the course of a fortnight, reviewers by the score and ex- 
pounder* by the huiiJnd look backwards, forwards, and all 
uhout, revise, expound, light beacon* and si t danger signals, 
and generally put right the American jieople ami plant their 
feet iu the paths when* they belong. 


But as to the influence of the ex]sniiiileiN of reform nnnicd 
above, it seemed to appear last iiionlh in many *|H*ee]u*s. At 
all event* tbr*n* was an unusual consideration of money: its 
pursuit, it* posm-ssion. and its perils. S|H-aking of very rich 
men wlm manage their «*onnm*rcia| concerns as if they believed 
they were a law unto themselves. President It»iosK\KLT said 
ut llarvanl: 

It i* far more iiiqtorlunt tliat they c-ontliicl llieir Imslocsa 

ulTnlr* dis’cnlly Ilian that tla-v should -jkihI tin* surplus o( th«-ir 
forluiic* in pliil«iiillini|iy. Marti Inis Iks*i» given In thesr im*n. uih! 
We have a right |o deiiMn-1 imn-li of them in return. Kverv man 
of great wealth who runs his business with eynienl contempt for 
those prohibitions of the law wlii<h (•> hiied iiiiiiiing lie ran I'lUpr 
or i-vjuJe is a menace to our miiiniunit.i . ami the cominanity i* 
not to In* exriissil if it dm** Mot develop a spirit which actively 
frown* on and disioim tenant*** him. 

At hart i m »uth. Itr. Bkn iamix lot; Wiikki.km, president of the 
l’iiiver*it,v «»f Californio, discoursing of The Abundant Life, 
dwelt upon the melancholy predicament of n class of Ameri- 
cans which, within ten years. Inis become, lie said, |Miiiriitouxly 
iitiineroiis, wlnaa* whole strength nnd wit are completely ale 
Nifbnl iu devising the mean* of s|N-mliug any reasonable pro- 
portion of their incomes. Their money, he declared, “has torn 
them away from tlie ordinary stumlanls of home and civic life, 
created a new si*t of ivimlitions fi*r thein, made them its *itv- 
ants. They change their abiding-place with the seasons, have 
no home, and have forgotten where they vote.” lie deplored 
a* <“speeially sail their isolation from humanity, due to their 
Icing compelled by the tyrannous conditions of their existence 
to associate with one another, so that their chihlren “ inter- 
marry and intordivorce, ami the caste of tlie great rich 
emerges.” |>r. WliKKLKII felt that theirs was by no mean* the 
abundant life, lie was sorry about them, nnd called them 
* people of caste wla> drag tla* golden ball and chain.” 


So, further, at OI«erlin. Mr. Jam km It. Dili,, trust carpenter 
of New A'**ric ami New .Ier*i-y. delivered nn address i,f which 
the burden was that our present prosps-rity lias tla> grave defect 
of depreciating character. <tur powerful men, he said, abii*e 
their power; conditions in tla- business and financial world an* 
not wholesome, “Tlie trouble i* <*oncrcto. Tin- evils of the 
past are our fault. The wrong is persomd. We are not 


1P02 



HARPER'S WEEKLY 


liunest’* The great danger* of the time Mr. Dim. found to lie 
in pretenor, graft, and “ the easy dollar." Of pretender*, de- 
ceiver# of the public, grafter*, tlic moat skilful and dangerous 
lie found in the ranks of educated men and educated women. 
|*h>fcH.*or Wii.ua M .Fames, at Harvard, is also credited with 
Srnling fault with the educated people. Speaking at Chicago 
Fnirenoty he complained, a# reported, thut education, instead 
■*f preventing crime, only made criminal# more adroit. There 
is not a public abux? on tin- whole Eastern coast, he said, of 
which some Harvard graduate i# not an enthusiastic advo- 
cate. That may be near the truth, and yet by no means prove 
that education is conducive to crime. That it is not a moral 
pane. -a is well known, hut it i# easy to find expert testimony 
that by developing intelligence it make# for the promotion of 
right conduct. 


Ford lain College made Mayor M(Tlkiu\ n LL-D., and 
hr mndc n *pm"h in which he said that every age had it* evil*, 
nnd thut the besetting sin of ours was avarice. " Our mad 
rush for wealth,’' he said, “ is not an honest effort to increase 
tin- prulncts of nature or the avails of huinau effort, but a 
hideous rice of eviT-incn-nsing uiid insatiable gns-d.” Finally — 
though the list might lie imlefinitcly extended — we have Dr. 
Il.wun . of Yale, in a baccalaureate address questioning his 
young men h* to their ideal of mmivm in life. “ I* it,” hi* asked 
tlwin, “to be romp n reputable memlsr of good society ami 
achirve substantial result# in the way of fortune, family, and 
friend*, on which you can look with increasing complmvucy ' 
Or i» it to try to make tin* world better by a struggle which 
will hr full of dangers and mistakes and misunderstanding#, 
and in which to the very end of life you art* likely to remain 
fur from tin* realization of your highest hope* f ’ The two 
ideal* may not to all observers so necessarily incompatible 
in he seemed to regard them, hut he said that one atnod for 
Pharisee and the other for Christian, and he wanK*d young 
Yale of the #inug Pharisee ideal as one thnt deadens and ob- 
struct* nil efforts for moral progress. 

I)r. IImk.kt’k idea is sound and inspiring, but as hr ha# 
|hr*-nl it it offers chances for discussion. Tliere are reputnble 
ifsinb r* of pM#l society who have achieved substantial result* 
iu tlu* way of fortune, family, and friends, who are trying 
nbojit as hard u* anybody else to make the world better, and 
trying to considerable purpose. Fortune, family, nnd friends 
an- all source* of power, and may be used and often an* used 
for great gwd- 


Mr. JdilN Ibx'KEKgl.i.ER*# disbursement department was ex- 
ceptionally active last month, placing no les# than eleven 
million* in hand* fit to administer it for the public lienefit. 
Ora* million Mr. Iba KRWI.LKU added to the endowment of 
Vile, the income to be used for current expenses. Tin* gift, 
vditch appears to have Urn quite unexpected to P re* blent 
IDuU’.r, wa* announced by him at the Commencement dinner 
ami *rimd the a*>etnblcd alumni to repeated bursts of ap- 
piovnl. The next day, the newspaper* announced a gift of ten 
million* by Mr. Rr# K WELLER to the General Education Hoard, 
“the principal to I* Md in perpetuity a* n foundation for 
pilurwtion: the income, above expense* and administration, to 
te distributed to, or u#cd for, the benefit of such institutions 
nf Irnniinu, at such limes, in such amount*, for such pur- 
pnH*. and under Mich condition*, or employed in such other 
,|R die Ilnard may di**m l#-*t adapted to promote n roin- 
p rebellow; system of higher education in the I’uitcd States." 
It will I* seen that the ilefuils of cxpmiditure of the income 
of Mr. R.n KF.m 4 .Eit* gift are left to the Board’s unrestricted 
discretion. The General Fducntion Hoard was formed in 
rchruarr. 1002 . and got a charter from Congress in January. 

nt which time Mr. T{«x-ke»kli.i:k gave it a million 
■Mur* for educational work in the South. Its chairman is 
Mr- Hohut 0 * m;\ ; it# treasurer i* Mr. Gwukik Foster 
Ptwnnv; and it include* among it* members Messrs. Mount* 
K- Jturr, Walter II. Pauk, Ai.bkut Shaw, D. C. Gilma.v, 
"• Harper, K. B. Andrew*. and J. 1 >. IIockkkkixkic. Jr. 


n-’iilc* these gifts from Mr. Rim'KWELLNI. the gift* to cdu- 
'•Atii-nal purpfKf-j announced at Commencement included an- 
"tbr rnilhon dollar# for Yule from a small group of grndn- 
J 1 *- and fl fund of 12JH0.000 ( nn «| srill growing) provided 
<fT Harvard by her graduate# a# an additional endowment in- 


traded especially to provide for increasing the salaries of her 
teacher*. Princeton, it will be recalled, reported at Com- 
mencement an income increase of $100,000. The figures from 
the other colleges arc not nt hand, but recalling Mr. Oab- 
vkoik’s gift of ten millions two months ago, it would ap|s-ar 
that the educational fund* of the country have been increased 
by upwards of thirty milliou dollar# since the first of May. 


Mr. Tiiomak W. Lawson was expected to leave Boston, on July 
5 , for a speech-making tour in the Middle West. His engage- 
ments. us tltc pu|N-r* record them, include discourse* at various 
points in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota. 
Among others who are announced n* sjK-nker* with him on 
u Lawson day.” July S, at Ottawa, Kansu*, are Mr. Jam we. 
of New York, (lovemor Follrttk, of Wisconsin, and Mr. 
Cuhlsce S. DaRiiow. Iu Kansas, .Mr. Lawson will be the 
guest of Governor Horn; in Nebraska he will be introduced 
by Governor XlNKRY. In Iowa he *iK*aka on the invitation of 
Governor CYmjuxs. and in Minnesota lie will Is* Governor 
Johnson's guest. He wind* up hi* week’* lour nr Albert Lea, 
Minnesota, where he and Mr. William J. Bryan are to ad- 
dress the Chautauqua Assembly. Mr. Lawson is a prophet 
n >t without considerable honor in this country nt thi* time, 
and especially (though not exclusively) in Kansas and 
vicinity. Presuniubly 1m* will have enormous audiences and 
give them good entertainment. What impression, and bow 
deep, he will leave upon hi* hearers* minds is harder to guess. 
As a voice crying in the wilderness Prepare .yc the wayl he 
ha* been an egregious success; but for whom, for what, iB the 
way to U- prepared f Is he goiyg to advise the mid- Western 
brethren to take their moqey out of tin* hank* and sell all their 
otocka so as to bu#t “ the system,” or is he just going to 
release his utterance and have some funf 


We observe that the name of (’i.arknce S. Harrow, one of 
Mr. Lawson's cospenker* named almve, is also signed to a 
call lately i**ued for the formation of an “ Intercollegiate 
Socialist School " which aims to imbue the minds of the rising 
generation with socialistic doctrine*. Other signers of the call 
are G. Piiki-cs-Stonks, T. W. IIicjoinbox, ( *ii ahl< tms Perkin* 
Gilman, Om ar L. Trim:*, B. O. Flower, W. K. Wallow, I* 
D. Anmvrr, Jack Tomkik, nnd Lpton Sinclair. The National 
Civic Federal inn Review, discussing thi* call and the callers, 
quote* extract* from Socialist literature now in circulation, 
which proclaim the purpose of Socialism “ to wipe out, root 
and branch, nil capitalistic institution* of present-day soci- 
ety to bring about a revolution “ more tremendous than 
any revolution that ha* ever ncctiired in the history of the 
world”; tr. “scire the whole powers of government”; to 
“ labor night and dnv at undermining society.” We can endure 
to see Professor Tnmgh, nnd even Mrs. Gilman and Jack Lon- 
l>.»v, allied with person* of three pyrotcchnical professions, 
but they seem queer company for Colonel Ill'KilNsos I* it for 
this troop that Mr. Lawson ha* been recruited, and ate uims 
such a* these the aim* he would ndvimee t We guess not. We 
don't know what Mr. Lawson’s remote aim* are — if hr ha* 
any — but there 11111*1 be many observer* in wltom hi* activities 
seem rather calculated to imluee nn accelerated revolution of 
tin* wheel* than the advance of any ascertained vehicle in any 
definite direction. 


What maggot g<*t. into the brain* of the Montclair, New 
Jersey, firemen impelling them to refuse to rriareh iu a Fourth- 
o -July jireeession in which they supposed Bookeji Wakiiikc;* 
Ton was to figure l Booker W vsuin<;tov, it mills, was orator 
of the day, and not a part of the preclusion, but what, any- 
how. ha* a New Jer#**y town to do with Negrophobia ? Tut, 
tut! Montclair firemen : von nuiv get medal# for heroism, hut 
you never will for sense. 

It appear* thnt a r<*i iit wltolc*ali> raid of the Pliihulclphia 
IHilii * 4 on all *orl* ol dis«.r*lcrly Iioiim-* brought un army of 
women into court, mid among them many of pn-viou* 1 y pN#| 
reputation, who wire not. and never hud been, women of tin- 
*tr«vt. It i# nn extremely ill ofli»e of the police* of any city 
to destroy the reputation of any woman who ha* still a reputa- 
tion to Iom*. A woman no* publicly known to be disreputable 
ran mend I er wii.v*— and often din-- — fur easier than her si-ter 
of worse n*t»uti' The I'hilmlelphia raid seems to have been 
tragically overdone. 


1003 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


The President’s Speech at Harvard 

Fob the speech which ho delivered .June 28 at Memorial Hall 
in Uamhridgc, Massachusetts, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
hi* graduation from Harvard University. the Pmklmt of the 
United Staten chore an appropriate subject. Ixsiktng hark on a 
personal experience of unusual breadth and diventity, he under- 
took to formulate the relation of a university rihu-ntion to the 
work which graduates an* expected to do in the world. His eon- 
elusion* and suggestion* must, of course, stand or fall according 
to tlieir intrinsic merit, hut there is no doubt that he spoke with 
the authority of otic who ha* achieved success in life, if the phrase 
has any significance. He is the first son of Harvard to become 
Chief Magistrate of the Republic since .loil.’V QlTsrr Auamh en- 
tered the White House on March 4, 1825. The fact necessarily 
impressed the imagination of his auditors, and compelled attention 
to hi* word*. Hi* view* have since been disseminated all over 
the I’nited State* through the medium of the pres*, and are likely 
for *ome time to come to furnish a text for innumerable editorial 
article*. Lrt us see, then, what the opinion* are to which one 
who has had an exceptionally brilliant career ha* been brought 
bv observation, study, and reflection. A great university, Mr. 
IlflOSEVUT thought, hua, to the country whereto it ministers, two 
especial function*. The first, he Mid, I* to produce a limited 
number of scholar*, thinker* or investigators of the highest rank, 
n small number of men who in science and literature shall do 
original and productive work of the first order. The second 
funetion of a university, he Mid, is to send out into the world 
a very large number of men who never could achieve, and who 
"ought not to try to achieve'* — the speaker omitted to explain 
how and when an undergraduate may be expected to discern hi* 
natural limitations, and conform his endeavors to his congenital 
abilities — a high position in the field of scholarship, hut whose 
energies are needed, and should be felt, in every other field of 
activity, and who should go forth from their aendemic cradle 
with such a balanced development of lately, mind, ami character as 
should fit them to do work both honorable and rfflriml. 

How should we perfect, or at least promote, the discharge of 
the first-named function? Mr. Roohevei.t defines accurately 
enough, a* we have seen, tile Ideal which should he kept in view 
by a post-graduate school, and by those undergraduate* who are 
destined to go into it. when he say* that the ideal should be first- 
hand scientific, scholarly, or literary production, which i* to be 
distinguished sharply from the mere transmittal of ready-made 
knowledge. The President serins to have overlooked the va*tnem 
of the debt which not only science, but literature and even scholar- 
ship, owe* to non-university men — neither Our nor Fr\LAT was 
a college graduate, and Otnuu.T repudiated any obligation to Ox- 
ford — but, perhaps, on the whole, he U right in asserting that if 
the I'nited Statu* are to contribute their full share to the progress 
not alone of knowledge, but of wisdom, then an ever-increasing 
stress must be put on such university work a* i» done along the 
lines of the post graduate school, which lines ure drawn, as vre 
know, with the aim of developing specialists, (tut how can young 
men. qualified hr nature and training for nurewwt in the domain of 
wimee and thought, be induced to apply themselves to the ad- 
vanced work marked out for the post-graduate school* T Can they 
la* allured by anything except the disinterested love of truth? Mr. 
ItooHEVkLT seem* to think that they can. We can best help, lie 
says, the growth of American scholarship — the word scholarship 
is, of course, used in the widest possible sense, so as to make it 
cover the researches of a num like Jambs Watt — by seeing to it 
that, us a career, it is put more on a level, from a worldly view- 
point, with the other career* open to young men. In other words, 
according to the President, the career of the man of science arid 
the man of letter* must, a* regard* pecuniary rewards, he made 
noth as to “attract those strong and virile youth* who now frel 
that they can only turn to business, law, or politic*,” Mr. llonsr- 
vkj.t here appear* to assume — although he began liy admitting 
that the intellects qualified for eminent achievement in science or 
literature are few, while the intellects adapted to professional or 
business success are many — that the specific kind of brain* likely 
to evolve a captain of industry or finance, or a protagonist of the 
forum or senate-house, would attain equal usefulness and equal 
distinction could it be diverted by adequate temptations to scien- 
tific ami literary toil. Such a diversion of talrnt muld lie effected, 
Xlr. I'imjhp.vki.t suggests, if the American scientist or American 
scholar had the clianee of winning tudi prizes a* “are open to 
hi* successful limi her in tier many. Fngland, or France, where," 
he adds, “the rewards given for first-elan* srliolarly achievement 
are a* much above those paid in thi« country n* our reward* for 
first -clan achievements in industry or law are above thus** paid 
abroad.” When we fix our eyes on the averment jn»t quoted it 
<M-eura to u» that our relatively youthful JVesident might have 
done well to heed the injunction addressed by a veteran of the bar 
to a newly appointed judge — “State your decisions, but. never give 
your remains." Mr. Koohkvei.t'k ronclusiona as to the method of 
stimulating American science and learning may or may not hi* 
sound, hut eertainly bis facts are unsubstantial. The direct and 


indirect encouragement offered to fruitful and conspicuous achieve- 
ment in science, history, or literature on this side of the Atbmtie 
i* already not inferior, but superior, to that held out in Kuro- 
pean countries. The Noiiel prize*, which assure to the recipients 
a moderate competence for life, and which are awarded for ex- 
ceptional distinction in any of the several field* of intellectual 
activity, are open to American* a* well a* Kurnpean*. A* regards 
academic stipend*, many a Harvard professor receive* from four 
thousand to five thousand dollar* a year. Dues Mr. IUio*evei.t 
know what salaries are paid to the regiu* professor* of ancient 
history or of modern history of Oxford and Cambridge, and ran 
he name a regular professor at the University of llcrlin. by far 
the most opulent of Cerinan »eat» of learning, who ohtuin* twenty 
thousand, or even sixteen thousand, mark* n year? If we turn 
to indirect remuneration wc may well ask what Knropean govern- 
ment ha* awarded the most coveted posts in it* diplomatic service 
to historians and men of letters. The United States, on the other 
hand, have sent llANrnirr to l*«ndon and Iti-rlin; Muti.kv to Vienna 
and London; luvixu to Madrid; M vrmi to Italy; Ia»WEi.i. to 
Madrid and Ixmdon; not to mention many other, less vividly re- 
membered author*. 

We pas* to what Mr. Roosevelt terms “the normal function" 
of Harvard College, namely, the function of turning out each year 
many hundred* of young men who shall ]>o««c«» the trained in- 
telligence. and especially the character, that will cnuhlr them to 
hold high the renown of an ancient seat of learning by doing use- 
ful service for the nation. For the right discharge of that function, 
what kind of spirit, what sort of habit*, what principles, what 
aim*, should Ik- inculcated? Mr. Roosevelt i» quite right in sav- 
ing that it is possible to harm young men a* well a* help them by 
Mending them to college, if in the care of any individual it i« 
patent that hi* university training hu* produced u taste for re- 
fined idleness. a disinclination to sustained effort, a barren in- 
tellectual arrogance, or a sense of •tipercilioua aloofness from the 
multitude of strenuous men who do the world's work, then, 
obviously, hi* college* experience ha* injured that (uirtii-iilar per- 
son. Of such injury we have seen examples. What we want to 
know 1* how a university can minimize the rhanre* of such In- 
jury, and what more It could do, or ought to do, than it doe* 
now, to fit youth to play a worthy part in life. The President of 
fens two suggestion*, <>ne is that the growth of luxury among 
undergraduate* should la- discountenanced by the alumni, who 
should ure. he thinks, what influence they have— we fear it i» 
but small • — to encourage democratic conditions. Mr. ROOSCVO.? 
commend* the Harvard Union *• being calculated, like the Oxford 
Union, to prove a democratizing agency, by fixing undergraduate 
attention on differences of achievement a* opposed to uncial dis- 
tinction. There was a time, it is well known, when preeminence 
in debate at the Oxford Union was almost a guarantee of early en- 
trants* into the Parliamentary arena. (Ilaiwto.xk. for in*tame. 
owed hi* seat for Newark to hi* juvenile demonstration of ability 
to disrii** public question* There is. perhaps, something nd 
lytftfnndmn in orivtorienl display that appeal* to the adolescent 
intellect which regards with comparative indifference tin- solid 
work accomplished In the cla*A-ri*>m or the laboratory. At Ox- 
ford. no more than at Harvard, doe* the exhibition of exceptional 
merit in scholarship, literature, or * 'den re — the <*»nquc*t of a first 
da** in “ Or cal* " or even a “Double First” — command such 
fervid admiration in the undergraduate mirrocosm a* does a su- 
perlative athletic triumph. *uch tv* pulling the stroke nur in the 
winning boat on the river. Mr. Roosevelt see* plainly enough 
that '* it i* n had thing for any college man In grow- to regard »|tort 
as the reriou* business of life.” hut he does not explain how- the 
mischievous tendency is to he controlled. It is checked in some 
American educational institution* — In the University of Virginia, 
for example- ami, doubtless. |t could I*- obstructed anywhere, if 
not altogether extinguished, by a prohibition of intercollegiate 
sport*. It is probable, however, that a majority of Harvard 
graduates would pronounce the remedy worse than the disease. 
There i* one nluire, however, of intercollegiate *|u>r« a* to which 
the umtniuiouN opinion of university alumni may, perhaps, produce 
some effect on the iimlergraduatc mind. We refer, of course, to 
tlve taint of professionalism, of which Mr. Roosevelt Justly said 
that the undergraduate who in furtive way* la-itunc* a seini- 
profession.-)) i* an unmitigated curre not only to the cause of 
amateur sport, but brcauM 1 a man whose personal code of con- 
duct has l*-en warped and twisted in college i* di*quulith-d f»w 
taking the lead thereafter in putting the business morality of the 
country on n proper plane. 

The President's speech was most effertive when he turned from 
undergraduates to the alumni at large, and told the latter that 
it was their duly to help to create n public sentiment which shall 
drninnd of all men of mean*, aiul especially of those possessing 
enormous fortunes, tlutt they ret a wholesome example to tlieir 
!«•»* fortunate brethren by paying scrupulous herd not only to the 
letter, but to the spirit of the laws, and by acknowledging in the 
heartiest fashion tie* moral obligation* which cannot Is- expressed 
in l»w, but stand Lick of and above all statutes. From hi* place 
of eminence in the eye of the American people the President pointed 


1004 



HARPER’S WEEKLY 


out, what cannot be repeated too often or with too much emphasis. 
i'\it the very rich man who ronduri* hit business as if he he- 
Hem that he In n law unto himself immensely increases the dif- 
ficulty of nplutUItng public order. 


Secretary Taft on Trial by Jury 

The remarkable address which Xecreta ry-of- Wn r Taft delivered 
at New Harm cm dune ill to the graduating claF» of the Ynle 
Ijiw fitbaal on ••The Adaiiniatration of the Criminal Iaiw " has 
naturally excited a p;reat deal of comment among lawyers. The 
Sreretary would bore provoked relatively little contradiction had 
he Much to hi* text, to wit. the inapplicahility of trial by Jury 
to mil and criminal eases in the Philippines. It i« a matter of 
rtpetiftKe that trial by jury ha* not worked well in Porto Rico, 
and it w a fair inference that it would prove quite an little 
ailantfd to the inhabitant* of the Philippine*, who-* social *tatu* 
varies from partial civilization down through all the grade* «»f . 
UrluiMii to savagery, and wlw» have been accustomed for cen- 
turies to the Spanish civil and eriminnl code*, which are bused 
■pm the Roman Nyatem of law, and do not permit trial by jury. 
Had Judge Taft "topped there it i* probable that hi* assertion 
would have t**a received with the silence that U supposed to give 
sweat. He went further, however, and undertook to strengthen 
hi* argument by demonstrating that the jury :y*tcm, considered 
a* a nireui* of preventing and punishing crime, is a glaring and 
ahnwing failure in the United State*, Home of tiro statistic* 
which he murdiulled on behalf of hi* thesis were to Iris auditors, 
and dualities* will lie to many of his readers, shocking, lie 
stowed thnt since IHS3 there have l>een in the United States 131.1'Al 
mnrdrT* and homicides, while, oil the other hand, there have been 
only 22M rxeculiou*. In lttfta the number of murders was lHtW; 
in 1MH it ha* iaerraoed to Httii. Tire number of executions in 
iHS.i was ItW; in 1WM the numlirr had remained almost station- 
ary. briag 116. The Secretary further {minted out that n* mur- 
der » tbii* portentously on lire increase, so are all uircriccn of the 
Wnay eln**, and he predicted thnt the ominous expansion would 
tvaliaur at an even greater ratio unless the eriminnl lawn are 
enfurml with more certainty’, more uniformity, end more se- 
verity lhan they now nre. 

To what doe* he attribute the sinister phenomenon T Me de- 
clare* that on this side of the Atlantic the institution of trial by 
jury lino romr to he regarded as a fetich to such an extent that 
State legialaturc* have steadily exalted the power - I the jury, and 
din>iai«hrd the power of the court, in criminal eases. The function 
»d the presiding judge has come in prnrtiee to lie limit**! to that 
of the moderator in a religious assembly. If, notwithstanding the 
lal»e atmosphere and hypnotic influence which the counsel for a 
licfrwlint endeavors to create, and which, in an American court- 
twwi. the judge i» powerless to dispel, a verdict happens to be 
rosined against the prisoner, the ends of justice are defeated by 
trivial, iaronaequeBtiat. interminable technical appeals. Among 
memorable recent examples are the PaTUK'K ami MoMlfKTX trial* 
in New York. It is due, in fine, to the joint effect of the virtual 
cflWmetil of the judge and the gross n buses of the right of 
■ppral. that in most of the United State* — there nre exceptions, 
of which New -Jersey i* one — there are now. ns the stati*tir* cited 
la lodge Taft prove, a trait eighty chances in on* hundred that- 
* guilty man will escape/ What cure for the evil, which he de- 
manor* as a cancer on the body |Kilitie, does the Secretary sug- 
P*l- Hr think* that we might find a palliative, if not a remedy, 
if we would strive to reproduce the state of thing* thnt exist* in 
Kngiand. which nlao inherited the right of trial by jnry, but in 
which I be system continues to work well. What constitute* the 
il iff teener l» tween the administration of the criminal law in Kng- 
Uml and in th i-* country? Although in Knglnnd flic jurv ba* 
slant** been a tarred and untouched part of the tribunal eon- 
Mitotni to try crime, the judgcit have always continued to exer- 
ciw the privilege* which they poaarurd at common law. to wit. the 
rrlrntUw of nmiplete control over the rfiethoil by which counsel 
fry « criminal M«e; the rigorous reatrictinn of them to (he points 
»t tone; and the aiding of a jttry to arrive nt n just conclusion, 
hy *dvi*ine them liow to consider the evidence, anti by expressing 
*ith*oit <M->ititli.in nu opinion thereon. Another reason wbv Kng- 
li*h justice m.i in lu in* il* reputation for certainty of punishment 
i* ll«- but that no appeal* are allowed from the outcome of a 
I'inl in iW cnnrt n f tit »t instance, except when the presiding judge 
Mm**lf ’hall deem certain questions of law sufficiently important 
b» I* remit ted to ihc Court for Crown Cases Reserved. It is by 
hi* sdracacy of the l-inglish inode of administering justice that 
Imlgp Taft hs« provoked <nntrnveray. Many eminent American 
lawyer* hnld thnt if the right to appeal were denied to the *le- 
fradinl in rriminal rase*, th** remedy would prove worse than the 
ilbrase. 

Il i-annot le denied, on the other hand, thnt wnme of 
•sir ,iU,*| jurist* and lawyer* concur t«» u considerable exlent 
silh Judge Ta/t. It wa« only the other day. for instance, that 


Justice PiiEWKit of the United States Supreme Court rigorously 
championed the abolishment of appeal* in criminal nt*e*. except 
where the merits were involved in the clearest manner. Few, in- 
deed. would go so far as to abolish altogether by statute the de- 
fendant's right of appeal in criminal east**, and thus lenvr the 
correction of judicial wrong exclusively to the pardoning power. 
Rather is it an opinion tending to prevail that, while appeals 
should continue to is* allowed, a provision of law should In* en- 
acted by which no judgment of the court below should he reversed, 
except for an error, the avoidance of which, the Appellate Court, 
after reading all the evidence, can affirmatively any, would have 
led to a different verdict. It is Secretary Taft’s conviction that, 
even if the reform of our system of trinl by jury in criminal cases 
should be limited to suelt u statute, ninety -nine reversals out of 
every one hundred witnessed under existing methods of admin- 
istering justice would be averted. 


Liberty to Reid 

Cf.btaix recent attacks on library management, in this country 
make it well |>crhap* to consider whether we are to have liberty 
to read, as well a* to think and to speak. The rapid multiplica- 
tion of public and private libraries in this generation, the vast sums 
which nnmially How into library treasuries, notably from Mr. 
CARfvmnt’ft treasure-house, and the library's increasing place of 
honor ami power in the community all make the query not only 
pertinent, hut important. 

Of course it is frankly conceded at the outset that there arc two 
classes of books which library authorities are justified in limiting 
in circulation or inspection, namely, costly and expensive works 
of art, rare editions and the like, which are not for the many, 
but for the few to handle mid study, and then under rules which 
common sense dictates. Second, there is a class of liooks which 
deal with the sexual passiun as described either bv the scientist, 
the amorous poet or novelist, or the degenerate animalist. Some 
of them* hooks every wufl equipped und comprehensively selected 
library has, but under lock and key. and for consultation by n few. 

Tlie issue recently raised by critics of our libraries b* not. one 
of limited circulation of certain classc* of hook*. Imt of their 
jiossesslon- These critic* say that certain bonk* should not be on 
tbr shelve* for any one to consult, however well qualified or juiniune 
from contagion. In lioston and vicinity it has taken the form of 
protest against retention in the libraries of Somerville and Cam- 
bridge of a hook attacking Aiikaii aw Lincoln, the (irand Army’s 
members and its officials asserting that such a land; lias no place 
in a Northern library, and that it should lie burned publicly even 
a* in the day* of the Inquisition heretical book* and their authors 
wen*. In the South th* 1 demand not only is for text-book* for use 
in the school* which will set forth the history of the civil war in 
n way different from text-hook* i**ucd sih) circulated in the 
North, and distinctly Southern in their point of view, Imt there 
is disinclination to have book* circulating in the libraries which 
are written from the Xortlvern standpoint. 

Nor are (lie points of dispute solely those of eivie*. The demand 
not only goes up from Roman Catholics Hint publisher* of maga- 
r-ine* and bonk* *hall refrain from publishing article* or books which 
criticise Roman Catholic doctrine and practice* or which mlsrrp- 
resent them, hut it i* also wld in the Roman Catholic pres* that 
certain authors’ anti-Cnthnlie writings should tie excluded from 
the public libraries altogether: and, as a matter of fact, in not a 
few of the smaller communities of th*' country, library trustees 
who are usually l*rotc*tant»» would be very loath to purchase or 
receive distinctively Roman C'atholic bonk* and spread them tv- 
fore the public. 

The pffretive answer to all these demands from whatever source 
that the public library should become a partisan agent for the 
dissemination of particular view* about any man or sect or sec- 
tion is that given by Colonel T. W. Hum i. who*. of Cambridge, a 
trustee of its city library, in reply to thnse who would have di* 
plated from it» shelve* the hook nt linking Mr Lixrau, He wrote: 
“ Il is essential to the usefulness of n public library that it should 
possess. if pn*«ihlc. honk* representing the most various and oppn 
site view* on the most important subject*. This i* {leculiarly to 
lie desired in the rn*e of a public man. und in proportion to hi* 
eminence. No such man ran to property understood without know- 
ing the opinion* of hi* enrmie*. if he has any, ami the chnrgi-w 
they hate to bring agitimd him.” 

It will lie most unfortunate if the mood of persecution of libraries 
and library truster* prove* contagion*, and find nny of them weak 
enough to succumb to pressure front organization*, military. p». 
lilirttl, or ecclesiastical. A citir.cn who pay* taxe* in any degree 
to support a library has the tight to read there whatever is 
thought or written by mm. m»*t of it unconditioned, and some 
of it under conditions imposed by the librarian. It will tie * 
strange reversion to medievalism if ju*t a* the pulpit ha* U-vn 
freed for fire thought and sficedi the library should 1m- put in 
ihuin*. 


It M to 


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John 


Hay 



T IIK death of .John Hay. Secretary of State, half an hour 
after midnight on July I. at his country home. The 
Fella, on Lake Sun.tpeo, New II am pah ire. came at a time 
when the people of the L'nitrd States had every reason 
to believe him well on the highroad to recovery from Ilia 
illness. Ilia death was shockingly midden, as the attending 
physicians and even Mr. Hay himself had made reassuring state- 
ments only a comparatively short time before the end. Un t he 
morning of July :t Mr. Huy's IkhIv was taken to Cleveland, Ohio, 
his winter home, and there laid in state in the hall of the Oinm- 
la-r of Commerce, and surrounded hy a miliuiry gmird. The fum-rul 
services, which were attended hy President Roosevelt and all the 
meinUus of the cabinet save Secretary Taft, who is on his way to 
the Philippines, were held on July S. 

John liny, who Item me one of the foremost figures in the world’s 
diplomacy, Vns Imrn at Salem, Indiana, October 8. 18118. Ilis hire- 
bears were Scotch and Kngliah. llis great grandfather, an KngMsli- 
niun, setllrd in Virginia, hut his father, abhorring slavery, ui.vetl 
to Salem, where, fur many years, lie prartised medicine. John 
Huy was sent to Brown University. from which he was graduated 
in ’lH.>8 with honors. I pan leaving college he took up the study 
of law in the otlicc of Ids uncle. Malcolm Huy. at Springfield. 
Illinois. There it wua that John Huy met Ahrnhum l.iuroln. who 
was a warm friend of his unde’s. So favorably was Mr. Lincoln 
impressed hv the young man's attainments that ho asked him to 
enter his o’llicr. This laid the foundation-stone of Mr. Hay’* 
achievements. Hut it cannot lie said he learned much of the law- 
in Mr. Lincoln’* office, a* its atmosphere was far less that *»ff a 
school of legal training than of u school of national polities. In 
these years Mr. Hay had not only the opportunity to study grave 
political problem*, hut to have for teacher a master statesman 
From this time until the assassination of the President. Mr. 
Hay was intimately associated with Mr. Lincoln. He had been 
admitted to the luar, and when Mr. Lincoln went to Washington 
Mr. Huy accompanies! him as, assistant secretary. It eventually 
became necessary that Mr. Hay should act for Mr. Lincoln at the 
front, no the President made him an assistant adjutant -general, 
with the rank of major, and on the field he served under General 
Hunter and CJeneral Gilmore. He was also adjutant of the •wn- 
innnder in-chief, and 
wa* brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel. 

During the war Mr. 

Hay. when in Wash- 
ington. lived at the 
White House, always 
in closest touch with 
Mr. Lincoln. He was 
only twenty-six years 
old at the time of the 
assassination, and aft- 
er that calamity the 
government evinced 
its appreciation of 
his service* by wild- 
ing him In Paris as 
secretary of legation. 

In I KlIS lie Went to 
Vienna as charffi 
d’uffuirr*, hut re- 
signed from this pout 
and returned to the 
United States. Again, 
however, he was call- 
ed to the diplomatic 
service of his coun- 
try. being sent to 
Spain as secretary of 
the legation under 
General I)nnirl K. 

Sickles, returning in 
1870. Then, for a 
time, his diplomat ie 
career closed, and Mr. 

Hay tipcnme an edi- 
t or ia I writer on the 
Now York Tribune, 

Horace Greeley having 
been struck with his 
abilities, and even 
having offered him 

the post while lie was 
secretary at Madrid, 
an offer Mr. Hay de- 
clined at that time. 

For five years Mr. 

Hay w.i» a mem Iter of 
the Tribtinr'* editorial 
staff. Aland this 

time two poem* he 
had written while at 
ltrown were pub- 
lished. They were 

"Jim Hind so " and 
“Little Breeches,’* 
which are now known 
throughout the coun- 
try. Also In* col- 
lected and published 


a quantity of verse, written mainly in the ltrown days, under the 
title /Me C<»a«fy HulludM. Cauhhan Huy*, the impressions of 
his sojourn in Spain, also appealed in this period. 

In 1874 Mr. Hay married Mi*« Clara l~ Stone, of Cleveland, 
and in 1875 moved to that city, and save for two years in Wash- 
ington as Assistant Secretary of State under President ilayc* 
and a brief time in is, si as presiding officer of the International 
Sanitary tongreas. Mr. Huy retried from public life. He de- 
voted hi- time to study and writing, contributing constantly to 
the periodicals of the day. 

lu 1881 Mr. Hay went to live in Washington, and soon after 
licgnii. with Mr. Nicolay, who had been a**m rated with him 
a* secretary to Mr. Lincoln, the work which in still rccoguiml as 
standard. .IbmArim Lincoln: n II mforj/. It in a reeoid of the 

years between lHJO and iHrtS. Wilh Mr. Xicolay lie alsb etliled 

l.iuroln'* Ctimftiitr Work*. The life of Lincoln was so eurefully 
and methodically written that Mr. Hay spent fifteen years upon it. 
In I81*:t a novel, Thtt Ihrmlirtmu nr. was publinhed anonymously, 
and made quite a sensation. Although many persona have laid 
more or le*» claim to the book, it is now known to have come from 
Mr. Hay's jam. 

Mr. Hay's reentry into diplomatic life occurred in 18!»7. when 
President McKinley sent him as aiiilusnador to KuglaiuL a jmst 

lie tilled with great distinction, tine uuirked aucts-ss of his tact 

at this time was his guidance of the negotiations hy which Great 
Britain deflated the etlort* of the other Kuropi-un power* to mwkr 
representations in behalf of Spain. At the close of the Spanish 
war Mr. Hay returned to this country to succeed Mr. Day as 
Secretary of State. 

During Mb diplomat ic service Mr. Hay negotiated more than 
fifty treaties, some of them of extreme ini|*ortaii*c. Tile llay- 
Pauneefote treaty which superseded the t l.ivlon Itulwcr instru- 
ment was a diplomatic masterpiece. Another marked success was 
the plan he deviHcd for the American troops at the time of the 
entry into Peking. They acted simultaneously with those of the 
other powers. Imt were not committed to any' alliance with them. 
Mr. Hay stood for the integrity of China, and won the confidence 
of that empire by refusing to join in the eager demand for in- 
demnity after Peking was taken. Si determined was Mr. Hay 

that his attitude to- 
ward China should he 
manifest to the world 
that when Russia 
sought to close lier 
hand upon the empire 
he sent a circular note 
of prutrst to the flow- 
ers. In Itiissiu’s case 
it proved to le a 
warning which was 
not herded, and the 
present war is the 
price she i« pay ing for 
it. Hy his quirting 
of the Venmielun 

l roubles in IIMio-ft and 

his action in the ad- 
justment of the 
Alaskan Imnmlnry dis- 
pute Mr. Huy won 
new distinction. 

The diplomatic 
mrthod of John Hay 
was always fearless. 
It was said of him hy 
Justice Brewer, of the 
Supreme Court, that 
he was " tactful with- 
out untnithfulness, 
firm without menace, 
and direct without 
brutality.” 

W hen President 
Roosevelt's term as 
successor to President 
McKinley dosed, Mr. 
liny, according to 
rumor, expressed the 
desire to lay aside 
the State portfolio, 
but Mr. Roosevelt suc- 
cessfully urged him to 
remain. Soon after 
the inauguration lust 
Man'll Mr. Hay's 

health failed, and 

i-ventiiHlIy lie went 
abroad for u needed 
rid, Ha returned 
from Kurnpo only a 
few weeks ago ap- 
parently much Iwne- 
fited. and went to The 
Kells on June 22. 
Very soon after that 
In- fell ill again, and 
died ju«t at the time 
he was believed to lie 
regaining hi* strength. 


1‘hnlufjntjih of -John lluy, takni n thort time before hi* llmlh 


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Mihlurtt Li coil jniisiny the Union Motion at Cltrrland 


Taking the Hod if into the Chamber o/ rommrrrr at t'lcrrland, 
where it la if in H tale 



SCENES AT CLEVELAND. WHERE THE BODY OF JOHN HAY 
LAY IN STATE. AND WHERE HIS FUNERAL WAS HELD 

After the death of Ur. Hat/ on Saturday, July I, at his eoun try fdam at Lake Suna/m. heir Hamitahirc, his body iron taken to 
Clrrelaud. hin former home, i rherc it /«»/ in .state in the Chnmbrr of Com inrrre over Jut if }. The funeral nrrrirea, which were 
hi Id on July 5, were atl< tided hit 1‘nsident /{oust rrlt and all of \lr. Unit's forme r associates in the cabine t ereeftt Secretary 
Taft , who was on his uay to the Hhili/i/iini « i rite is referred to the oftfuisih pa ye of this number of Iht “ HVr((y " 
(or a biitf account of Ur. Hay's career 


HK>7 


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A Monument to Adam 

By Metric Twain 


S OME one has revealed to the Tribune that I once suggested 
to Rev. Thomus K. Dceclier, of Elmira, New York, that 
we get up a innnument to Adam, and that Mr. Ileeelier fn- 
vnred the project. There ia more to it than that. The 
matter started as a joke, but it came somewhat near to 
materializing. 

It is long ago— thirty ycara. Mr. Darwin's Descent of Mon 
had been in print live or six year*, and the storm of indignation 
raised by it was still raging in pulpits and jieriodicals. In tracing 
the genesis of the human race back to its sources Mr. Darwin had 
left Adam out altogether. We had monkeys, and “ missing links.” 
and plenty of other kinds of ancestor*, hut no Adam. Jesting with 
Mr. Iteeiher and other friends in Elmira, I said there seemed to 
he a likelihood that the world would discard Adam and accept the 
monkey, and that in the course of time Adam’s very name would 
he forgotten in the earth: therefore this calamity ought to be 
averted; a monument would accomplish this, and Elmira aught 
not to waste this honorable opportunity to do Adam a favor and 
herself a credit. 

Then the unexpected happened. Two bankers came forward and 
took hold of the matter — not for fun, not for sentiment, but be- 
cause they saw in the monument certain commercial advantage* 
for the town. The project had seemed gently humorous before — 
it was more than that now. with this stern business gravity in- 
jected into it. The bunkers discussed the monument with me. 
We met several times. They proposed an indestructible memorial, 
to coat twentv-flve thousand dollar*. The Insane oddity of a 
monument set "up in a village to preserve a name that would oat- 
last the hills and the rocks without any such hrlp, would ad- 
vertise Elmira to the ends of the earth— and draw custom. It 
would lie the only monument on the planet to Adam, and in the 
matter of interest and impressiveness could never have a rival 
until somebody should set up a monument to the Milky 
Way. 

l’eople would come from every corner of the globe and stop off 


to look at it. no tour of the world would be complete that left 
out Adam's monument. Elmira would be a Mecca; there would 
!*• pilgrim ships at pilgrim rates, pilgrim sim-cimI* on the con- 
tinent's railway*; libraries would be written about the monument, 
every tourist would kodak it, models of it would be for sale every- 
where in the earth, its form would become os familiar as the 
figure of Napoleon. 

One cif the bankers subscribed five thousand dollars, and I think 
the other one subscribed half us much, but 1 do not remember 
with certainty now whether that was the figure or not. We got 
designs made — some of them came from Paris. 

In the beginning — ns a detail of the project when it was as yet 
n — * «*d framed a humble and beseeching and perfervid 
petition to Congreas lagging the government to build the monu- 
ment, as u testimony of the (Jreat Republic's gratitude to the 
Father of the Human Race and as a token of her loyalty to Him 
in this dark day of his humiliation when his older children were 
doubting him ami deserting him. It seemed to me that this peti- 
tion ought to Ik- presented, now — it would Is* widely and feelingly 
abused and ridiculed and cursed, and would advertise our scheme 
and make our ground-door stock go off briskly. So I sent it to 
(General Joseph R. Hawley, who was then in the House, and hr 
said he would present it. But he did not do it. I think he ex- 
plainer! that when he came to read it he was afraid of it: it was 
too serious, too gushy, too sentimental— the House might take it 
for earnest. 

We ought to have carrier! out our monument scheme; we could 
have managed it without any great difficulty, and Elmira would 
now be the most celebrated town in the universe. 

Very recently I la-gati to build a book in which one of the minor 
characters touches incidentally upon a project for a monument 
to Adam, and now the Tribune has come upon a trace of the for- 
gotten jest, of thirty veers ago. Apparently mental telegraphy is 
still in business. It is odd; but tlw* freaks of mental telegraphy 
arc usually odd. 


Aboard a Fighting-ship at Sea. 


By R. G. Butler 


T HE progress of the Rus-dan squadrons from the Baltic 
to the China Sea was watched with interest by naval ex- 
perts, who hoped to Imrn from it whether ««r not the 
problem of coaling ship* at ara hail been solved auc- 
crssfully. The naval expert of the laindon Tutu a 
prophesied that the squadrons would never 
reach Japanese waters, owing to their in- 
ability, under the rules of international 
law. to obtain sufficient coal, or to carry 
enough with them to render it unnecessary 
to visit neutral ports. The prophecy has 
been proven false; the question, therefore, 
remains, how. in detail, did the Russians 
|N*rform the feat? It was known that 
many of their shins were provided with 
apparatus designed to permit coaling at 
sea without regard to weather, ami naval 
men hope to learn whether it was operated 
successfully, for, if it was, one of the prin- 
rip.il problems of modern naval warfare 
is solved. 

An army, ns Nnpnlcon said. “ lights on 
it* belly"’; so docs a modern war-aliip. 

Its belly is its furnaces, which need to 
Im- fed constantly with coal. The question 
of coal-supply, then, is ns vital to a ship 
ns Is that of food-supply to an army. At- 
tempts have lies'll made by maritime nations 
to solve it by the erection of eouling-ata- 
tions in different parts of the world, where 
their vessel* may stop when their bunkers 
need refilling, < treat Britain has some 
thirty or more such coaling-stations ; the 
United States have a half-dozen nr so. and 
want more. < iiiautunamo, Cuaiii. Oona- 
In ska. are some of ours. — besides, of course, 
the navy-yard* and naval stations on the 
Amrrirnn continent. But most naval inen 
ms* that coaling-station* do not in them- 
«elve« solve the problem. In war they may 
well lie element* of weakness, necessitating 
defence forers of mime size to prevent their 
rapture by the enemy. The I nited States 
nttnehcd collier* to their Herts during the 
Spanish war. and mi partially solved tin- 
problem — but only partially. With the 
apparatus then in use, war ship* could 


coal only 
alongsidi 
hluumtf 
his fleet 
not until 



when the colliers were alongside ; and the colliers could come 
■ only when the sen was calm. Commodore Schley found 
obliged to lift the blockade of Santiago Harbor I m-cu um- 
had too little coal to permit him to remain: and it was 
he had gone aonir distance on his way to Key Went that 
the sea was sufficiently calm to let. hi* vc* 
*4-1* coal from collier* alongside. In fact, 
during the blockade of Cervera's squadron 
in Santiago Bay. one third of the block- 
ading fleet was constantly absent from it* 
station, mating at ttuanianamo or else- 
where. 

The very great iinportunre. then, of tir- 
ing able to coal without regard to the 
weather — sir long, of course, us then- is no 
actual storm — i* thus apparent: and all 
maritime nations have lieen trying to de- 
vim- mime plan that will etiuble their ships 
to refill their bunkers while at *e*. As has 
been said, apparatus for milling at sin was 
installed on ten vessel* of the Russian see 
ond I’aeific squadron before they left the 
italtir. and naval officer* have Ims-ii wait- 
ing to learn if it was used, and if *n. with 
what success. No report has come from 
the fleet; all that i* known i* that the 
Russian fleet reached Japanese water*. It 
i* probable, however, that the apparatus 
was lint used, except, perhaps, experi- 
mentally. For tin* fleet coa let l at neutral 
port* at first : and later, after the fall of 
l*i irt Arthur, it moved very slowly, so that 
there wn* no mss! of rapid coaling. An 
American admiral undoubtedly would have 
tried the apparatus, if only out of curi- 
osity; but it is quite likely- that the Rus- 
sian officer* did not care to make u*e of it. 

Apparntu* of the same system ha* teen 
adopted by the British navy after consid- 
erable experiment. and is now I icing in- 
stalled on the new vessel*. Hernia ny ha* 
adopted the system used by Russia and 
f!n-at Britain, merely specifying that the 
upp.n.it n* Im- “ made in ftcnnnny." Fur tin- 
system i* an American invention, the de- 
vice of Spencer Miller, u New York en- 
gineer. Thi* apparatus is a device by 


100 *. 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 



which coil I may he con vr veil 
from a collier to a war-snip 
while (he latter is towing the 
former. It eonsiata — apart 
from the winches uaol in 
hauling the haul from the 
collier to the war-ship and 
the empty bug* or boxes hack 
again- -of a cable, on which 
n carrier run# back a ml 
forth, a com jan sating device 
by which this trackway is 
kept taut, an elevating ap- 
paratu# on the collier, and a 
lowering device on the war- 
ship. It is in the last three 
points that the device differs 
from other systems having 
the same end in view. The 
compensating device adopted 
for use at seu is simply the 
drag, or sea-anchor, often 
used when a vessel's rudder 
Itus lieen carried uway, us a 
means of keeping the ship’s 
head to the wind. AM the 
apparatus i* carried on one 
of the two vessel* — prefer- 
ably on the war ship. When 
it i# to he used the tow-line 
i# made fn*t to the collier, 
the elevuting apparatus sent 
over to that vessel and in- 
stalled. the trackway run 
from the war-ship to the fore- 
mast of the collier, the car- 
rier and its Imui-ropc# placed 
in position, the sea-audior 
attached to the free end of 
the trackway and thrown 
overboard, and the operation 
of coaling Itegun. 

This reads as if the pro- 
cedure were difficult and tedi- 
ous; but e\|ieriments have 
shown that it is not. At the 
first experiment-, made in the Mritisli navy, three years ago, the 
time consumed from the moment of rigging the apparatus to the 
moment of starting the first load of cnul from the collier wua 
one hour fifteen and a half minute*; of this time fifty-two min- 
utes were consumed in taking the collier in tow, and only twenty- 
three and u half in setting up the cnldeway. When the Russians 
first experimented with the system they rigged the entire ap- 
paratus within an hour. A recent first trial of the device In 
our own navy required four hours; at the third trial only one 
hour und twenty-two minutes were needed. Better time was made 
at later trials. 

The operation of transporting the fuel is simple. The coul. in hug* 
holding about KlH) (suinds each, is hoisted to the musthead of the 


collier and Imnked to the car- 
rier; a Hag signal is made to 
the man operating the 
winches on the war-ship, who 
start* his machine*, one of 
which take* in ns the other 
|M»v* out the conveyer rope. 
As the carrier with its load 
approaches the deck of the 
ship, the winehman hauls 
down the raldewav until the 
Imgs are within reach of the 
coaling squad, who unhook 
them. The operator reverses 
his winches, and the carrier 
is hurried hack to the collier. 
Round trip* have Is-en made 
repeatedly in fifty - five sec- 
ond*. with the collier from 
three to four hundred feet 
astern, and a more than mod- 
erate *cu running. It is com- 
puted that to keep a load of 
one ton out of water the 
cableway must lie under a 
strum of 14, (MM) (Miunds; the 
faster the ship* move the 
smaller sea-anchor is needed, 
at twelve knots one of only 
five feet in diameter sufficing, 
while at lower «]>ccd# either a 
single large anchor or two or 
more smaller ones arc neces- 
sary. 

‘fhe invention described was 
taken abroad and experi- 
mciited with. The British 
Admiralty chartered a cruiser 
especially for the experi- 
ments; the First Naval l»rd 
of the Admiralty, the Junior 
l»rd, the Controller of the 
Navy, and the Chief Con- 
structor made the trip from 
London to Plymouth espe- 
cially to examine the ap- 
paratus. and the trials were conducted by a captain of the navy. 
In Russia a fl|s>cial board of inspection was appointed, with two 
admirals among its members, one of them Admiral Wirenins. 
The trials in our navy have lieen with officers op|K»*ed to the plan, 
or with only juniors* on the hoard* of inspection. At the most 
recent trials*, completed early in May, the ranking officer of the 
board was a commander. 

The trials most recently concluded took place off the Capes of 
the Chesapeake early in May. The liuttlv-ship lllinoi* and the 
collier J/rm-r//ii« were used, the war ship currying the apparatus 
ami sending over a part of it to the collier. The .l/cim ffiia was 
taken in tow four times; the first time the loaded carrier made 
( Con till wed on ;xn/r 102.1.) 


V’lVir taken from thr Uaathead of the Collier. The Coal haa 
started on its Trip of i<») Feet to the Huttle-ahip “/Hiaota” 



Fholof/rnph taken from the After • brMflr of lh< " I Minna." 
Tht Load of Coal is nearimj lh> I tut Ik ship 


from the How of the Collier . The Coal haa brs 
hurt rut to the Ih'cb of the Dallle-ahrp 



luuy 


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The Finmh of the 'Vomit)/ Eight-oared Hare — the winning Cornell Crete crossing thr Line 


Thr Scene al the Ft nish-lint — Spectator* in lioirboat* and Latin eke* watching the UaevH 


The clone Struggle for Second /‘lace in thr 'Vanity Fight ■ oared Fare — Syracuse in /unrig from tieorip-town (third/ by a 
Length and a Quarter, teilh Columbia fourth 

SCENES AT THE INTERCOLLEGIATE BOAT-RACES ON 

THE HUDSON 

The photograph * are snap-shots of wrnrs during tin boat-race* of the Inltrrollegiale Itoiring \n*ociation al 1‘oughLeepsir in t 
June 2H, in which Cornell I'arried off chief houoi *, trinning both the 'Vanity eight and the Fre*hman rare*. In the 'Vanity 
eight -oared race, the Cornell crew iron in 2<l nt. J‘J 2-5 *. Syracuse wan steroid. and tlronplotm third. In the Freshman eight- 
oared rare Cornell again non firnt plats' — lime, 0 in. .t» 2 5 h. In this race Syracuse teat ateond and Columbia thinl. The 
‘Vanity four-oared nice was tton by Syracuse in la «». 15 2-5 a. 

rtuloun *,» l v luU-t 

1010 


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BYNOTOIB OF PRECRDINO CHAPTERS 
JnmM Mlltiankr. hi old college frlrnrl of Is-nls Asstilln. visits ttw 
IniHT for i In- Dm time In thirty year* nt til* ancc*tral estate In south- 
ern Irrlaml llt> and* Asshlln marl) clianged. After dinner Avahlln In- 
dum M Him like to play ranis with him. and they play until early 
morainic. Mllbniike finally winning. After Mlll>ntikr leave* lit* liost to 
K«i to tils room, Cludagll. Asshlln s eldest daughter. meet* him In the 
hall, and beg* him not to Ramble with her father attain, an It In 
thioiiRh hla pesKlon for play that Aaahlln l« bringing rain to himself 
and Ida family. The next morning at hreakfaat Mllhanke finda on hla 
plate a rlHM-k from Asshlln In payment of hla losses. That night Aaahlln 
propose* another game of card* Mllbanke refuse* to play, and dropa hla 
hoat'a eheek Into the lire lie lella Aaahllu that be considers him weak 
and worth lean, and returaa to England the next day. Three yeara 
after. Mlllainke reeelvea a letter from Clodagh telling him that 
Asshlln luta been aerloualy hurt In an aeeldeut, and urging him to 
route to Ireland. Mllhanke hasten* to hla old friend'* home, and 
finda Aaahlln on hla death bed, and In grent dlatreaa of tnlnd over the 
future of lit* ehlldren. who lie known will l>e left pennlleaa na a 
result uf hla dissipation*. Mllhanke promises to he reaponalhle for 
their welfare. A famous specialist In Muromoned from Dublin to con- 
Kiilt wllli the. loral surgeon, and after a careful examination by llw 
two physicians. Mllhanke I* Informed that hla friend'* condition la 
hopeless. Late that night AnnIiIIii dim. Mllhanke a*ks I'hxlsgh to 
n>arry him. A! first she refuse* him : hut when she learna that her 
father'a ealate will hr put under obllgatlona to Mllhanke by hla bene- 
faction*. she consent* to become hla wife. They ore married shortly after 
at C’arrtgmore, and, after it has been decided that Clodagh'a Ulster Nance 
shall live ulMi them fur a tithe, all leave Irvlund together fur Florence. 


CHAPTER XVII 

I T was nine o'clock on a morning four years after the wedding 
nt Ca mg more -. the seuson wa* lute spring; the acenp was 
Italy; and Florence— the cilv of tranquillity tuude manifest 
—lay at rest tinder its coverlet nf aim and m«ea. In the soft, 
early light, the nasstd buildings of the town seemed to blend 
together, until, to the dazzled eye*, the Arno looked a mere rilthon 
of silver as it wound under its bridges, and the anlendid pro- 
portion* of the Dimno Ix-earnr lost in the blue ha/e that presaged 
the hot day to entne. 

Tlie scene wnu vaguely beautiful. viewed from any of the hill* 
that guard the city: hut from no point waa its soft pictureaq ue- 
nrxH more remarkable than from tin* terraces and windows of u 
villa that nestled in a curvB of the narrow, winding road between 
San IVimvnico and Fieaole. This villa, unlike it* neighbors, was 
lung and low in structure ; and, in addition to the stone urns, 
luxurious Dowering plants, and wide painted jalousies common to 
Italian limine*. it boasted other and more individual attractions — 
to la- found in a flight of singularly old and picturesque marble 
step* that led from one level of its garden to nuother, and in 
the unusual magnificence of the cypresses that grew in an im- 
posing semicircle upon the upper terrace. 

It was under the shade of these sombre tree* that a breakfast- 
table stood, awaiting occupation, on this purticulat morning at 
the hour of nine. The table in itself formed a picture, for in the 
warm shaft* of sun that slipped between the pywe>» trf», silver 
and glass gleamed invitingly, while in their midst an immense 
Venetian howl tilled with roses made a patch of hiirniiig color. 
Everything was attractive, refined, appetizing; and yet, for mmr 
undiseernible reason, the inmates of the villa appeared in no hasle 
to enjoy the meal that awaited them. 

For fully ten minutes after the coffee had been laid upon the 
table the Italian man servant, wince duty it was to wait at break- 
fast, stood immovably attentive, his hack stiff, his glance resting 
expectantly upon the veranda: then hi* natural interest in the 
meal caused him to alter his position and cast a sympathetic eye 
upon the coffee, in imminent danger of growing mid. 

Five more minutes passed, jic looked again at the villa, sighed. 


and gracefully Kicked a fly from the Iwiskct of crisp rolls. Then 
suddenly he stood newly erect and attentive, as Ilia quick ear 
caught the swish of a skirl and the sound of a light step. A mo- 
ment later Clodagh emerged upon the sunny terrace, followed by 
her dog Mick. 

At any period of existence four yeara is a span of time to la- 
reckoned with. Hut when four year* serve* to bridge the gulf 
between childhood and womanhood it* power is well nigh limit- 
less. As Clodagh Millianke stepped through the long window of 
her room and came slowly out into the morning light it would 
have been a close observer indeed who would, nt a lir*t glance, have 
recognized the unformed girl of four years ago in the graceful, 
wdl-dressed woman moving no sedately through the Italian sun- 
shine. On a second glance, or a third, one would undoubtedly 
have seen traces of the long, undeveloped limbo in the tall, supple, 
figure; caught a suggestion of the rough luxurious plait in the 
golden brown hair eoiled about the well-shaped head, and have been 
fascinated by nuim-rous undeniable and haunting suggestions in 
contour and’ coloring. Hut there memory would have hesitated. 
Tin- Clmlngli who had scoured tin* wood*, scrambled over the risks, 
and galloped across the lands of (Irristown was no longer visible. 
Another being, infinitely more distinguished, infinitely more at- 
tractive, and yet vaguely deprived of some essential quality, had 
taken her place. In the four years that hud |«***d since she left 
Ireland she had. from being a child, become u woman; and la-low 
the new beauty that nature hud painted upon her face lay an in- 
tangible. a poignantly suggested regret for the girlhood that had 
been denied her. 

As she stepped out upon the terrace she paused for a moment, 
and her eyes travelled mechanically over Florence— warm, ls-au 
tiful. Inert. Then, with the same uninterested calm, she turned 
slowly towards the breakfast-table; but there her glance bright- 
enrd. 

“ Oli. letter*!" she said, aloud; ami with an impulsive move- 
ment she hurried forward, letting her elaborate muslin dress trail 
unheeded behind her. 

Scarcely seeing the profound Imiw with which tin man aervant 
greeted her. she picked up the letters, and scanned them one by 
one. Him as she di*np|M>intrdlv threw the last Isick upon the 
table she half turned in acknowledgment of a measured step that 
came amiss the terrace from the direction of the house. At the 
same moment Mick pricked up hi* ears and slowly wagged his 
tail, while the Italian servant bent his body in a fresh *alu 
tat ion. 

Millianke — for bin was the second step that had disturbed the 
sileuct — cans* forward without haste. Hi-aeliing the table, he took 
Clodagh'* left hand uiid pressed it; then he stooped methodically 
and putted the dog's head. 

*ifj<Msl morning!'’ be said, gravely. “ Are there any letter*!'* 

“Yes; four, and all for you — a* usual." 

lie smiled, unobservant of the slightly tired irritability of do* 
dngh's tone. • 

“Ah, Indeed !" he said. “Thai is pleasant. Is there one from 
Sicily! Scarpio promised to let me have the latest details of the 
great work." 

He took up the four letters ami carefully studied the envelopes. 
As l«e came to the last his thin face la-cnmc on i united. 

“Ah, this in satisfactory ! " lie exclaimed. “1 knew he would 
not fail me. What wonderful — what fascinating work it must be!" 

He tore the envelope open and Is-gan to peruse the letter. 

While he scnnnrd the opening line* Clodagh watched hint ab- 
sently; hut a* the first page fluttered U- tween hi* lingers she gave 
a slight, involuntary shrug of the shoulder*, and moving round 
the table, sank into the seat that the servant drew forward for her. 
Then, with an uninterested gesture, she |M>ured out two cups of 
coffee. 

For a while there wa* silence, save for the turning of the letter 
in its recipient's hand, the occasional snap of Mick's teeth as lie 


Copyright, IBOft. >-r k Aim mn lam. Tucmston 


1011 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


attempted to catch a fly. and the thousand impersonal soumU 1 of 
lazy, outd'air life that nw about them. At last Milliankr moked 
up, his face tinged with mild excitement. . -«* 

" This discovery is very remarkable,” he said. ** Sicily a ill ob- 
tain a new importaner.” 

Clodagh biii i led faintly. 

" In the antiquarian’s eye*," she said, with unconscious Irony. 
There was no bittcrncx* and no impatience in her voice. She «]a>kc 
as if statin# a fact that Ion# familiarity had rendered absolutely 
barren. 

Look in# back over the four years of her marriage, it seemed to 
her that life had been one round of archaeological discovering — all 
timed to take place at the wrong season. She vividly remembered 
the lirst of these events, the discovery of some subterranean pas- 
sages in the neighborhood of Carrara, which had taken place two 
months after their arrival in Italy, while life yet letaintd some- 
thing of the dark, vague semblance usually associated with a 
night ma re. Still desperately homesick and unreasonably miser- 
able in her new posit mu. she bad eagerly grasp'd at Milluinke’a 
suggest mu that they should visit the scene of these excavations. 
Hut with this lirst essay her interest in discoveries bad Liken 
permanent tlight. 

The heat hail liecn tremendous, the country parched and unsym- 
pathetic, the associations terribly uncongenial. She remi'iiflii-icd 
the tirst morning when she an<\ Xarue, stilling in their black 
dresses, had by tacit consent stolen away from the party of 
fellow enthusiasts to which Milhunke had attach'd himself, 
and climbing to the summit of n low. olive • crowned hillC bud 
sat. tired, silent, and unutterably wretched, looking out upm the 
arid land. 

But that excursion had Iwn the prelude to a new era. Visits 
to various antiquities had succeeded each other with dull regu- 
larity. broken by long, uneventful sojourns in the green seclusion 
of the villa at Florence. Then the first break had occurred in the 
companionship of the trio. Xante had been sent home to an Eng* 
lisli school. 

Clodngh a acceptance of this flat had been curiously interesting — 
ns luul la*en her whole attitude towards Milbanke mid hi- wishes. 
From the clay on which she recognized that the state of mutr ifiiony 
was something irrevocably serious she had taken upon her -elf an 
attitude of reserved surrender that was difllciilt to analyze, dilliriilt 
even to superfieinlly understand. By a strangely immature process 
of deduction she hud satisfied herself that marriage was a state, 
of bondage — more or less distasteful as chance decreed. A state 
in which, by a fundamental law of nature, subini-sioii ami self- 
repression were the chirf factors necessary upm the woman’s 
side. 

As sometimes happens when there is a great disparity in years, 
the wedded state had widened instead of lessening tV gulf between 
Millainke and herself. It had cast a sudden, awkward restraint 
upm the affection and reap'rt that his actions had kindled in 
her mind, while inspiring no new or ardent feeling* to take their 
place. Ridiculously — and yet naturally — her husband had liecume 
an infinitely more distant and unapproachable ls*ing than her 
father's friend had been. And to this new key she had, perforce, 
attuned lit-r existence. 

With u great' r number of years — even with a little more world- 
ly experience — she might have made a vastly different business of 
her life; for, at the time of his marriage, Milbanke had hen hover- 
ing upm the border-land of that fatuous love in which an old 
man can lose himself so completely. If. in th<»se first months, she 
had permitted any of the ardor, any of the fascination of her nature 
to shine upm him. she might have led him by a silkrn thread in 
whatever direction she pleased. But three factors had precluded 
this — her youth, her inexperience, her entire ignorance of artifice. 
In her primary encounter with the realities of life she had lost 
her strongest 
weapon — her 
frank. u n- 
swerving fear- 
lessness; and in 
lie ii of this she 
had, in the mo- 
ment of first 
panic, seized 
upm tin* near- 
est substitute, 
a n d Ii a d 
wrapp'd herself 
in an armor of 
cold. impreg- 
nable reserve. 

Ami before 
this armor the 
weapons of Mil- 
ha nke's love 
had hern turned 
aside. There 
hud been no 
scene*, no har- 
assing disillu- 
sionment ; but 
gradually. in- 
evitably. his 
original atti- 
tude with re- 
gard to her — 
his shy reti- 
cence. his un- 
certainty, 


the presence of some incomprehensible quality — had returned, 
lie had slowly but surely withdrawn into hini-wlf, turning with 
a groping, pathetic eagerness to the interests (but bad previously 
usurped his thoughts. With a nervous sensitiveness that warred 
continuously with his n»utter-of-fuct precision lie became un- 
comfortably conscious of 'xn-upying a false position, of having 
made an indisputable — almost u ridiculous — mistake; and he bad 
taken a blind leap towards the quarter in which hr believed com- 
pensation to lie. And (’I'xLigh, vaguely divining this, vaguely re- 
morseful of what she scarcely knew, hud held her own enthusi- 
asms more rigidly in check, schooling herself into acquiescence 
with every iuip-mmal suggestion that be cliose to make. 

From this had arisen the pursuit of the antique in whatever 
corner of Kurope. and at whatever season of the year, circum- 
stance* might decree. To Clodagh the pilgrimages had seemed un- 
utterably wearisome, and unutterably foolish; but there i» a greut 
rapacity for silent endurance in the Irish nature. t^uick-hloodcd 
though it may la-, it pomesars that strung fatalistic instinct that 
accepts without quest mu the decree of the go* Is. The spirit of 
revolt is not lucking in it. but it requires a given atmosphere, a 
given sequence of events, to bring it into activity. At two-and- 
twenty Clodagh was weary of her huslMind, of herself, of her life. 
But precisely as her father had fretted out his existence in the 
quiet monotony of thristown she had accepted her fate without 
thought of question. 

In tin- second year, when they had travelled to Kngbiml with 
Nance, Millwnkc had suggested a visit to Ireland, but this pro- 
posal she hud declined. 1’lie days when every fibre of her la-itig 
luul yearned for her own country were past, and the idea of re- 
turn had lust its savor. 

A* she sat now sipping her coffee and gazing alnstnirtcdly down 
to where the hot sun glinted on the Arno, it seemed lu her that 
her life — the glorious, exuberant state that she bad been accus- 
tomed to call her life — had drifted incredibly fur away; that it 
lay asleep, if not already dead, in some intangible realm widely 
beyond her reach. She thought of Nance uwur at her English 
school, and unconsciously she envied her. To lie fifteen, and to 
Is* surrounded by young people! Involuntarily she sighed; and 
Mick, ever acutely sensitive to her eliangr of mood, turned and 
pressed his cold nose against her knee. 

Mediunieully she put down her hand and pulled one of his soft 
ears; then suddenly she raised her head, attracted by an exclama- 
tion of impatience in Millianke's usually placid voice, linking 
up. slu* saw that be had npciird a second letter. 

“ What is it?” she asked, her morn'll t ary nirioaity dropping 
tiitck to indifference. “ W its that last intaglio unauthenti''. after 
all?” 

Milbanke glum-cd up with an annoyed expression. 

“ This doc* not concern the intaglio.” he said. " This is from 
Barnui'l — David Barnard, the friend who acts as my broker and 
looks after my business affairs. You have heard me speak of him.” 

“Of course. Often.” An expression of interest awakened in 
Clodagh’a face. 

“ Well, this letter i* from him — written from Milan. Most tire- 
some and annoying it* coming at tlii* juncture!" He scanned the 
letter for the second time. “ 1 particularly want to run down into 
Sicily la-fore Scarpio leaves.” 

"And doc* the letter prevent you?” There was interest and a 
slight hn|M'fitlness in the tone of Clodngh'* voice. 

** I — I am very much afraid that it doe*.” 

” Hut why?” 

He fold'*! the letter carefully and returned it to the envelope. 

•’ Because Barnurd is coming to Venice in two days and sug- 
gest* that I should meet him there.” 

” Venice!" Clodngh said the word softly. 

” Yes. Most tiresome! Must annoying! But he think* it an 

0 p p o rt unity 

that should not 
la* lost. I have 
nut had an in- 
terview with 
him since the 
occnsion upon 
which we left 
Nance at school, 
lie came then to 
our hotel in 
liondnn : I do 

not think you 
met him.” 

"No. But r 
remember his 
coming to see 
vou. I remem - 
ia-r Nance and 

1 thought he 
had such a jolly 
laugh; we 
heard it from 
our bedroom — 
the one that 
opened off our 
sitting-room.” 

With the men- 
tion nf this new 
subject, trivial 
though it was, 
Clodngh’s man- 
ner had chang'd. 
** But what 



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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


about Venice!" she asked, after 
a moment's pause. " Will you 

jpi!" 

Millmnke looked thoughtful. 

" Well, I — I scarcely know 
whnt to say. Of coarse 1 could 
refuse on the ground of this 
business in Sicily. Hut it is a 
oucfttion of expediency. A few 
(lays with Harnard now may 
save me a journey to London 
next year. Still it ia very pro- 
voking!" 

" Hut Venice!" Clodagh sug- 
gested, and again her tone was 
soft. More than any other in 
Italy, the beautiful city of the 
Adriatic had appealed to her 
curiosity and her imagination. 

With a quick glance her eyes 
travelled over the sheltered, 
drowsy garden, sloping down- 
ward. terrace below terrace. 

“ I should love to see Venice,” 
she said, suddenly. " I always 
picture it ao wide and silent and 
mysterious.” 

Milhanke looked up from the 
opening of his third letter. 

** Venice is unhealthy.” he 
said, prosaically. 

For one moment her lip curled. 

“ Perhaps that is why it ap- 
peals to me," she said, with a 
Hash of the old. insubordinate 
spirit. Then suddenly her eve* 
met her husband's quiet, puzzled 
gaze, and the parsing light died 
out of her fare. With a hasty 
gesture she lifted her coffee-cup 
to her lips and set it down 
empty. 

" Conn* along, Mick!" she said, 
pushing back her chair and 
speaking with unconscious sar- 
casm. " Come and let us see 
whether we can find any roses 
in the garden 1” 

Clodagh 'a manner was careless 
and her gait nonchalant as she 
rose from the table and crossed 
the terrace, followed by her dog. 
hut inwardly she burned with a 
newly kindled sense of anticipa- 
tion. There was no particular 
reason why the idea of a journey to Venice, for the purpose of see- 
ing a stock-broker, even though that stock broker wan a personal 
friend of Millmnke’a. should he instinct with any promise; yet the 
idea excited hrr. With the exception of the journey to England 
with Nance, it was the first time in four years that her husband 
had seriously contemplated any move not ostensible connected with 
his hobby. And the thought of Venice, the suggestion of encounter- 
ing any one whose interests lay outside antiquities, had the power 
to elute her. As she left the breakfast-table ner steps unconscious- 
ly quickened, and Mick, attentively sensitive to her altered gait, 
wagged his short tail, gave one sharp, incisive bark of question, 
ami looked up at her with ears inquisitively pricked. 

She paused and looked down at him. 

“ Mick darling," she whispered. " Imagine Venice at night — 
the music and the water and the romance!" And just think" — her 
voice dropped still lower — “ just think what it would lie to meet 
»«>mr one — any one at all — who might happen to uotice that one's 
clothes were new and that one’s hair was pro|M-rly done up!" 

She hent down in n sudden impulse of excitement and kissed 
his upraised head: then with a quiek laugh nt her own impetu- 
osity she turned and ran down the first flight of time-worn mar- 
ble steps. 

That was her private and personal reception of the new*. latter, 
returning with tier arms full of the roses that run riot in the 
garden, she was able to meet Milhanke with ft demeanor of dig- 
nified calm, and to answer his questions as to whether her boxes 
could be pneked in two days, in a voice that was dutifully sub- 
missive and unmoved. 

Hut the two days of preparation were imbued with a secret 
joy. There was a new and unending delight in selecting the must 
Is-niit iful of the dresses in her eluhorutc wardroltr ami in feeling 
that at last they were to Is 1 seen by eyes that would understand 
their value. For Millmnke, while never restraining her craving for 
costly clothes, had. since the day of their marriage, been totally 
unobservant and indifferent a* to whether she wore silk or home- 
spun; and on the occasions when outside opinions might have been 
brought to bear upon the matter — namely, the moments when the 
arclivological excursions were undertaken — necessities of season 
or expediency had invariably limited her supply of garments to 
the clothes "that would not show the dust or the clothes that 
would keep out the rain. Hut now the prospret was different. 
It was still the season In Venice; *he would l>c justified in bring- 
ing the best and most attractive clothes she possessed. The thought 
was exhilarating; life heratnc a tiling of hustle and interest. Two 
and three times 11 day she drove into Florence to make totally un- 


necessary purchases; she wrote 
more than one long letter to 
Nance; and indulged in many 
a protracted and confidential 
talk with Mirk as they sat to- 
gether on the edge of the old 
marble fountain. 

Hy a hundred actions, obvious 
or obscure, she made it plain in 
those days of preparation that, 
despite the fact that her child 
hood lay behind her, and that 
she had known none of the in- 
termediate pleasures of ordinary 
girlhood, she was a woman whose 
heart, whose rapacity for enjoy- 
ment. whose com prehension of 
life, was extraordinarily — even 
dangerously — young. 

At lust the dav dawned upon 
which they left the villa on the 
sunny hill, said good by to the 
wide, slow river, the riotous 
roses, and the slow-tolling Mis 
of Florence, and took train for 
the north. 

Through the hours of that 
railway journey Clodagh sat al- 
most silent. To her eager mind, 
ulrendy springing forward to- 
wards the enchanted city, there 
was no need for speech, and the 
quirt, prim husband seated op- 
ite to her made no call upon 
imagination. He was essen- 
tial to the journey, as the 
padded cushion behind her head 
nr the English hooks and maga- 
zines hy her side were essential 
to it. and for this reason he 
occupied that most fatal of all 
positions — the position of an ac- 
cepted. familiar accessory. The 
early days of their m’arriagr, 
when in her eyes he had taken 
on a new and dreaded a*|>cct. 
were entirely past. With his 
supersensitivenesa ami constitu- 
tional self-distrust he had with- 
drawn somewhat hastily from 
the position of lover to shelter 
behind the cloak of his former 
guardianship. Ami Clodagh had 
hailed the change of attitude 
with obvious relief. 

Now. as she sot eagerly alert to gain her first glimpse of Venice, 
she had almost forgotten that those early days had ever existed. 
For the moment Milbnnke wn» a cipher, and sue an ardent, appre- 
ciative individual undergoing a new sensation. 

Such was her precise mental position when at last the scene 
for which she waited broke upon her view. Kising straight out of 
the water, Venice seemed to her ardent eyes even more the produet 
of a visionary world than her dreams had made it. The hour was 
seven, and from the many spires and domes of the city warm gleams 
of bronze or gold shot forth at the touch of the setting sun. Hut 
the prevailing note of color that gleamed through the mauve twi- 
light was white — the wonderful, semitransparent white of anrimt 
marble Imckgrounded hy sea and sky. 

The effect made upon Clodagh’a mind hy thla white city wrapped 
in its evening veil was instantaneous and deep. With the excep- 
tion of Florence her knowledge of the beauties of Italy was very 
limited, and her first glimpse of Florence had been gained under 
such unpropitious circumstances that its sheltered loveliness had 
never subsequently appealed to her ns it might otherwise have done. 
Now. however, her condition of mind was tranquil, if not happy, 
and as the train sped forward she gazed spellbound at this beauty 
at once so tangible and so unreal. 

To every traveller it must conic with a sense of desecration 
that this most magical of cities is approached by nothing less 
prosaic than un ordinary railway terminus. And Clodagh gave a 
little involuntary gasp of disappointment as the train swerved 
suddenly, exchanging the glamour of the outer world for a noisy 
station that might have Moiign! to nnv town; and as she rose 
from her seat, arranged her hnt, nnd eolfreted her books, she won- 
dered for one moment whether the vision just hidden from her 
view was in reality the handiwork of man nnd not some mirage 
conjures! up by her own imagination. So strong was the feeling 
that she remained silent as she descended from the train, and 
waited while Milhutikc saw to the collecting of the luggage; then, 
still without speaking, she followed him down the (light of steps 
that lead to the water. Hut theie, as the prosaic station vanished 
from con aid era I inn. and Venice broke once more upon her view, 
her emotion* dominated her. With n quiek, unconscious gesture 
she laid her hand on her husband's arm. 

"Oh, isn't it wonderful?" she raid, in a hushed voice. 

Milhanke turned to her uncertainly. 

" Yen. my dear,” he said, absently. " Yes. Hut ” — he sniffed 
critically — "but do you not detect a distinctly unhealthy odor!" 

Clodagh *s hand dropped suddenly and expressively to her side, 
(Continued on page 1QI1.) 



10 1:1 


Digitized by Google 




harpers : 


FIFTY YEARS OF P R ( E 

I. AGRK • 



Diagram tkturing I hi fkvetopment ami lum 


N KITHKR tlie motley-loving Dutrhliirn who settled the middle 
■-••liiiiii's of Aiurrim, mu the liberty -loving I *i l^r mi - Mini I'uri- 
tans of the North, nor the joint-nlotk companies of the South, 
dreamed of the {.'mil iiiiln*triul empire they were fou mlin^ to 
overmatch the whole of Kurom- ami to rani|wle with the entire 
world. Their omim were humming with the wonderful tales told hy the 
New World explorer-*, ami their lni|ies were l.igh - strung to carve out 
new homes in an unbroken wilderness where their own |s-i*onul ideal* 
should be rcali/rd. At first they were all industrial communist*. Their 
lands were held in common, and the produels, under one plan or anothrr, 
were divided to the unionists by thuw in charge. A lew yearn cured 
that error, and the lands were assigned to individual holdings. Then 
la-gan the real new life ol the real New World. Anthitmn found reward. 


and the llrsf milestone on the pathway of American progress was firmly 
art. 

When the Revolutionary war closed, and for many years after, sailing- 
craft were the main de|M-tidi nee for carrying products or people fnim 
one colony to another. A few roads hail liren made near tlw sraeoa* 
and along the river cuurwcs. Agrieulture was therefore chiefly ctwfintd 
to n narrow strip of the eastern part of the present United States. It 
expanded steadily, (hough slowly, as |m --> uil>l«- roads for oxen and borse*. 
taking the place o( Indian Hails, were « xti-nded westward and north sard 
and liackward from river mules. Hy the time of the taking of the 
fourth national census | In JO) — aftei the second war with Knglsml 
I 1812-15 1 — steandsmts la-gan to creep further up the fiver* ami small 
streams than the roach of sailing* vessels, and ih a more practical fashion 

than canoes and flat- 
law ts. thereby dr- 



u 8j H5 millior ijv >t| 


(12th Census-1900) 


«,CH. 


v- movement 
of the Centre of 
Corn Production 
, 1850-1900 


MISS 


'"u single dot, in o siijgle stats, \ 
weon» from one to tuio million 
bushels. Under 1,000.000, no dot. 


,#f «*UTaest5S»^ |9f 


V v 


/ 



l Cal J7' 

/ 

/ ut *H j 

f • 


k fi 

\ 


COlo. 



V 

7 

— - J 



Map nhumntj Jrrw of Corn Production in fhv Untied Stales 


cidedly extending the 
range «f profitable 
agrieulture. on any 
scale of products* 
bevond family ami 
neighborhood n«vd-- 
Twenty years later 
< 18401 railroads had 
la-gun to stretch their 
iron rail* far out into 
the agricultural land* 
irrespective of mean 

fronts or rivet twin 
thereby giving w.m- 
derful promise of un- 
limited agricultural 
expansion. Tlie b>y 
giant la’gnn to for* 
the pulse of a l"''* 
mystery of power, 
that turned In* f* ,r 
to a new light, met- 


ing from the mrev 
plnml region* of the 
unknown Wester® 
wilds, to whose » hel- 
per ings of untold 
sourer* of 
ami strength he ■■■ 
heretofore giwn lit- 
tle heed. The rn®*** 1 
date 11830) wi* 


close at hand. 

Oversea, the fnrev* 


of unhappy f* lc 
building for the l* r £ 
advantage o( . „ 

voung AmeneM 
giant. i»»t l*y ,nn '"h 
to diiuly diserm the 


Digitized by Google 







i OGRESS IN AMERICA 


■RICULTURE 

y\ HEWES 



S-vjOT acroyi (the cer^u^ ysx b«'\n^ the mdd\e 4a\e) , to wild exlTodrnonVj yjor ,or qcod , crop records 

4m m on/ (jroin-nppiy during Fifty Years 


-Inwninit of his own possibilitii-*. In IH4W a great potato fumine in 
In-Usd. inadiquntrlr nirt by Knglaml'n lack ot actiim. followed liy it 
Hitial revolution, Mile It* people heart Nick, nnd lsuilt in them higl 
hi|o nt • better home in the new America. Tlii* unhappy Kurnpeui 
ueideat *mt tboimamls upon thousand* of willing win kern In our shun- 
to hntrn the laying of the iron rail*. wrest, ever went, into the riel 
>i-riniltunil land* of the [treat Ohio River Volley. stretching it* »'em- 
iQfly limitlest eipain* I*>cimI the A|i|>ulachiaii harrier. The revolution 
in (Vnntay (1S48| added many other thousand* -willing working tier- 
mins— to (hr rwilroad-liuiklern of the Ohio Valley. As last it* the rail 
«>»4» mre built, many of the more thrifty Iri-h anil ticrinun r«»nl 
heiMrra. tup-thi-r with manv New-Knglnnders. attracted hy the low -cm 
rhn-tnttnm am*, and repelled hy the rock-ribbed field* of their narrator 
MN bom m a king the 
railnad routes, then- 
If M|timlin« agri- 
rultunl op-ratiims. 

Thr ( aliinmu gold 
hwH«j 1 1 MV | ere- 
Hid t wild impetus 
to thr Part lie mart, 
ml tbamnd* <•( mi'll 
««nt is a mad rush 
rltar aenw* the mn- 
tinrnt Thr gnat 
S»ld yrndurt, moat of 
*hi«k fin* hy one 
n*u» nr another into 
thr Kavlrrn State*, 
hrlpfd |u buiM the 
«<mirr aerking rail- 
nad*. ever rrkwe 
oi*rtni uith branch- 
it ml suliliraarbm, 

1i»t»r and farter into 
tto nra agricultural 
bmu&i,*» that within 
thr tingle ten year* 

(run 14V) m I MO the 
nultiplriag hrreil of 
irv« burn*, rturtiiv 
Iran their limited 
InvrU nr*f the At 
hole. were rush in* 
ia mnr direction 
ttimgh the wlaile 
loud Ohio Kiver 
Valkyr, dear to and 
fvm, in wnie rase*, 
trend thr tanks of 
tie "Father of W»- 
Ur«." Ihr gr**‘ 

HiMiwippi K • v <' r, 

white another iknide 
<p«d their r«wil* 


entirely acmes the enntinent, t rn version the boundless Western prairies 
and tapping tin- wealth of the famous gold court. The eivil war pro- 
duced ii greatly increased ilrriumd for agricultural products at home; 
anil the I'liited State* llolucrtend Act of ltMM mane it ensy for dis- 
charged soldiers. as well a* other person*. to makr themselves agricultural 
home*. Them- reroril* of pn^iiss apply ch icily tu the Xortlictn State*, 
ns is clearly shown hy the railroad map* of (he |ierind. ami Uv the fact 
that while, from ISiiti to IkTh. the form land* of the Xortberu State* in 
creased ill value ovei live dollar* jw-r acre, those of the Southern State* 
dec reused nenrlv a* much. Since that time, however, the recovery of 
the Sontli is •iihstuntint and emphatic. The foreign dciiiami for <s>tton 
gave the South its chief agricultural impulse, and hy ISMU the cotton 
product of free labor more than equalled the lust uluvc labor crop — that 



II A R I’ ER'S WEEKLY 


of INtH ) — a flirt at on? time 
thought impossible; while the 
present inimiii! crop mure than 
double* that of IKHO. 

In tin? curly w-venth***, a 
*’ new pwee** ' of making 
spring- wheat Hour, introduced 
in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
gave u new im|ntus to Uuit im- 
portant branch of agricultural 
product imi, and broadened the 
wheat- field* of the growing 
Went astonishingly. doubling 
the agricultural imputation nf 
Minnesota and the Dakotas in 
n single ten years. As rail- 
roads multiplied, competition 
reduced the cost of transporta- 
tion, extending the area of 
profitable grain - funning enor- 
mously; and when refrigerator- 
ears came into use perishable 
products, such as fruit, eggs, 
and meat, could be safely 
shipped hundred* of miles to 
the great cities, and hence the 
increased production of those 
products gave another large 
expansion to piofitable agri- 
cultural operations. 

These several factors, al- 
though tslatt-d in general terms 
only, give the picture of agri- 
cultural progre-s during the 
last fifty year* a strung hack- 
ground upon which to delineate, 
with clearer pencil, the downright details that arc suggested in 
the comparative circles of the title-piece of this article. The gen- 
eral progress i* still further emphasized by data gathered by the 
Vnited States lh-|»arttnent of Agriculture, indicating that in the 
four years passed since the census of 1900, the valit- of farms and 
farm "property ha* increased at >m average of a half-billion dollars 
per year — considerably over a million dollars per day. counting 
every day in the year, including Sundays and holidays. 

Hating thus sketched the outline of progress, and linked be- 
hind the *n-m-* at the chief forces which at home and oversea 
built up this gigantic industry that feeds eighty millions of peo- 
ple in the United States, ami many other million* in Kurope and 
the Orient, and furntslic* the cotton ami woollen fibre* for their 
clothing, and the "raw materials " for many lesser industries, 
it i* now in order, acrording to American method*, to lake account 
of stock and to know in square-toed fashion jn«t what we are 
talking about anyway. How lug is the wind*- thing? What, are 
the measures in round American dollars? How many acres? How 
many fanner*, white and liliick? And where arc they all in 
Unde Sam's great ** 'later-patch w ? 

The Secretary of Agriculture, in hi* last annual report, says 
that all of the gold dug from all of the mini-* of the entire world 
since the time of Columbus would not be enough to pay for the 


farm product* oi the United 
State* for the past two year* 
11903 and l!KM|. The*.- are 
u nt bin kahle amount*. The hu- 
man mind utterly fail* to com- 
prehend them. He further 
states that agricultural prog 
res* is so rapid that the prod- 
ucts of HUM an- 42 per cent, 
greater than the total reported 
by the census of 1000. And. 
wh.it i* isjually -tr iking and 
emphatically faith-building, i* 
his assertion that the bank de- 
posits of all sorts in agri- 
cultural State* are increasing 
more rapidly than in manu- 
facturing States. To sub- 
stantiate this he cites that 
from dune 30, 1800, to Octo- 
ber 31, 1 Of 0 , while the in- 
crea*c for the whole country 
was but 91 per cent., that for 
Iowa was llU per cent. ; that 
for Kiin*ws wu* 219 p-r rent.: 
and that for Mississippi, dot 
per cent. 

The American farm hand i« 
'‘tlm mail behind the gun** 
that wins this astounding vic- 
tory over the naked soil, and 
yet he handle* very little ready 
money. The increase in farm 
wages siiggest- the still more 
interesting problem of the \a 
rial ion in such wages in the 
several section* of the country. At the f**»t of the wage- list 
stands South Carolina. Only $11 Mi |»-r month and i*Mird 
himself is what tin* record mill for that State. Taking out 
the lsiard allowance of $'A 12 ja-r month leave* i net income of 
24 per month for clothes, fun. ami fiolic. At the head of 
the wage-list stands Nevada, where one month's wage la ulitio-t 
exactly four times that of South Carolina. The Imml allowance 
in Nevada is $12 II. leaving a net income of $34 14 for clothes, re- 
volver, and recklessness. 

Coming now to tin* stock-taking pron-duie. The first step i* to 
look nt the summaries in a multiinillinn measure, or, to la- more 
exact, in » mnltiblllloo measure, for the census n| 1900 claim* 
nlmoHt live billion dollar* u* llie value of tin- farm product* of 
flip preceding year — the outcome of the sturdy toil of our titty 
millions of rural population, men, women, boy*, girl*, and Imbir*. 
and Usually lot* of liabie* in the former's home. 

The colonist* brought with them across the wide ocean, in 
fheir little sailing craft, food and rattle and seed* and tools; yet 
they soon faced hitter hunger, and every colony of them would 
have perUlvod of starvation had not the friendly Indiana taught 
them now to raise corn. Pram that day to this— through nearly 
two cent uric* of colonial life and a full round century of a-bumd 
ing national development — corn has liccn the chief foundation of 


60< 

million 

Bushels 


UJheat Production 

of the United States 
1607 — 1900 



Itul*. 


Other Owouids are S-itear 
Qverajn fthr CerviS-yaart*- 
middle daU). 


J/a/» ghotein/f ll'Arxif Production of the United 8 tat eg front 
turn to 1!H>0 



The Total Export of Breadstuff* from the Unlttd if tat eg in 190$ 

10KJ 


Digitized 




HARPER’S WEEKLY 


material prosperity. Without 
fiKul men dir. and without corn 
the colonists could not have 
lived. The food need* they 
brought from Kutopo failed se- 
riously in the strange foil and 
unfninilinr climate of tlie New 
World. It took many years to 
learn how to raise wheat and 
onta, rye and hurley, under the 
now condition*, and in all them* 
year* corn was by large odds 
the chief reliance for both man 
and beast. Nearly a hundred 
year* had passed before pota- 
toes were even introduced into 
New England, and in the Mid- 
dle and Southern colonies they 
were almost a» much unknown. 

The decade 1870-80 records 
an increase of five hundred mil- 
lion bushels — nearly four times 
that of the preceding decade, 
and greater than that of any 
other ten years. 

As corn forms an important 
food of cattle, both as grain and 
as forage, we out many hun- 
dreds of millions of bushels of 
it as beef, milk, butter, oleo- 
margarine. and cheese, and wear 
it on our feet as shoes. To 
sheep raised and fattened in the 
corn States no small amount of 
corn is fed, and it conics to us 
as mutton, and warms our 
bodies iu winter an woollen gar- 
ments. We drink “ oceans ” of 
it (about $00,000,000 per year) 
as " Hourbon " whiskey aivd “ rivers ” of it as malt liquor. Corn- 
fid pork furnishes our tahlen with millions of delicious hams and 
sausngi-s, besides bacon and lard. Corn produces the best of 
poultry and eggs, of which alom* we, as a nation, consume more 
(when measured by dollars) than we do of wheat. Of cornstarch 
we 11*0 alsuit $7,000,000 per year, to say nothing of the enormous 
consumption of glue, combo, and other products made from the 
horns, hoofs, mid hair of those corn-fed animals. To all these 
we must add a product, of corn-oil ( maximum, $l<i,<KM) daily), 
largely used in paints; and the by-products of corn-oil, starch, 
glucose. whiskey, and alcohol, dried and sold in cakes, for animal 
food, amounting to millions of dollars per year. Nor Is that all 
that com accomplishes. Ucsidcs giving fix*! and clothing in the 
form of animal nnd vegetable products, as indicated, it gives 
life and strength to millions of horses, mules, and oxen that till 
our fields nnd haul our multitude of farm products to the thou- 
sands upon thousands of country markets, from Maine to Cali- 
fornia, and from the Dakotas to Florida and Texas. 

targe as thin looms in the vision of material things, the end is 
not yet. The Department of Agriculture at Washington, working 
in mnuection with twenty State experiment stations, is selecting 
and testing many new varieties of com. with a view to adaptation 
of special sorts’ to the peculiar conditions of differing locations. 
For example, a sort whose ears grow low upon the stalk to 



liiaymm nhomnjr the t nr mute in Ihr I Wuc of Farm Property, 
in Farm Arm, and in It unit population, during Fifty Yearn 


better withstand the strong 
winds prevalent in some re- 
gions, and to make a better re- 
covery after being swept down. 
A« a result of this ami other 
cure exercised by the Agri- 
cultural IVpartmcnt at Wash- 
ington and by the State experi- 
ment stations, the corn crop ia 
not only improved in quality, 
hut in quantity, and. conse- 
quently. in value, so that the 
Secretary of Agriculture esti- 
mates that the two and a half 
billion hiishcls of corn consti- 
tuting the crop of 1JMV4 would 
pay off the entire national debt, 
principal and interest, and yet 
leave several million dollars' of 
spare change to jingle in the 
farmer's pockets, for any little 
odd expense* lie might incur 
outside of the debt payment. 

Any one whose life has, in 
any very practical fashion, 
come in close touch with 
American agriculture, whether 
on the wild frontier still bat- 
tling with the tough unbroken 
award of the open prairie, or 
with the immeasurably more 
MtitUiorn resistance of the lim- 
iter lands, or in the wider fully 
i m proved areas ; who lias 
drunk in the power of faith 
that is unconsciously built 

into human life by the un- 
ceasing return of seed-time and 
harvest - time, and by the un- 
spoken voices of hill ami stream, and tree ami Mower — can. in some 
measure, realize the keen di*i»p|iointim-iit of our rarlirst colonial 
forebears, os they found so strange a product, or. mayhap, an al- 
most utter failure of product, from the sowing of the wheat they 
brought from their Europrati homes, to feed them in the opening 
life of the New World. 

Not with wheat alone, hut with the long list of European plants 
— including such strangely unfamiliar names as spelt, madder, 
colon, rape, lentils, sanfoin, woad, melilot, and indigo— had the 
new lessons to Is- learned. Year after year, decode after decade, 
the European strangers were persistently introduced to the Amer- 
ican soils and climate, in many rases to he quickly thrust, aside, 
in others to lie tardily welcomed, but not until American plant 
habits were formed nnd the American climate heartily accepted 
by the newcomers. For over two hundred years thi* plant tattle 
was waged before the terms of final capitulation were permanently 
adjusted, and that was not until the new nation had been born 
and had well started on its record-breaking career. The disap- 
pointment in wheat-raising was not one of values alone, for in the 
earlier, and even in the later, colonial life, the dollar measure was 
of comparatively small importance, and the frenzy of finance was 
as far unborn as was the thought of our Cuban war. 

Although wheat-growing finally succeeded in all the colon tea, its 
practical dominance was of brief duration in New England. It 



The furrraac in the Product mn of fM In, Com, and Whoof from 
JdJO to urn 


£ 






Ors'ScjHihJ 

QfriGttcSSvV; 

v 

I Ktoollitr 



-W" ,r to MZj&'-'Xrb Oulkonlj I 


des Holies 


The comftarative Wheat Crop of the World in 1904 


1017 


Digitized by Google 



HARPER’S WEEKLY 


was hardly more than 
well established there, 
with n small surplus 
product, than its cheaper 
product inn in tin- Middle 
colonic* ruadc it more 
profitable lor New Kng- 
land scncoast towns to 
import it from the Mid- 
dle colonics, and its cul- 
tivation in the Northern 
colonies was much de- 
creased. By the begin- 
ning of the Revolution- 
ary war its production 
was largest in New York, 

Pennsylvania. Maryland, 
and Virginia — that is, 
in such parts of those 
States as were then set- 
tled. At that time Phil- 
adelphia and Baltimore 
were the great flour-pro 
■ lining ivnlrrt* of the 
New World, each with a 
high reputation for the 
excellence of its product. 

Their fame was not only 
pronounced in other col- 
onies, hut equal! v so in 
the West I nd Sen, to 
whose markets the col- 
onists were even then ex- 
porting much wheat- 
flour. So strong was this fame, and so “ modern " were the Snuth- 
Carolinian*. that a few years later, when they too began to have 
a surplus to export, they sent it out us I’hiladelphia flour or as 
Baltimore flour. Nor was it to the West Indies alone that the 
■sdonists amt their surplus wheat products. The mother coun- 
try, even before the war of Revolution, ate no small amount of 
colonial fond products, and chief among them was wheat. This 
feeding of other peoples has grown with the expansion of our agri- 
cultural area, and wheat is now the lending item in the list of 
such foods, and we send to other countries one third of our entire 
wheat product, that one-third counting far up in the multi- 
mi! I ion dollar column. 

One puzzle there is in considering our wheat export. The records 
of European agriculture give a wheat yield ranging from nearly 
40 per cent, to over 100 per cent, higher than that of the United 
States, To this we add the further handicap of a higher 
wage and the still farther disadvantage of having to freight our 
product across the ocean. How. in the face of all these deficiencies, 
we can compete in European markets is the one puzzle. Two points 
of advantage stand to our record: I. Superior agricultural ma- 
chinery. 2. Cheaper railroad freights by which to reach the 
seaport*. If these arc not sufficient, the Italaiu-r must lie ex- 
plained by claiming superior "vim,” by which a day'd work here 
counts for more than one oversea. 

Not unnaturally, there comes to mind the progress of the big 
wheat-flour industry, from the time that Philadelphia and Balti- 
more were in the height of their fame down to the greater fame 
of Rochester, New York, and the still greater, world-wide fame of 
our unparalleled Minneapolis. That story, however, belong* to 



The Fetation of Farm a ad ('it it .Iron n( I hi /V>vn( Time to 
Ihv Total Ana of the l nihil Slates 


the record of manu- 
facture, for wheat flour 
ceased to la* a farm 
product while the Amer- 
ican colonies were yet 
young. 

Forth - looking, with 
Well-huM-d hope of strong 
advancement in wheat- 
growing, is, at the pres- 
ent time, entirely reason- 
able. Experiments which 
have Ih-cii scientifically 
carried on for years to 
establish the production 
of high grade durum 
(macaroni I wheat* are 
now concluded, and from 
forty to fifty million 
bushels will likely he 
grown in the seniiarid 
regions of the West this 
present year (1906). Ex- 
periments with several 
hundred new hybrids, 
now in tile fourth year, 
give a hopeful prospect 
of supplanting the spring 
wheat of Minnesota and 
the !>ukotaa with a supe- 
rior winter wheat. Se- 
lections among these 
hybrids are already be- 
ginning, but three more 
years are required for determining superior values and making the 
final selection*. This is done by distribution to thoroughly reliable 
farmers, at widely separated point*, to give cxjierience under wide- 
ly diverse conditions. 

One hundred years after the earlier New England settlement* 
out* had so far Ih conic a celt inn tired a* to lie known as a common 
food for horses, and to lie set down at the price of threepence 
(six cents) for two quarts, wln-n furnished by a public bouse krcjicr 
for that purpose, according to u rule of the court in Salem, Mas- 
snchiisctt*- Their early history is quite ns obscure as that, of the 
great William Shakespeare, although there i«. in the mind of many 
a farmer, from thnt time to this, no qnvation a* to the relative 
value to the world of the two products-nine of agriculture, one of 
literature. 

The ancient Scots ground the oat kernels to make " porridge ” 
or hulled them for " groats," and in these two form* it has Icon 
from very early history used among them as a fond for man. <h»e 
recall* the dispute between an Englishman and a Scotchman ns to 
the proiwr use of oat a. The Engli*hinan cited the sole urn* in 
England for horse feed. To this the Scotchman replied. " Ye*, non, 
and wln-re dr ye grow such foine horse* as in England, and where 
such foine men a* in Scotland T” 

A little study uf the circle* in the title-piece of this article shows 
thnt from ItUHJ to 1870 it was “nip and tuck" with wheat and 
out* for the larger score. Since that date, however, oat* have a 
positive lead in hulk. Tin- progrcM* of production since 18/10 
carries two specially noticeable features: 1. The relatively small 
advance from 1850 to 1800 — only twenty-nix million hu*hel* — while 
(Continued on page toitt.) 



The Increase in tint Frndurtiu n of the I’nited States from 
N»7 to l!»et 



Diagram shoving the Average Increase i* Monthly Farm Wages, without 
Hoard, from ltW5 to i{M)£ 




Google 








The Water-front of Odessa, trhich iron fired on by the Uulinous Crew of the " Knias Potemkin " on June 29 


Type of Battleship in Atuuui’ft Hinck Nea Fleet. Thin Fleet connintn of Nine Battleships, Three Cruisers, and Fight nmallcr 
Venae In, i rith several Volunteer Cruinern and Auxiliaries. Among the more Important Vessels of the Fleet arc the Battleships 
“ (leorgi Pobiedonosetz '* Trio Hriatitrlia,” “ Hostislar,'’ “ Bkotcrina and “ Kniaz Potemkin,” on irhich the Mutiny occurred 



.1 l icto of the Harbor of 44 Odessa,” from trhich the *' Knias Potemkin " fired on the City 


THE MUTINY OF THE SAILORS OF THE RUSSIAN BATTLE SHIP 
••KNIAZ POTEMKIN” AT ODESSA 

The mutiny of the rrrie of the Ituaaian battleship ** K nut: Potemkin” one of the vessels of the IH'ick Nra fleet , on June 21, 
at mi, ir«* followed by the murder of the captain and most of the officers, after trhich Iht battleship put into the harbor of 
tMesna and find into the city. Shore riots and incendiarism folloirrd, and a number of buildings along thr shore trere dt st royrd. 

A similar muliny occurred on the eissels of thr British fleet stationed at the S’ ore, at the mouth of the Thames, in liny and 
June, 1797. The mutineers blockaded the mouth of the river and thrratrnrrt London. The mutiny on the “ Kniaz Pol> mkin ” 
in /wrl of the grnernl uprising throughout Itusnia irhich caused the recent outbreaks in Warsaw and Lodz, Poland, and the strike 
of the workmen of Odessa 

tram UCI« I|» coprnghl by lladcrwood ft l>nd traced 

1010 

Digitized by Google 





lt’i/ife, thr Lum -tamer. — Em juror William: “ / trill notr 
put my hrail in thr Itritish lion's mouth, itnrl kill thr brant 
trifk the spike of m y helmet." — Toronto Ttlcyrum. 


fan thr stork out spin! thr aulof — Thr 
rate in Xnr York has incrrasetl to thirty- 
each one thousand . — Vhiroyo InUnOceati. 


EVENTS OF 


Pushing it along. — Washington Pott. 


The boomerang, — Syracuse Journal. 


mw 


Thr Rivals.— X. V. World 


Senna stars of liberty . — Phtladr tphta hnjmrrr 


WELn IN CARTOON 


Digitized by Googl 





I 


r 


• r 

• lift* "O' • . 

s* % n — 


1 — ■ 

1 P" ** gtorfS v 

- . **+ 

- -W f 

©fcHONOPARI F 


yy/ity m. lui iuivT\izi_iLj 


WILLIAMS WAY 

BY CHURCHILL WILLIAMS 


the Honorable William to lie detained in Mr. Potter’s dining-room 
until escape was impossible. If this could lie brought alsiut — well, 
Mr. Mellen had no further apprehensions. A year of comparative 


^ UK Honorable William Orrock Homer hung at arm's 
length tu r a moment, then dropped lightly into the soil 
of the rhododendron -bed. “ Soft as mush. 


T" 

I of the rhododendron-bed. “ Soft an mush,'* lie muttered. 
•* |.o«>k out for your ankle. Fatty.” 

Fatly Mrllrn, who had been bunelied ii|ion the broad top 
of the wall, pulled. ” All right.” and lalairiounly worked his legs 
over the edge. His toes vainly sought a resting-place in the face 
«*f the masonry, lie fell upon the jp-iuind abruptly like an over- 
full ling of meal. The Honorable \\ illium laughed — a low. pleasant 
laugh. •* Too much lobster - Newburgh," lie remarked. “ There’)* 
imtlifug like a regular diet and the lock-step to put vou in ‘condi- 
tion." 

“ You've had a damn good ehance to learn, anyhow," returned 
Fatty. Hr rained himself to a sitting position and pulled down 
bin vent, "('nine on. Where's the house!" 

The Honorable William, widely known to the fraternity ns ” W. 
• >. H.,“ peered al*ove the rho«l(xleiidron top*. “Over there." he said. 
" Dining-room, second floor hock. There's a trellis half-way to the 
window. Hutler sleeps in the third story of tlie wing. Hardener's 
house is through thane trees, and — Jkr't got the dog." He rubbed 
a match under cover of his coat, caught the position of the hands of 
his watch, and promptly smothered the flame. " Family due from 
the theatre in half an hour: coachman at the station to meet them. 
Come on. Hut. for thsl's sake, forget you've got the asthma till 
we're hark over that wall.'’ 

From the clump of rhododendrons to the house was fifty yards 
of dose-cropped law’ll. If there had been a moon it would have 
MS'ntrd to a casual onlooker just then as if the shadow of a {Kissing 
cloud drifted across the tennis-court of Mr. Thomas Potter. In 
fact, it was the compact, slight figure of the Honorable Willinm 
which made the distance and was immediately flattened against 
the smilnx-trellised wall. Mr. Mcllctfs passage was accomplished 
silently. Imt with infinite puin and lack of grace. His companion 
smiled, hut said nothing, and by the time Mr. Mellcn had recov- 
ered his breath lie was stripped of coat and shoes and. in gray 
sweater and thick socks, wa* testing the cross-bars of the trellis. 

One of the bar* cracked. Mr. Mcllcn swore. The Honorable 
William laid a hand upon the other's shoulder. " I was afraid of 
that. You'll have to give me a back.” He was looking up along 
the wall. " 1 can get a grip on the elbow of that rain-pipe. It 'll 
carry me to the sill. The rest ’ll he easy." 

Mr. Mcllen groaned. Hut he bent down, and the Honorable 
U illiam's head rose to the height of the rain pipe where it turned 
to pass the wilidow-fminr aliove. There was an ominous crackle 
from the pipe a* the climber lifted his weight from the shoulders 
In-low, a scran ing of the pebble-dashed wall. There ensued a full 
minute of stillness. intcnsiliid by a regular, rasping wheeze from 
the fat person propped against the wall of Mr. Potter's house. 

The Honorable Willinm was not idle, however, and when he 
spoke it was to announce that only a window-catch which a putty- 
knife would coax into release, and u sash which might lie expected 
to slide noiselessly, intervened between himself and a well-appointed 
sidi-lsmrd. 

Of the successful operation of the putty-knife the ears of Mr. 
Mellen soon after had sufficient proof. If he had been of the 
prayerful kind it is likely that a mute thanksgiving would have 
come from hi» heart at the sjbilunt juth-uhnh which followed as 
the lower sasli slipped upward under the skilful pressure of his 
companion'* free hand. But Mr. Mellen was cognizant of these 
happenings only because the training of long ex|>erience enabled 
him to identify such sounds. Is- his mind at the moment engaged 
Upon what it might. In point of fact, at this particular time he 
wa* unite nni’oiu'cmed with what was going on above him. A 
jdan had suddenly mine to him — a plan in which the Honorable 
William was to play a pnrt wholly unant irjpntcd by that indus- 
trious gentleman. It was a simple plan. Nothing more than sepa- 
ration of destinies without notice and without loss of time: Mr. 
Mellen to spirit himself away with us much of Mr. Thomas Potter's 
silverware a* the Honorable William might lower to the ground; 


inactivity on his own part had obscured !iis professional identity; 
for two years the Honorable William had been "doing things" 
after a fashion which made his police record positively brilliant. 
It was the fortuitous interruption which should detain the Honor- 
able William and not interfere with his own escape that bothered 
Mr. Mellen. “Interruptions” had given him concern before, hut 
most of these had been in the days when, a* “ Tlie Kublier Shoe." 
he was credited with being able to slip out of tight, corners in a 
manner denied him by the girth which ear nisi for him his present 
nickname. Besides, the immediate proposition called for an “acci- 
dental factor.” and this lie could not supply. The interruption 
must he in the very nick of timr. It might take almost any form; 
but whether it was the gardener or other member of the Potter 
household who should come upon the scene, he was likely to come 
too late rather than too early. The Honorable William had a repu- 
tation for celerity and noiseless movement. At any moment some 
fifty pounds of assorted silverware, wrapped in a gray sweater, 
would be lowered by a cord from the window above. And then, if 
precedent went for anything, the Honorable William could he 
trusted to follow the sjatils without loss of time. Tin* thing came 
perilously near to being a crisis. With visions of tlu* weight of 
the Honorable William's wrath, should there la- a miscarriage of 
his little plan. Mr. Mcllen experienced a {win in the pit of hi* 
stomach. 

But miscarriage there did not seem destined to lie. At the very 
instant when the sound of something brushing the wall above his 
head warned Mr. Mellen of the descent of what the critical taste 
of the Honorable William had aelertod. the faintest crunch of 
pebbles from 11 hundred feet away gave notice of the approach of 
some one along the pnthwnv which led directly beneath the dining- 
room window, and Mr. Mellen crouched in momentary forgetfulness 
of all hut the danger of his own discovery. Then, peering toward 
the road, he realized that the path curved, that he was out of sight 
of any one coming from that direction, and that ls-side him rested 
a compact bundle of silverware tied up in a gray sweater. Also 
that within reach of his hand lay the Honorable William's dis- 
carded coat. 

It was nothing less than inspiration that flashed upon him a* 
his evc» fell on this last object. He shot a quick upward look 
at the window. The lower half of its frame gaped empty and 
black. Apparently the Honorable William had returned for a 
further selection. ‘ Mr. Mellen, thereupon, did three things very 
rapidly: He cut the cord which was fustenrd tn the bundle, and left 
it dangling: he Hung the coat at full spread upon the white sur- 
face of the ]>chhled pathway: and upon the coat he dropped u 
glistening steel instrument , vulgarly known a* a "jimmy." Then, 
without a backward glance he slipped into the shade of a tree, 
and from that point made hi* way to where, a little earlier, he 
had foil n into the rhododendron -bed from the wall. Here fortune 
favored him again. He found a jutting stone, and, hi* burden of 
silverware buttoned underneath his coat, with some effort hoisted 
himself to the top of the wall. There he lay and li-tenol. The 
river was hack of him. at the foot of a sloping stretch of trees. 
A breeze from it stirred the leave® and fanned his slickly brushed 
hair. All at ones* lie felt ♦•old. He put his hand to his head and 
drew it away, moist with perspiration. Hi is was not strange; he 
had been running and climbing, and ho carried much llesli liesidea 
the bundle. Not withstanding this, the phenomenon surprised him. 
Abruptly he realized that he was frightened, and. with that, was 
frightened the more. Under lii« breath he paid the Honorable 
William the compliment of a very nasty curse, and leaned forward 
to listen more intently. From across the tennis-court he heard 
some one call. It was a quick, sharp hail in a strange voice. With 
a grunt of satisfaction Mr. Mellen scrambled down on the outside 
of the wall, and ran off among the trees toward the road. 

It was just a* Mr. Melh-n pronounced his curse upon the Hon- 
orable William that the latter returned to the window of the 
dining-room with those pieces of Mr. Hotter'* silverware for which 
he hud thought it worth while to go back. A* liis hnhit was, he 
(Continued oh {wpc IO.H.) 


1021 


Digitized by Google 


Correspondence 


MORE VIEWS OF TI1E ATTRACTIVE WOMAN 

K««r Viim, July J. ipvf 

To the Editor of Harper's Weekly: 

Sir. — P ermit nw to add a practical word about the- nerlwt 
w miian's attribute* in the discussion under way in vour column*. 
I am a young man, unmarried, and have l*-en living on the very 
limited income I rum in u In rye Iwnklng-hou-u- down town. I 
have been promoted, nnd have now become engaged to Is- mar- 
ried, and, leaving everything rlw chi! of the question. I can’t but 
rralixe that one of the moat valuable qualities in the young 
woman who has so honored me is her level-headed common sense 
and her gift — for it is a gift — for managing nwwjr expenditure. 
I have known her many yearn, and for the past live yearn, since 
the death of her mother, she has been housekeeper and general do- 
hm-sI ir manager for her father. 1 am suflieiently intimate in the 
household to have known of her wonderful good management. to 
wMeb her father has paid this tribute: '* if I could find a manager 

for my busincm who could accomplish the 1luanci.il results 

does at home, I would la* a much richer man." ("an any one under- 
rate this <|iiu|ity or gift in a woman, in these days when living 
is more expensive than it has ever been Indore, and wlu-n vming 
men hesitate to marry because they cannot cxmmiand salaries ade- 
quate for the suitable support of a family! I think it is a quality 
qiiitr as valuable as some other* mentioned by* your correspondents, 
and superior, for instance, to any mere beauty without it. The 
task of making ends meet i* a colossal one — one in wliieh I have 
myself often signally failed. In the example I quote the young 
woman’s management of hpr clothes alone is to me wonderful — 
that she can produce such effects upon so limited an expenditure. 
These things, sordid as they may sound to an engaged man of a 
more ” idealistic ” temperament, are of the first importance in 
establishing n contented home. When Micawber told Dnrid Cop- 
perfhdd that the result of living within one's income wus happi- 
ness. and the contra it misery, he said one of the truest things ever 
spoken by man. If he had lived in New York, or any large city, 
where every step one takes, every turn one makes, must lie paid 
tor, he would have known even more about it than he did. 

1 am. air, A He.\ei)I<k. 


PmoDEtmt 7*h j >a>t. 

To the Editor of llar/*er’s Weekly: 

Sir. — There i# no doubt whatever in my mind that the letter 
signed " It. I)..” which np|M*nrs on your correspondence page in the 
issue of the Wkkki.y for duly 1, was written by a woman. The 
discussion as to the four requisite qualities which combine to form 
the finest type of woman was, I nin just ns sure, startl'd by a 
woman, and it sounds for nil the world like a nice little game of 
compliments indulge! in by a party in a veranda on a pleasant 
evening. I say it was all a waste of time. Who in the world can 
presume to say what attributes combine in the finest type of 
woman T Any opinion is a personal opinion only, and do yon sup- 
pose 1 would accept one on any formula — that is. any one else’* 
formula ? Suppose A should nay to me: " Now. hen*’n a fine woman. 
She has a religious sense, is affectionate, docile, fond of children, 
and beautiful and intelligent." Would I marry her (provided, of 
course, she were willing )! .Men do not want "llu- finest type of 
woman”; they want women who are attractive to them, hang the 
type! One man might say, “ I don't care what sort of a woman 
she is. just so she has red hair.” Another would require "nw- who 
can play tin* piano”; nnd still another "one who will icud to 
me in tin* evening.” As for me. if you wish my view, I think the 
finest type of woman is the widow. I have arrived at this eon 
elusion without the aid of discussion. 

1 am, sir, J. .1. H. 


SUMMER VACATIONS 

Nrw You July A, ipni 

To the Editor of Harper's Weekly: 

Sir, — What is the moat profitable way lo spend one month’s 
vacation ? The family for whom this question is n*kcd is one of 
four memliers — father, mother, nnd two children, a hoy nnd a 
girl. Their annual income is in the ncighliorhood of three thou- 
sand dollars. They have a fiat lip town, nnd two maids, who lire 
cook and waitress, rcsfiecti vriy. One or the other of the 
servants remains in charge of the 'home while the family 1* away, 
The latter usually goes to a summer hotel, ami lives the conven- 
tional life of the golf-links nnd tennis court nnd country club. 
They are obliged to dress in accordance with custom, anti the most 
delightful afternism’s outing is invariably cut short liy the man 
date, “Time to dress for dinner," They sigh, h-nvc the exquisite 
Is-uuty of the approaching sunset, nnd spend the loveliest part of 
the day in stutfv hotel rooms. The cost of living, with the in 
evitable "extras'* is large, nnd to it is added the home expense*, 
which In some degree run on as usual. After si month they re- 
turn home, refreshed, it is true, hut unsatisfied. The change has 
been only of degree, not of kind. Should not such a family, accus- 


tomed to husines* pressure and social pressure all the year, with 
the exception of one pitiful month. »pend that month in a condi- 
tion approaching savagery rather than summer-hotel civilization t 
Would it not lie better to take a few tents and “ squat ” for a 
month on some beautiful wild land near a lake, to do camp cook- 
ing i the real primitive bacon-aud-hn-ud variety t, and to fish and 
loaf and Is- free — to own themselves for a month at leust out of 
the twelve? We prate of liberty, hut what slave* we are in one 
way or another! We celebrate the Fourth of duly; hut what an 
Independence day we would have could men and women free tln-in- 
oelvew fioni the im-iitm* of convention and tawdry social bosh — 
even if for only one month in the year. Deane let u« have your 
views on the pro|**r way to s|M*nd a vacation, and throw light 
upon an unimuted family discivsion. 

I am. sir, L. 1*. 


LESSONS OF TOGO'S VICTORY 

WnsimnoK July i tone 

To the Editor of Harper's Weekly: 

Sir, — While Captain Kdwurd W, Very, in his article in your 
issue of July I, nude some very inter«**ting deduction* from the 
Japanese naval victory in the Tsushima Strait*, is it accepted by 
naval constructor*, tactician*, nr artillerists, that this engagement 
afforded -i definite demonstration of the capabilities of modern war 
craft? Have, rcully, any of the recent battles la*tween men-of-war 
shown conclusively the efficiency of such vessels? There can la* 
no possible doubt that something concerning the morale of crews 
Ha* been demonstrated, but what else, except possibly certain mat- 
ters relating to range* and niancruvring? To one who is more or less 
familiar with naval affairs, the battle between Togo amt Rojestven- 
sky seems to have been one of men and ships, the Japanese, against 
ship* alone, the Russians, because every account of the engagement 
ha* directed attention to the woful incompetence of the men umler 
tbe Russian admiral. These men did not " work " any of their 
ships to their utmost efficiency. They were a panic stricken lot. 
who doubtless tool to be driven to their guns and held there at the 
murzIcH of revolvers. They were useless «s Huilormen. On the 
other hand, art Captain Very aptly put* it. the Japanese wen* 
"trained to the minute, and as perfect in the rmigh and tumble 
of a fight in fog and heavy sea as a regiment on parade." Although 
1 suggest no detraction from the achievement of Admiral Togo, and 
am writing simply as a seeker after information, i* it not possi- 
ble Hint had the Russians been worthy of their lure, something 
truly definite as to ships might have been demonstrated hv this 
action? 1 aut. sir, 

W. u. Cum 


JINGOISM OR PATRIOTISM? 

Nr • Voss July r 

To the Editor of Harper's Weekly. 

Sir,— P ermit me to tlnink you for the three excellent articles 
upon the " Result of Togo's Victory ” in your issue of to day. The 
one which, n* a good American with too non h genuine patriotism 
in him to I** classed a ".lingo." ha« appealed most strongly to me 
is that of Commander Bradley A. Kiske, t'.S.N.. on what our 
country lins learned from the Japanese admiral. With all mod- 
esty I agree heartily with what he say*. The United State* need* 
II great navy, as great ns. if not greater — although if a* great, I am 
sure it would in emergency prove greater — than that of any of 
I he other world powers. Conflict comes, sometime*, like a light- 
ning rhnrgcd cloud, and the wind may l»*ur it from any direction. 
We fusil a steel wall of battle-shins, cruisers, defence vessels, ami 
dost rovers to defend our just rights when the time shall come. 
I**t there he no makeshift at such a time.no scurrying about the 
glut** In huv the ha If -completed ship* belonging to other powers. 
We have tnKeq our place In the polities of tlu* world, and we in- 
tend to remain in it, A great nary would make this clear to all 
the world. 1 am. sir, 

Kt.i,*-t worth Rear. Jo. 


AS TO TRIPLETS 

Nib York July y tool 

To the Editor of Harper’s Weekly: 

Sir. — I hesitate somewhat to enter the “ Large Family” dis- 
enasion which has sprung up lietween Mrs. (I infer " Mrs " from 
the subject 1 Martha S. I tens ley and Mr. A. S. Williams, both of 
whom have had the advantage of your columns. However, a* a 
sort of " side-line." permit me to ask whether either of them is 
aware of the fact that almost invariably the father of triplet* will 
fa* found to to- n tailor? I wonder why? If there Is* the slightest 
danger of any race dying out, I might suggest that the sartorial 
business immediately In- encouraged among it* |s*oph*. tang may 
they wave, whether large fuinilh-* a burden or not. 


1022 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


Aboard a Fighting-ship at Sea 

(Continued from /«!/;#• 1009./ 

it* find (rip in one hour and six minutr*; 
(ho second t into in one hour nnd Kvt' 
minutes; nnd tin* Inti tinu- in fifty mi mi It*. 
This in thr lw*t record yet nindt* in any test. 

In »pite of certain accident* inseparable 
from the tent of * nrw device. other record* 
were mad*'. Tin* lllinuin wnn towing thr 
Hlarrrllun nt llii* rale of nix knot* on hour 
on u It Ml- foot low-lint* on Mnv H when the 
loaded carrier made twenty-one trips from 
the collier to the deck of the war-ship in 
twenty six minutes and live seconds; Inter, 
fifteen trip* were made in seventeen minutes 
fifteen neronda; nnd still later, sixteen trips 
were made in sixteen minutes ten seconds, 
the eon I mining over nt the rate of twenty- 
three tons an hour. With heavier loads more 
coal, of course, would have been conveyed, 
and with an improved currier, such us im 
now Hein# made, the time of u trip will lie 
reduced by from 20 to 23 per cent. It is 
of interest to know that during her record 
run from the Needles to Frenchmans liny, 
on the Maine coast, in duly. 118)3. occupying 
nine days, three hours. iiihI thirty-six min- 
utes. the Knirmrtir burned only five and n 
half toils of coal an hour for all purjmsc*. 
A war-ship not driven for a record would 
burn much less. The delivery of twenty- 
three tons of owl an hour will therefore 
provide u very safe margin of receipt over 
ex|>eiiditure of real. 

An unexpected hut gratifying accident oc- 
curred during the I IHnoin-.it anrllnn test. A 
device had ln*cn provided for releasing the 
cahlrwav ami carrier in case the tow-line 
should break, but no opportunity had emtio 
for testing it. However, on Monday, May 
8. while a load was half-wav between the 
•sillier and the battle-ship, the line pnrtrsl. 
To meet this emergency the cableway nr 
sea-anchor mpo is made fast to a “ knock 
down honk." which in turn is made fust to 
the vessel receiving coal, the plan lielng to 
l rleasr the honk if the tow-line break*. 
When the tow-line broke la-tween the lllinoin 
and the IforcW/w*. the executive officer of 
the battle -ship ordered the cableway lowered 
and the hook released. The cableway fell 
into the water, one end of the conveyer rope 
ran off the winch, which was kept running, 
and promptly picked up the rope, and in 
sixty seconds the two ships were free, the 
collier picking up the load and the sea- 
anchor. the battle-ship taking the conveyer 
rope on hoard. The apparatus was imt 
damaged, nor was any of the crowd of men 
on the deck injured in any way. 


Our Trade In Wheat 

Tiir total grain receipt* at twelve im- 
portant interior markets in the I'nited 
State* during May amounted to 27.0lii.3U3 
bushels. For thr first five montlis of the 
current year grain arrival* at these market* 
aggregated 222.!Hk't.827 bushel*, an amount 
approximately «•/, million bushels If** than 
that rep resen ting a corresponding movement 
in I'.HM. Of the different cereals received, 
wheat amounted to 33.00-1.332 bushel.; 
corn. X7.022.HOO bushel*: oats. 33.n42.3tW 
bushels; lutrley. 21.320.747 bushel*: and 
rye. 2,373.401 bushels. Corresponding in- 
bound movements during a similar period 
in 1004 were 03.008.533 bushels of wheat. 
78.010, 331 bushels of corn. <10.742.1104 
bushels of oats. 22,023.458 hushcls of ImuIi-v. 
and 3.733.044 bushels of rye. 

At the four winter - wheat markets of 
Toledo, St, Loui*. Detroit, nnd Kansas City 
receipts of wheat from July I. 1004, to May 
31. 1005. aggregated 35.801.403 bushels, in 
contrast with 71.002,155 bushels received 
during a similar |n*riml in 1 003-4. and 73.- 
055.14 • hiisliels in I1MI2-3, Of the current 
M-ason's arrivals. 2.785.030 bushel* were re- 
ceived at Toledo. 10.823.000 bushel* at St. 
I»uU. 2.220.003 hushcls at Detroit, and 
31.032.302 bushels at Kansas City. As enm- 
|ui ml with the |R04 figures losses w.-re 
sii»fttimsl at all four of the markets speci- 
fied. while comparison with the movement* 
for 1003 indicate* a loss for Toledo -uni 
Detroit, but a gain for St. Dmi* and Kan 
sas City. Total receipt* of wheat at all 
of the eight market* named during the 


ADVERTISING SECTION 


crop year to and including May 31 aggre- 
gated 100. 408.484 bushels, as eniupan-d with 
a like movement in IlHKM «f 208.875,744 
bushels, nnd in 1002-3 of 228.5l0.3til 
bushels. 


AiivxrM to Motmcio — Ms* Winin* * SooTaixc Svaus 
•houkl be n»ej tot rfiiUrrn teeth nu It USMlw* the 

cliikJ. silb-n, the Dan. alUy* *11 Mm, rum irvjxl colic, xnd 
m the Leal n-me.lv to* duurhit* — (.-tdf l 


BABY’S POOD 
mn nlnrt lie wnilonn it \nu ure Itoaii** « Ruin BxnpCom 
?***»" Mu * The nriKin*l L«t*. i.illv »n inl.mt 

fcl Svml for |t»t>v « lhary. * . alualA* Iwukkt l«ir iimiOwts 
10* lluitwa Stitcl. Nrw York — I ,-trfv | 


LIVING ON !• ij PF.lt WEEK. 

. - -. , for «»•> yriuitu men at Wslwife C<ilb-e* The lews*) 

0 * an Ifin-lliirrnt wln-tiim nf float Thev nisi ilnnc nrwl hr aft* 
I'tin n man >uImh| on ti ij mirth i«f food |»-r *ni anil rrum 
hi* fnll vigor uivl tln-ntilh ’ 

A irreai mini eairrimmu have twrn trinl sitlim thr Ust t»o 
thrrv year* to itMortain ru.l hr.. Sulr a |*t..wi re.ju.rr. in 
<if.W» to kc-rp in n ■mint ur.l healthy phi-timl . . relit. m While 
Irrvm .!.-«< re* U. los.-t the * 1 a«.lanl of living the f.irt* 
aililuvcu by llw-w . *|»TimmL* re real man* of our mint gUnng 
f..*H fault* Tlwy ten.1 to vhow, f,, r m*lanre. thnl tlie n>o*t 
ivntrvtKiua fusla *»rh a* incal* are the simphst ntwl 1 . 
tvlirle many U the font* th.it arr alnsnt Whin* m titaur Innlilmu 
nr MreriBth irivlii* rlemrnl* lire thr nu.t rmllv 

Hubs SuilMfWad oral A «' l*a* nr. ts.. IwU wlm hail to • work 
their way thfoutih W slosh C oUryr . nt I •awfnriliville Imlona. 

>1 inlrrisline «»y. 


il'sil th»* Qurrlsei tn a 


of dwtrt.. __ _ 

.Imcarilrd nwnt entirely, nuag pn-an nut* whs h they p*ar.ha^*‘| 
in the form I suiter at ts rent* a fmrel Thev aim avoided 

white flour prorlorta, rwtina Innuely of sh.de shear fnret*. rrJlnl 

. 0*1*. milk, oyatera vryi-tal.V* nnd Iruit* They gave tVrr 

nttre. tor the seek lieemntnn Wnlacwlay, Ovtolar uth. 

Wnlnrwtay ,8tmuMed What* tic . milk. i$c 
Thurailnv Brrnd. IS butter, ur 
rriduy Banana*. **• 

SitunUv ShrtiWrl Whe*t. ite lAickts-rrir*. nr 

Sunday Milk, tor , oyurrt, io«- 

Monday . Fi»h toe 

Ttreslay . . .Slire«li)rd Wheat, lie 

Total Poe the week, ti 4". actual expttnr for food. 

The avrrnno weeV.lv ea|s-tiilllure for fnc! foe the entire («l lege 
yrur aiu *- i • And thcar young m.-n n>.| r-nly rn.iitr n hath 
nreraue rn their rtiklu*. Inil tmik on wrtive (url wi mitikrir utlilet- 
"■ nr >r of them Iwiiut left cu*r-l on Ihc ’Varsitr Ins lafl trsm. 

I Their daily pnvraimm- nVvi .-»ll.-.| (ur (>hy.o .1 i-arnw n -nui( 
and ry rn -n.: ami a csilil liath in thr imimmu l' Oder *u. h a rncime 
thrir health waa tsrfrx I 

I The im|-..rt.int arvl instructive thin* tn lie Vnrtird from the i «- 
perictivr rrf thrwr loo rut irwn ia that they Itot moo- n.*inslu»nt 
an .1 ii* ire li»»-jr Uuldina nutenol from thrir fr .»1 than mrwt 
AmjrRip *rt Inm a lirary that c«*t» many tirnr* thi* amount- 


Tunis who rough at nmht may acrure rest by Ukiiw Plan « 
Cuss *OS OimewsTioK. - !Aifa.| 


CHANGED HUSBAND 

Vife Made Wise Change in Food. 

Change of iliet is the only way to rrallv cure 
,*i <nii iii-|i and I towel tnaibk-. 

A wiiinaii says: 

“My liusdutntl had dv*fK-|>Nia wIm-ii we were 
married, ami had suffered from if. for several vesir*. 
It wfm almost iiit|KMtildc lo find anything hc mukl 
eat witlMiut had mull*. 

"1 thought this was largely due to the use of 
coffee, and [M-rtuudt-d him to discontinue it. He 
did so. and liegati to drink I'ostiliu Kraal Coffer. 
The change did him good from the beginning, his 
digestion improved, lie snffrred much less from 
his uervouHitess. and when he added (imiic-Niit* 
fluid to bis diet he was smut entirely cure*!. 

"My friend, Mrs. , ..f YicUhtiri: 

Huy former hornet, hail Itrenmr a nervous wreck 
also front flvs|M-|M4a. Medicines had no effect, 
neither did travel help her. On in- last visit home, 
some months ago. I |«en*iiadcd her to iim- (inipc- 
Nuts ftuul. She was in de*|tair. ami con sen led. 
She stuck to it until it n-stnnul Iter health s«» mm- 
pletely that she is now the most enthusiiLstic friend 
of Crape-Nuts that I ever knew. Site eats it with 
cream, or dry. just as it comes from the |iat-kagc 
keep* it iii her room and eats it whenever she ftx-ls 
like it. 

“I began eating Grape-Nut* food mvself when 
my hah) wit* t wo mauth* old* and I don't know 
what 1 should have done without it. My up|N-tile 
was gone. I was weak and nervous, and afforded 
hut verv little inHirishinmt for the rliild. The 
Grape- Nuts fin til, of whicli I smut grew very fond, 
s|*-iu|ily set all thl* right again, and the baby grew 
hi-althful. rosy, and l»caiiliful as a mother could 
wish. He is two vear* okl now, and rats Gra|H- 
Nuts fmitl himuelf. | Midi every tired young 
mother knew of the good that Gmiie-Nuts would 
do her." 

Name* given bv Pnwtuni Co., Hattie Creek, 
Mieli. 

'. There's a reason. 



Cold Medals 

Chicago HewOrleans Paris 
1893 1885 l» 0 a 


Grand Prized 

St.LouisWorlds Fair. 


Ln-511'lT 



CURtS WHIRI Alt ilSt 


la ttnM. Soil] liy ilrumrM* 



Cite Bill in the Tog 


By Gertrude Jf tberton 

The author of "The Conqueror" 
and "Ruler* of Kings" Ita* put 
some of her best work into this 
volume of short stories. The 
tales arc all little masterpiece*, 
subtle in conception and strik- 
ingly dramatic. 

Prite, Sr.jj 

harrtr « Brolhm, ft cm york 


Later Adventures 

of 

Wee Macgreegor 

By J. J. BELL 

These 44 Later Adventures” of the small 
Scotchman should win for him new 
friends, as they will hold the old Outlook. 
These humorous sketches continue among 
the brightest t hint's in modern fiction. — 
Baltimore Herald. 

Cloth, Si. 35 

HARPER & BROTHERS. NEW YORK CITY 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 



^ Con fin wed from page 1021.) 

approached the window cautiously; the human faff ulmw* ttry while 
against llit* tackground of u dark room. Hut, hearing nothing. he 
stepped diwrr and looked down into the garden. In the very act 
of looking he checked the soft whittle upon his lips. 

The thing upon which hi* even had first fallen was his coat 
upon the |mth\vay, a point of starlight reflected from the familiar 
" jimmy " which lay on it. And immediately he knew that every- 
thing was all wrong, .lust how fur the pm™* of deductive reason- 
ing carried him does not matter. At least lie realized that the coat 
had tarn spread with intention and knew to whom the “jimmy" 
la-longcd. lie softly lifted the cord hanging from the sill, and 
wrinkled his forehead as it came up without resistance. Then a 
smile tnurhrd his lips. " I never gave him credit for the courage," 
he said under his breath. And wistfully added. " l*oor Fatty.” 

Put what he had seen was enough, and lie stepped hack from the 
window a puce, and lient, his eyes just above the sill. In the 
same instant he sow a man stop almost directly below him and 
look up. Something very like a Isulgc glinted from the inside 
lnj»el of his coat. Yet. for five seconds, jierhaps. the Honorable 
William indulged n hope which his professional experience should 
have discredited. Then came the hail which had so delighted Mr. 
Mcllcn, and — the Honorable William obeyed the voice of instinct. 
Ills hands grasped the window frame and Iip vaulted over the 
sill. It was liftis-n feet to the ground; he jumped to laud squarely 
upon the man below. Hut hi« leap carried him beyond, and, as he 
struck the earth, a pistol cracked. 

The report of n pistol-shot carries far in the country at one 
o'eloek in the morning. Mr. Mellen. breaking through the fringe 
of bushes on the roadside two hundred yards away. |imiscd at the 
sound mid listened for 
the briefest moment. 

“ Damn him!" he 
muttered. “ Serves 
him right." Then he 
struck across the road 
toward the railroad. 

A ipiarter of a mile 
of stepping the ties, 
after a fashion that 
brought n grunt of 
disagreement with 
each lunge, and Mr. 

Mellen pulled up on 
the brink of a stone 
abutment. He low 
him the outbound 
tide wrapped itself 
in eddies about the 
trestle work on which 
the single line of rails 
spanned nearly a 
mile of water. The 
timlwrs looked solid 
enough even to the 
cautious eye of Mr. 

Mellen. and the way 
toward the city lay 
clear and straight 
under the pale light 
of the stars. Yet he 
h c s i t a t e <1. The 
bridge. which was 
without a hand • rail 
and with short-ended 
ties, did not extend a 
cordial invitation, es- 
pecially to one whose 
agility was something 
less tiiuu nothing, anil 
who carried a weight 
in his arms which 
was not in the nature 
of u In lancing - pole. 

Mr. Mel Ira's faint 
recollection of the ex- 
istence of n “ block 
system ' on this par- 
ticular mad made 
him search for the 
signal lamp, which 
should make assur- 
ance against sudden 
interruption doubly 
sure, but he did not 
find it. 

Then, while a very 

I iroiM-r ilelilsTatioii 
iclil hint fast, a 
sound came indis- 
tinctly to his ears 
which made him for- 
get everything else. 

It was the sound of 
running feet, and 
from lichind him. 

With his positive 
knowledge of certain 
earlier occurrence* of 
the night and his 


hypothetical conclusion upon a somewhat later occurrence, the 
sound was |*nuw*M-d of a significance altogether unpleasant. 
In fact, it stimulated him to such abrupt forward movement 
that his second step nearly dropped him through the bridge. 
However, the knowledge that he must reach the other side of the 
trestle, and that this could not la* accomplished too quickly, gate 
him that daring horn of desperation, and «mn he was taking the 
ties in a stride that for stretch and rapidity did every cm lit to 
his reserve force. He did not look luck. He had nn uneasy feel 
ing that to do «o would lie to witness what might hasten disaster 
to himself. Willi his eyes fixed upon the actund tie hut one ahead, 
he kept doggedly at his work. 

He found himself counting his steps. Now they had run up to 
the hundred mark, and now the two-hundred mark was |ut"*cd. 
ltd w' ecu the ties the water gleamed darkly. Its dashes smote u|ion 
his eyeballs, and each little wave seemed to reach toward him. to 
come a little closer than the one I* 1 fore. The idea took hold ti|K»n 
him that the timbers which his feet pressed were the runga of a 
ladder that reared itself before him. gigantic, interminable, its 
farther end lost in blaeknesa. and up which he must climb to escape 
the clutch of the waves, lint of tlir darkness grew a murmur, the 
song of the swirling dance of the tide around the piles, at first 
soft and sibilant, but steadily swelling into a horrid monotony to 
which hr could not close hi* ears, lie grew dizzy with the sense 
of a great height, and yet He toiled on. mechanically measuring 
his stride, his burden gaining a pound with every step, the aweut 
pouring from him. 

Then, abruptly, dizziness anil fatigue dropped from him ami he 
realized he had halted, one foot suspended in ita advance to the 
tie just ahead, his head thrown up, his rye* staring into darknes*. 

Why had he halted? 
He did not know. 
He only knew that 
he was listening, and 
that utter silence had 
fallen upon the night. 
And yet every nerve 
tingled with some 
message come to him 
out of this silence. 
Not from in front of 
him; he was sure of 
that, ami slowly his 
head turned on hi* 
•hnuldrr*. It was as 
if his neck wa* very 
stiff. 

Then from the 
blackness. directly 
hack of him, shot n 
hall of light, almost 
white, and the glis- 
tening bars into which 
it spun the rails be- 
tween which he stood 
thrilled with the 
march of a mighty 
tread. At the same 
instant the stillness 
was split with u 
Is-llow ing note w hich 
rose and rose until it 
fimsi away into a 
screech that pierced 

his ears like m-isllcs. 

The Honorable 
William, two hundred 
yards la-hind, run- 
ning swiftly, his arms 
to his side, his eyes 
fixed upon the shad- 
owy figure of Mr. 
Mellen. and himself 
suspecting pursuit, 
at the sound of that 
warning blast, stopped 
short ami stepped 
aside upon the abut- 
ment of the hridge. 
Ilia ardor for the 
chase did not per- 
suade him to dispute 
t 1 m* right of way with 
tlm ‘Ca hi tnl Lim- 
ited." ami he knew 
tlir bridge to la* very 
narrow. Hut. to do 
him justice, neither, 
for the moment, did 
the immediate jN-ril 
of his late confed- 
erate occur to him. 
Not until the train, 
its ninety ton Mogul 
engine and six Full- 
mans swinging in a 
long line of Hashing 
lights, wa* almost 
upon himself; and 
t licit — it wua too late 


iii4«n i.» *. ib iiM-»wi 

The frttiN, stringing in a long fine of (lathing light*, ir«a nlmuat upon hint 


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M da My the F*J« •***. 11 

uithin kk I" 1«lt« *>*•*■ 

Dut Inn where he "tood hp P° uW 800 
II all. TV -loping bUfk wall* carved out 
,i I hr .Inrkne** <m cither side by that cone 
W light, . id picked out by (be light the 
fo,w i.f a man in silhouette. hU face lifted 
Z the blare-* round, weak face, eyes 
« nf ,| ti. their widest in blnnk wonder— 
Ur very Mature of panic. And the Hon- 
•raliV William could hear it all. too— that 
jtMiinthle necompnniment of irnndinK 
ttakr* ahwh caused the train, aa the last 
rjr passed him, t» groan and wrestle in cv- 
err rtiuriiag. lirarc. and holt of Ha length, 
tat ahirh ««mrd to check never ao little 
it. ibw-nt upon the mnn ahead. Then, in 
ihc my intent when the pilot of the engine 
■at Mulling out the figure, he aaw a body 
4*,t ialo the air. upward nnd outward, and 
pbnee head foremost into the water and 
diHpptar in the sparkle of it* own aplaah. 
tnd .till he stood, fixed to the stone abut- 
nrnt hr the fascination of the thing. Not 
,*1,1. fifty »ard« farther on. the brake* 
lurked the wheel* of the train to the rails, 
.••I rl« long link, sprang fmm one another 
in the eonnilslon* of their stop, was the 
•mil broken. Even when he began to run 
it ir»» uncertainly, a curioua weaknra* nt 
hi* kmv*. 

Ahead of him he saw the engineer drop 
fr.oi the rah of the loco motive and come 
hurry inu hack. Vestibule door* crashed 
r*a! lanterns flashed from the steps of 
the ear*; from the platform*, aa he drew 
up with them, psMesgen Hun® questions. 
Ilut sit this was hut the setting to that 
>,{«s which his gaw wn* fixed — a dot upon 
the water, twmtY yards or more from the 
imtlr. the centre of a smother of white 
tnten ap by waving arms. 

Opposite the spot he halted. On the 
dnalder of the engineer lie laid a hand. 
Tiilr'i ton fast!" he cried " He’ll be gone 
is thne minute*. Get a rope to haul us in." 
Thm hr stepped to the end of a lie. and his 
tody arched in u long, springing dive. 

He west down gasping, quivering with 
Ike .train of hi* long run and of the 
wretched thing he Had seen. The cool touch 
<f the water steadied his brain, evened his 
pul«r He cam' 1 up, one idea clear to hi» 
mind, all hi* faculties alert. And lie saw 
that hr toad not miscs hula ted. In front of 
Hiw la thirty fret was Mr. Mellon, hi* face 
is the .laihyht scarcely less white than 
the nrrle of hiaai with which his thresh- 
mr arts* .till ringed him To him the llon- 
•fittr William pulled with swift, strung 
*1mke». «nd, a yard away, stopped. 

Fatty-'* he *aid. quickly. *' if you try to 
J»ah me I'll drrmn you." 

Mr Mellrn mnde a wild pas* at him, nnd 
‘pwi round on himself, only to go under 
He came to the surface still clutching at 
Ike aster, mashing weakly, hit hewd strain- 
«1 far lack on his shoulder*. The Honor- 
«l-V Willi* ni raughl him hy the collar, 
•id, at ar»'« tonrth. held him where he was. 
binding water himw-H and watching him 
with w»ry Me, Twice Mr. Metlen'a honked 
fine*i* Irani |rt (n*tm themselves upon his 
■uplift, and twiev the llonoinkle William 
allnurd the water to wa*.h over the gaping 
tmolto After that hi* burden was a limp 
tody. 

tad then the llooorahlr Willinm looked 
»toint him 

Th* •Imre, no one hand, was but a shad- 
”" v * inf; on the other, was lo*t in dark 
**** Fifty rank upstream the light* of 
*!* train flushed from the bridge aerus* 
tbf water and voice, railed t„ him. The 
colBe wa« hi. h,..t ,.| IJIlcri he divided, but 
'*■ »n*»crrA wane or the rail*. With the 
nf other* he wn* not concerned, nnd 
, l “ d w knew, of all hi* breath nnd 
•tnnuv The tide wa* ag*in*t him— a 
t l!? . ,U,r ,h *' ”** while he e*tah 

frill*** with hit eompaninn. nulled 
hull wuh II a itoi/en yards or more. Now. 
u' n ' I " w,, k*" "boulder and. Mr. 

. " ,r “ lllB « behind him nt the length of 

ln ' an h5 * *k hl u,t Hm* I resile* 

ftoo- up^ a tin* lhr Honorable William 
*. r 'V“‘"l'on a* a wharf rat. 
* ll,, l been hia refuge from pur- 
•g «tonw*. In, solace when the paternal 
*„ hung nearv. a mean, n f oena.tomal 
n «"t» when Meumlonisti with small change 


Lea & Perrins’ 
Sauce 

THE ORIGINAL WORCESTERSHIRE 



The Peerless 
Seasoning 

Rare piquancy is given to 
Chafing Dish cooking by using 
LEA & PERRINS' SAUCE 
as a seasoning Welsh Rare- 
bit. Lobster a la Newburg. 
Mushroom Saute. Stewed 
Terrapin, etc., to be perfect 
must have at least a dash of It. 
It adds enjoyment to every 
dinner. 

J «*• Omiu'i tm, *c»", V**%. 


Jfinnuclal 


Bills of exchange bought ami 
iold. Cable Trun»f«r» to Eq 
rot>e and South Africa. Com- 
mercial and Traveller*' Letter* 
of Credit. Collection* muetc. 
Iiilernationul Cheque*. Cer- 
(titrate* ol Deposit. 

Brown Brothers A Co., 

llAMKSwt, No. 5S XVau. Srwaat. 


Letters 

of 

Credit. 


Elements of Navigation 

By W. J. HENDERSON 

it I* n my rlur and twriw statement nf HwnfUl fad* nm- 
rrrnln* I hr handllnc nf a »hlp *t ug. and lumWhe* infomtu 
linn finfl»t»n**Me tn ever, mw emuweted with tin- navl*atlo»i 
ot a vr*»rl —Armf am J ,V»r y /n»Tw,if. New York. 

Wuk tUmgrmtu. SIM 

HARPER A* BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. H, Y. 

morton trust Company 

38 NASSAU STREET. NEW YORK 

Capital - $2,000*000 

Surplus and Undivided Profits - - $6,000,000 

OFFICERS 

LEVI P. MORTON. President 

THOMAS F. RYAN. Vice-President JAMES K. CORBIERE. Vice-President 

CHARLES H. ALLEN, Vice-President H. M. FRANCIS, Secretary 
CHARLES A. CONANT, Treasurer 


John Jacoa A*Tt>a. 
C«*«i«* H. All*n, 
Cbo*g> P Haksb. 

t I'm * «<■ j HaawtNP, 

r**ua«l I NnHMILL 
1 4**1 U Dll. B. 


Levi P Mo* row, 

Thom*, F Rvaw. 

Chablos H AiLbm. 


Counsel. ELI HU ROOT 

DIRECTORS 


J*’ 


WiKTHRAr RuTMtarUSD, 
Tnom*, F Rvab. 

Jatoe H. Sc.i»y. 


Eunu Root. 

Ia,..h H Scwirr. 

Hasky Pavwb Whitkbv. 


Tl»c Priiu*) twaiila a* a Tlm«*vavtr. 

A New York broker fnrivwl a mc**ng«* ju«t be- 
(nrr the dine of the Stock R 'change n;.|urw«ing h- 
prrseme irt Milwaukee -k carlv a« (»• ii-*il, 1 i- the newt 
,lav From the other mil "l the U-I, |>h<i|jr wire hr 
toarncl that the I’ll NNsS'LVAN" I A NI M IAL. le-iv 
ing downtown at 4.00 r u would dehvrr him ihrtv 
Lefiirr noon. Ho boarded ft . (V.rll.indt Mr., t 
Prrrv at 4 oo r u.. arrived in Chit .i»* at 8 ; - the n. *1 
morning, after a eomfortat.le mght m nnito. and 
reached Milwaukee at 11.00 a.m. 


Camp Life in the Woods 

By W. H. GIBSON 

A book full of woodcraft and 
valuable information. i6mo,$i.oo. 

Illtiilrjled by U't Autl\<r 

HARPER & BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. N.Y. 


®|^eelev 

/>(ure 


‘or Liquor and 
Drug Using; 

A Kicottfic remedy winch haj been 
skilfully and »i»cca»fully adminiitmd by 
medical apeculists for the past 25 year*. 

At Iho following Kceley In mill atom : 


IU. 

■ m»—. ■•*- 
a-ii*-*. I*- 


»i'i Kh 'r'l-T-- 1 


NmImI 11^, 

r» iw 4 .it.ku. r»_ 

•It *. >r«| HI. 

r,. 




1*25 

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tn risk nn tlie sport 
R«ve him the chance 
t» prove how much 
quicker were hi* eve 
uml hand than any 
■inking win. In later 
day*, when hi* nim 
hlenr** anil wit hiiil 
found n wiiler uml 
more profitable, if n»i 
more- h Often!, orrupn- 
tion. In- hud n*n al- 
lowed himself tn for 
get what inode the 
water kind to him. 
And mi now. with 
never a thought but 
for the rosiest way tn 
bring hi* burden to 
dry land, he *truek 
out for the hridp-. 

Itut it wii* hard 
pun;:; he grudgingly 
yielded a* mueh to 
fnel when live tnin- 
ute* hml passed ami 
the voire* culling to 
him uounded no near- 
er thnn at the Marl. 
Mr. Mellen. flaccid 
and iiim-isling. WU* 
withnl u dead weight, 
lie ahifted hi* hold on 
the trailing figure 
uml strung hi* inn* 
cles anew with jnM 
the faintest douht n* 
to whether, after all. 
he Jui'l chosen the 
ea*i«'*t way. Head 
lu id llut, hi* free arm 
Nwcepiiig downward 
and outward, hi* leg* 
driving with all their 
power, he fought 
again*’ the suck of 
the tide, if* curl 
al* int hi* neek. a tiny 
feather of foam at hi* 
lip* telling him he 
wa* making hrad 

*hii» wa* not for 
long, however : hr 

putting into ev- 


kept pare 


cry sir 


Hie 


strength that *Hould 
have served for ten. 
and the tide wa* not 
to be denied. Tire- 
lessly. never for an 
prr**ed again*t him, 
making no progre**. 
wa* Init a short * 
it wii* too mueh. 


" T h nt jump oi -uM hocr srirrif you if you hint n't In « n n . . . foot " 


instant abating if* *nfi in-i-iener 
and M*>n he trnliml that he 
Ih- raised hi* eye* to the bridge. 
Ireti-h of water that intervened, 
knew. If only thrv had 


Iwrcil hi* warning, lie risked one cull. "The rope! Kopcl" 
he cried. 

And then he saw that they only waited for him. The cluster 
of nn-n fell unnrt. and one figure Mood out. whirling something 
alMiut hi* head. It wa* llung at Inst, it* loop* Mrnightrned. and 
the end struck the water a few feet away. It might a* well not 
have l*-cn thrown, and the Honor a hie William «uwr it drown back, 
saw it roiled and thrown again and Mil! again. And mn-c it 
came almost within hi* reach. Hn l never did it quite reach 
him. mid with the fifth throw it wa* clear to him that the dis- 
tant*- lietwccn had widened mid that hi* play for the bridge had 
failed. 

TIh-ii. for the flr*t time, he turned to the tide for nid. The 
nearest shore wa* a quarter of a mile away, (luce more he shifted 
hi* hidd on hi* companion ami l*-gan to lloat. hi* hvwd .flown- 
Htreiim. swimming hardly at all. Imt always *lanting for the 
xhadowy line on his right. Front the bridge he heard confused 
eiir*. and smiled to himself thereat. So they thought he had 
given up the fight and wu» going out the Imy. exhausted, carch*** 
of the end! 

Well, the idea did no harm. It was time. too. that he 
xhotild <oli»hler what was ahead, time »n *hore. half a hundred 
cm ion* incii about him would mom — ensnplical ion* tJucMinn* 

would lie asked. What wa* lie doing on the bridge? Who wa* 
hi* companion? Who wa* lie* The lloiuuahle William had hud 
experience with rein-in**. and he had no liking tor the heroic. A 
quiet half-hour on the lieaeh alone with Mr. Mellen wa* all he 
u«kcd. He knew a trick m two nlwmt rolling kite into a water- 
logged body: moreover, he did not la-lii-vi* that hi* companion wa* 
*«» badly off a* he ap|«curcd to l«c. lu-ft to hi* own resource*, lie 
wu* fairly sure that there would hi* enough of the night remain- 
ing to take Mr, Mellen and himself under it* friendly cloak I slide 
to the city, and on their own legs. After that — Well, M*. Mellcu'* 
future movement* did not interest him. 

Hut it wa* nut *o to he. He was a bundled feel from the shore 


with hi* 
drift ’ down -stream 
ami shouted to him— 

encourogenMTit*. di- 
rect ion*. advice. He 
cursed them for their 
ol!icioti*ne*«. and al- 
most wa* tempted to 
|<H.M* hi* bold on Mr. 
Mellen and strike 
back into the bay. 
Hut hr did not. 11* 
was tired, the water 
wu* deep, and he had 
promised him*rlf to 
bring hi* eomjianion 
to land. 

It wa* where a 
curve in tlie shore 
thrust out a «tonv 
little tongue that hr 
nimr in, a score "f 
arm* drugging >lr. 
Mellen and himself 
u p the * I o ping 
*h ingle. Mr. Mellen 
Wa* u heavy burdro. 
with slack litiil* and 
slow, gasping breath. 
Hilt, a* a mutter of 
record, though hi* 
eye* wen- eln-rd. Mr. 
Mellen wa* suHirtcnl- 
lv aware of what wa* 
*ald und what went 
on around him: and. 
while lie lay inert und 
nllowisl the liquor to 
trickle down hi* 
throat from a I* it tie 
which some one held 
tn hi* lip*, lu- — 
waited. 

Hut the Honor- 
aide William pro- 
tested a* they hauled 
him up mi diy la ml. 

“ lie miild walk for 
him*rlf! He wa* all 
right ! Why didn't 
they leave him 
alone?" lie pushed 
them aside, then sud- 
denly renliwd that 
all wa* md right 
with him. and abrupt- 
ly collapsed, falling forward from the knee*, on hi* face, and 

lay motionless, 

Instantly there wa* a rush to him, and they carried him 
no the Kink to a gra**y slope — the foot of the lawn of a hoitw 
whom- light* twinkled through the tree- above. There was a call 
for the man with the whiskey. Mr. Mellen wa* left to *hift for 
himself. 

While they worked over the Honorable William, chafing hit 
hands and feet. a man came from the trie* aIkivc and puslasl hi* 
way into the circle. A badge glutei cl from hi* breod. lie took 
a long look at the Honorable W illi.im and ’whistled. ” Where 
was he hit?” he demanded. 

“ Hit ?" anawemi the engineer of the train. " He wasn't hit ; that 
wa* the other follow.*' 

The man with the badge manifested sharper interest, "tuber 
.one? la-fft we him!’* They took him to where Mr. Mellen had 
Ism -11 laid and explained. Hut Mr. Mellen was gum*. The 
man with the liadgc hurried hack to the aide of the Honorable 
William. 

And at that moment the Honorable William opened l*i» eye*. At 
tlr*t they ga/cd vacantly »t the Mar*, then they pu*-*cd over th<- 
hem of figures dimly revealed by the lantern*. At last they fell 
upon the face of the nmn with the badge, who was standing r|o*e 
liy. And there they rested. They lost their look of empty wonder. 
A little frown knit itself atmve them. 

"Trying tn retiieinls-r where we met Inst, W. O. 11. T" »aid the 
man with the badge. "Well. I'll help you. It wasn’t the tins* 
you rohls-d Mn**ey'i* jewelry-stoic. Ami it wasn't the time 1 put 
you away for * cracking ’ the First National Hunk. I'm off the 
city force now. It was to-night you *uw me — up at Hotter'* 
house. And that jump would tmve saved you if — if . vou 
hadn't I wen a datum*! fool. The other fellow wasn't, yon wh- 
ile's skinned out; left you the first chance be got. Now. you' 
he brat closer — "tell mo who lie was. ami I'll do wlmt I «■ 
for vou’" 

The Honorable William’s mouth closed in n hard line anil hi* 
brows drew down. Then his face relaxed. Thin wa* really huniorou* 
in u way. he reflected. He smiled wi-nkly. "Sav. Kearney." 
said, "aren't we wasting time? I guess I'm ready to Mart with 
you. If you are." 


when he saw a line 
«,f stumbling nn-n. 
strung ulong the 
shelving bench. They 


102C 


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The Gambler 

((‘oatiHwd fntm ftfe Hil.tJ 

ml the vrhtvlpd round will* uiiiii'cvwaary 
|j,*e towards thr p>ml"U into which Hu? 
lugpigr Wit bring piled. 

but tfcn thl* j.*rrin*r inckknt conhl tml 
ntr that tint jounwy in tin* stately black 
hMt. Kwr>' portion of the way was instinct 
wilk it* oini npecial charm. From the wide 
disnitj .4 thr Unmd t'anal. with ita ancient 
pdio-V at* mysterious stream of silent 
l7i+ir. it* orCAsiofial note of brilliant nuxl- 
ern We. to the fascinating Klinpm of nur 
rawer waterways where the women nf the 

K ir, Willi uneorarod brail* anil cigarette* 
nn their lip*, leaned out of their win- 
iIihm to exitumgr the day's ji»*«-i p with a 
wMlur Mim the water: all was a de- 
Ight — soiiirthiiijf engrossing and uniijuc. 
t'bdagh had no desire to *|ieak a* they 
flidni forward: anti when the hotel step* 
■ffe riurhml die Milferetl herself to he iis- 
aiMol from the gondola, scarcely certain 
•leilirr »be wa* dreaming or awake. 

Outride the hotel half a dozen visitors 
wire tented U|*in the *niall dune terrace. in- 
dnkntlr watching the arrival at new guest*: 
hut *o ilwirM wan Clodagli in the scene 
hr f»re her that *hr scarcely observed the 
pnener of the* people. And when Mil- 
hiske. murmuring an exrwsr, departed to 
nr after their rooms, she turned again to- 
wiriU the omul that *he had just left, mid 
U-aniag over the tialuslniili' nf the terrace, 
paawd fur a moment to »tnd,v the picture 
afmk. 

Hut she ttc»*| there, unmnariou* of 
Mvrythiajf hut the wonderful, noiseless 
piRrant pacing rrH*el***ly through the pur- 
ple twilight, inure than one glance struyvd 
m her own direction. And two at least 
*W"f« the hotel visitors changed their 
liwtUiiiL' attitude* for the pur cm we of ol>- 
wmng her more closely. 

Tlw two-- hulk mm— were simultaneous! v 
asd antmahly attrueted. The elder, who. 
* hi* extremely fastidious and studied ap- 
(•wraser nigh, almost have belonged t.. an- 
"tlwr and earlier era than nur own. was a 

«an ueaHv ", Trar , , M . thp vou „ 

hi. junior by forty-flve rears. i»ut-«. 
™ in * “ spontaneous admiration 
Jnnl K'T T n lh,> ,U " »n they 
Sr. d *" l - v fonMrJ wan strikingly 

2}*!— hrM ■ Hdrimmed eye-gla*. 
rmssMl l"‘ 7* : ,he - rou, V rT meditatively 

-nS?JStrf ,r,,Me from hi * mnulU - 

i.aL uit moment „f t | lr | r c ] rmr ob . 
Uiffi icrw !" Pn, PP*n r «'d. and. moving 
arm.' W trrTn * v - tmiriwd Clodagli's 

mid / ' |f!!l J" 1 " 0,1 r rooms are 

aar/ I "JFS FT* 1 u i " ,tar 
It i* .Iter ll?«vEi." 0r ,u " i « h ' 

ff'wing with (he 

“AllZk.7? * IW '"■* mind. 

J'M*»bai " Bul 1 ,l,ink I’H 

U J»im ten mmutc. ' lnr *"*’ U w '"' 1 

lairkl. ..rld^lVk'Ld . ll | W,,, ’‘ h, ‘ 

>txdah 1)( the |ISh i] * lerracr to 

To ** tinned. 


The Origin of Radi, 

I*. - 

* J s, ™i. «« rr 1 ■' 

ss.tca, 5 ^* 

*'*r» tlw S ° f rndusutlve , 

'-*o °. f “ranium hu 

« raSliri If fn,,n 'l i 

Sr* 

^'" n tn 11,1, VH hut 

^"'"lernl. tt- tT, ''!* 1 ,l | , tmr»ent I, 
I«.» £ m ^ 1 T* iU ‘ IftHMl 
***h»r«| ,, radumel vitv 

i " "■« th. 



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HARTFORD 


POPE- 

TRIBUNE 


MODKI. D 

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ADl>HE88 DKHT. A FOR C AT At AH i l : K8 


The Adventures of Buffalo Bill 

With an Introductory Life of the Author 

By Colonel W. P. CODY (“Buffalo Bill”) 

Buffalo Bill, for years one of the hest-Ioved heroes of boys here writes of ltis own 
adventures— his early life at Fort Leavenworth, scouting on the plains and tij'litinj' 
with Indians. An absorbingly interesting book for boys, winch possesses the 
additional, merit of being true. 


Illustrated. Cloth . 60 cents 

HARPER & BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK 

THE ONLY SALESROOMS IN GREATER NEW YORK FOR 

THE C ELEBRATE D 

,ANos SOHMER p,anos 

ARE LOCATED IN THE SOHMER BUILDING 


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BUFFALO 

— Lithia Water 

A Powerful Nerve Tonic end Restorative. 
Does it Contain Hypophosphites 
of Lime and Soda? 

Hunter McCuIre, M.D., 

ond of (te ifrrtic'il Society of Virginia; l<tU Pretidcnt and Pro/ettor of Or-ieml 
Surgery, L’nicrrnty QUlept of Mrdinnr, Utehmond. I'o..- “It tou* never failed me 
no a powerful NERVE TONIC when I Unrepresented itasaiicti. J eometlmr* think 
It must contain ttypoptiospbltoa of l.lmc und Soda. Il iwu m that compound 
Awe— aa a tonic end alterative. ( know fmm li.~ <vmeia»t use, personally and 
to practice, that tberotu Its obtained are far beyond ihoaawhleh the analysis given 
would warrant.'' 

f*ro/rs*or of Jf tr ww and Menial Iks 


"In manf forma of N’crvoua tiihaustion, noooiapanylo* u 
phosjihsUs. It la Invaluable." 


> earns* of uraiee and 


lletrl at Springs s*w Open. 

PROPRIETOR, BUFFALO LITHIA SPRINCS, VIRGINIA. 


Copyright Hotlcc 


t Men* 


r fort hi 

ow.D.4 


Oaa* A.XXe., No. I1H723- 1,. »it- K, n 
Th u on Ills mtli J*r ..( J-mr. If«r». Wendell Prime, »l .. 
t ! nltrii State*. Imtli ilrcusttnl In lliU ..*<* ite i Hie ..f i 
WMJK.the litle el wtiirb l» In the I-jILi* Iht- words, to wit 
“ Our Ctiltdnm's Sane*. Wilh ilinMratli<i|»,"|lie rteM shrre 
nl lisrEiiitri ns imi|irsHnr in nrmlormiiy w IMi tile linml Its 
I 'nibxl Sl»l« rVK|Hy1rns <W|iy tight*. 

(Ms Mumiii Kins. Lltmrlom of C,w(>«r, 

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I S*wd 10 tli. fv timiJfi til «U lour pnavunn | 

the .iWrii' ./.ftfvis. . -S.il.- ! iL.yi-i..-. t::>winn.tU, < >. 

LASELL SEMINARY 

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r. C. Ull tlilro.V. I>rlu#t»al. 


WILD LIFE 
OF ORCHARD 
AND FIELD 


An enlarged | 
and revised 
edition of 
this author's | 
" Friends 
Worth 
Knowing.” 
with 


Hv 
FRNFS T 
M1FRSOLL 


New Edition, with many New Photographs. - SI. 40 net (poslago extra) 


HARPER & BROTHERS. FRANKLIN SQUARE. NEW YORK 


The Rise and Progress of the 
StaLhdaLrd Oil Com.pa.rvy 

By GILBERT HOLLAND MONTAGUE 

This a scholarly and accurst* study uf ll*c Standard Oil Company. f„, m h* beginning in if, (15 till it* con- ' 
trul ill 1S79 id ninety five )*r cent, of tlie eutiic mi luisincs> id the United Slats'., and theme .town to the 
jireseiit tiiae. I hc story of tliiagigaitllc trust read* like • take uf magic, ami is ..| iitolo-und interest c»cn to 
lire casual reader. 

Cloth, $1 .00 net {postage extra) 

HARPER 6. BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. FRANKLIN SQUARE 


Fifty Years of Progress in 
America 

/Continued fmm pdfe 1018 .) 
the next decade *l»ow* «n inert** of ninety 
mil In uni. This would «t»i to Is- pirtljr «<■ 
muntiif U*r hv the demand for feeding eav- 
airy, artillery, and army team borne* and 
uiulcH during the rlvil tear. 2. Tin? nett 
dei’ii dc. however, had m< war demand, and 
vet il- ilUTenae urns one hundred and fifty- 
kj,t millions of btnhrti, while that of 1 HtdO 
to 1H1HI wan a hundred million* greater. 
One wonder- if the abnormal demand fur oat- 
men I which this country developed from 
Imho to IM!K» called for that immense In- 
crease, and, further, if the sided it tit ion uf 
wheal brT-nkfnst-food* during the following 
decade caused the much smaller increase of 
that period. 

Illiuoi- and Iowa arc not alone the two 
leading corn States. They are equally the 
two relative leaders in oat production, and 
we may think of the chief producer* a* clus- 
tered a In mi I the limit I-akr*. 

The pre*enl interest of the Ucpnrtiticnt of 
Agriculture at Washington I* «|uile a- keen 
in developing new and m«rv vuluaMe Hurts 
of not* a- in the curtespondins effort* with 
wheat and corn. The experiments intro- 
ducing the hardy Swedish select oat were 
completed a few years since, and favorable 
repoHa of it* adoption continue. Thirty- 
three grain* plunti-l in i*i'oti*in in iN'.ill 
gave about twenty thousand bushels in 1!N»3, 
The 11104 crop was a half-million bii*!ir|«, 
and that of HNi.1 f« cxjwcted to measure 
iiIhiiiI four million hu-ln L |«. It i* rapidly 
-upplanting the les* valuable sort- in ull 
Staten from Wisconsin to Idaho; and its 
ordinary weight ranges from forty to forty- 
four pound* to the hit«)tc1 ni«'ii *urc. What 
thi* mean* is indicated by the fact that the 
legal weight i* only thirty six pounds. 

The department i» now experimenting with 
new hybrid*, with « view of producing un 
out p»|«eria)ly adaplrd to rotating with corn 
on the rielr farm land- of the great corn- 
growing State*, and to produce a more val- 
unhle variety for oatmeal. 

We «re aide to supply alt the wheat n~ 
ij nl rid hy our own people, fe»*l half ««f the 
great English imtioii. and -till have u ten 
mill ions uf bushel* over fur the German*. 
FteiirhiiK’ii. and other nations uf the world. 


The Limit 

A Scotch minister instructed hi* clerk, 
who hj t among the coiigrcgalinu during 
uervic*, to givr u low whistle if anything 
ill hi* sermon Np|«mrcd to be exaggcutel- 
On hiaring the mihiater say. “ In th'**' 
day* there were snake* fifty feet lung," 
the clerk gave a subdued whistle. 

“ I should have said thirty feet.” uddrd 
the minister. 

Another whistle from the clerk. 

” On consulting Thomi»Mm’* roncord- 
anee," -mi id the minister, in contusion, "1 
m*‘ the length is twenty feet." 

Still another whi-ile; whereon the presrh- 
er leniiHl iivcr and said in a stage whisper, 
** Ye cun whistle a* mitch a* ye like. Mac 
Itieraon, but I'll no take anitbci foot <»fl 
for anybody 1” 

What He Was Paid For 

“ WliAT do you make a week?” asked a 
magistrate Indore whom an Italian organ- 
grinder appeared, charging a fellow niustrUa 
wilh breaking hi* instrument. 

" T went ’-five dollnirr," was tlw an**ec. 

“ lYliatl" i-M-liiiined the magistrate. 

M twenty-flve dollar s n week for grinding an 
organ?” 

"No, sure: not for grind; for shut up 
and go away/' 


Outdone 

An Lngli-b and an America* merchant 
wen- disiunsing the relative important* 01 
their businesses. 

" Why,” said the Englishman. “ »n 
firm the elerka iih 30,000 gallon* <'l in* 

"Oh, that's nothing,” retorted the Atnci’ 
cun ; “we wived that much ink in • yf*,. 

I»y ordering uur clerk* not to dot their >*• 

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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


Paul Jones 

By S. H. M. Byers 
then. tawi. Iwom!— H*tc«. the cannon - * 
rwr: 

Thrt at* bringing U» old cotemander 
Ri<l (ii it* all «»«■ s 
Il« of tl*p flo u llommc Richard, 

Him of Ibo great am-fighti 
Yonder I he fUjc* an- waving, 

Yondrr (lie •hip* »n »»ffhl. 
llacm. boom, buim! Twm a hum] ml yearn 
<*u; 

Two wur-nhi|M nailed in l hr North Sea 
tt'hm (hr «ti wan lying low 
Dm merit'd (be Hug »f England. 

TV Hrmflo— forty-four,— 

And one wa» the Hon Homme Richard, 

I ‘.i «l Joan.' man-of-war. 

Steady the wind ldrw northward, 

And ttcady the two »hi|» nailed. 

Iteiond the FlnmlHirii lighthciune. 

When the Ilrituh captain hailed: 

"What ship i« that? Give answer!” 

For a KMimrnt it wu* no ntill 
\ou might hate heard a lamh'n Meat 
Far off on Flu inburu hill. 


Thru- tudilew the Boa llommc Richard 
A i-.imuaT* answer sent, 

Actum the v* to Flandatro Head 
The rrhoing answer went. 

Ami into the night the cannon mured, 
AW the Min went down nil ml, 

Will tutu the night the cannon mared, 
Aad the iiiimio row overhead. 


And the two -liip. Milcd and battled 
Hut u <alilr length apart, 

And nth hud n humlred lull- 
I'inenl Into it* aide and heart. 
And one had a meat -hot down. 

And the slippery decks grew red. 
The tnrpm lay in Hie moonlight, 
hach .hip h*d a hundred dead. 


Thro out of the tiiuike and thunder 
Tlie unogunt Hritun yelled, 

' 1*0 ym give U p your Wii|. — *urren 

. '? hu b Md. 

" fc!" «■* from the Ron Homme J 
“JSdruuawed „ 10 ie|| ., inll 
' • IW mrrey on yiai. 

I»ve only commenwd to fight!’ 

-'*d tWn with an oath be shouted: 
• , * M brT > «'d chain her fu 

• grapph- her chains, and hold ! 
AW bard her liehind the nm.t!” 
, -hi,,, w 

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WHh Sixty Very Funny Pictures by F, Y. Cory 

The memoirs are comical all the way through, but there are parts that are positively irresistible. 
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Otic reads the talc to laugh at its pervasive humor, delight 
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HARPERS WEEKLY 


HARPER'S WEEKLY 

Vol. XI. IX. No. 2535 

EDITED OY GEORGE HARVEY 


THIRTY-SIX PAGES 

New Yore City, July 22, 1905 

Terms : 10 Cents a Copy — $4 oo a Year, in Advance 

Pini4j(( ir« to ill SuiixTibcn in the Uiiiinl State', Canada, Maim, 
Hawaii, Hutto Rico, the Philippine Islands Guam, and Tutuiia, Samoa 

LkltrtJ 1 it Hr AV«r i'prt A'»< *' inuJrfui mat It f 


HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 
NEW YORK CITY: FRANKLIN SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET, W 


COMMENT 

Tiib npimintment of Kutnr Root to succeed Jnti.\ Hay 
in the office of Secretary of State has been received with ul- 
nuwt universal satisfaction. If we insert a qualifying adverb, 
it is only because a few personal ambitious were thwarted by 
the choice which tlie President made, and because a few pro- 
fessional ear|>ers have declined to swell the chorus of approval. 
Certain Senators are known to think that in pursuance of 
tile oklest tradition* of tlie republic the bend-hip of the cabinet 
should he offer'd to one of the most experienced and dis* 
tiuguisited politicians in the dominant party, who. in their 
opinion, would naturally be looked for in the Upper House 
nf the Federal legislature. If Senator Oiivim-k II. Platt. 
of Connecticut, were living, lie would make an ideal iv-crctary. 
and nobmb’ would refuse, we presume, to credit Senator 
John C. Spooner. of Wisconsin, with the stuff of which 
premier* are made. Senator Ilj.MtY C. LoOUE, of Mn.-sa- 
ehnsetts. has bum ls-cn an active member of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Forciim Relation*. and might. therefore, lc supposed 
to Ik 1 laeuliurly titled for the Forerun Office. Moivnvcr, his 
relations with Mr. UimsEYHLT have long been coiifteleiitial. It 
has also been sugg'-sled that, as the State Department lias 
learned, it is one thing to negotiate a treaty, and another 
thing to get it ratified; ami, perhaps the Senate might prove 
It*** in tract able if the negotiator of u given treaty were an 
ex-member of that body. There, again, is Judge T.ut, Stv- 
n-tur.v of War, who, during .Mr. Hay's absence in Europe, 
practically assumed the conduct of the State Department, 
and who, therefore, not unreasonably, nmy have cXia-etcd pro- 
motion to a post nominally higher than the one Im- occupies. 
As a matter of fact, however, the War Office, which entiipre- 
heiids tlie administration of the Philippines, require* s|N*eial 
(]ua)ifiiTitious. which Judge TaIT alolie |Kis*e<)<cs. if we except 
Mr. Root himself. Under the eireu instances, therefore, the 
President wisely insisted Upon Judge TaH’V retention of 
his present office. Outside, then, of tlio Semite there i* nobody 
but Mr. Kinyt. ill whose preeminent competence to di*chnrgc 
the functions of S*s*retory of State Mr. Roosevelt is known 
to haw expressed jHibltely entire and hearty confidence. For 
traditions the President professes no undue reverence — hn 
would rather make them than follow them — mid. fur that 
matter, there has been no lack in twin I times of preciHlents 
for seeking a head of the Foreign Office outside the narrow 
circle of distinguished politicians. 

It i* more than three-quarter* of a century situs' the office 
of Sivretarv of Slate was regarded a* a vestilmlo to the White 
House. Tlie custom of so regarding it began with Thomas 
Jefferson— though in his case -even years intervened between 
hi* resignation of the premiership and his accession to the 
Presidency, mid. having been followed in the eases of James 
M u»l so x. .1 VUKS Monroe. and Jolts Qi INCV Aim ms. came t«i an 
end in 1SJ3. so fur as the direct transfer of tlie occupant 


ot the State Department to tie- Kxeeutivc Mansion is con- 
cerned. It i- tnir tluit President Mums Vw Hi ion hid 
once been San - ret ary of State, but six years had elapsed be- 
tween his exercise of the one office uml his assumption of tlie 
other. So, too, Janies Bi’lTIaXvn administered the State De- 
partment under Pol k, hut he left it eight years before he 
became Chief Magistrate. Two ex-Secrvtarie* of State. Henry 
Clay and Jam k.h <J. Blaine, were eventually uouiimitcd for 
the Presidency, but each failed t«» Ik 1 elected. Only four linn's 
since l*tit) ban a President conformed t«» the traditions that 
the headship of tin* cabinet should be reserved for one of tin* 
most eminent among the active politicians of tlie prci»oiidvraiit 
party. Garfield and Benjamin Harrison followed the older 
precedents when they made James CJ. Blaine: Secretary of 
State; so di<l Mr. Cl. i:\llasd when, in his <ir*t administration, 
he appointed Thomas F. Bay Aim, and Mr. McKinley, when 
lie designated John Sherman. Grant, on tlie other hand, 
selected first Kllill’ B. Washim'IIN, whom few Senators con- 
sidered qualified for the headship of tin- State Department; 
amt then Hamilton Fihii, wlio for some time had retired from 
active politic*. Haves chose for his premier William M. 
Kyarts. win*, we believe, hud never held an elective office, ex- 
npt that of delegate to u State constitutional convention; und 
Artiii k assigned the place to Frederick T. Fbeljxuihyskn. 
who, although a man of some importance in New Jersey, 
ha>l never |na<se*sei| much weight or influence in the country 
at large. 


Blaine's successor in the Hamukon administration was 
Mr. John W. Foster, who, like John Day. was a recruit 
from the diplomatic service. The premier in ClevklaXuV 
second administration. Judge Walter Q. Guksiiam. had la-cn 
a lifelong lie publican up to the general election of 1SP2. His 
successor. Mr. Hi-itum OlxeY, was practically unknown to 
politicians, even in the Slate of Massachusetts, from which he 
came. Quite as obscure was Judge William R. Day, wh*>. 
after John Siikiiman* death. lM-aded tin* State Department 
for a while. John If\V, it is well known, had been trained 
for the Foreign OlHw hv a long and varied ex|a*rien«' in our 
diplomatic service, having run the gamut from secretory "f 
h gat ion and rkarpe truffiiirr* to First Assistant Si-crvtary of 
State ami ambassador at London. Mr. Kliiu Root, like 
his predecessor, and like William M. Kvauts, lias never been 
elected to mi office (except that of delegate to a New York 
State constitutional convention) ; hut. as the director for some 
five year* of the War Departuient at a critical conjuncture, 
when it included the ndiuiui*( ration of Cuba, Porto Rico, ami 
the Philippines, he lias had an experience singularly adapt'd to 
prepare him for tin* conduct of our foreign relations. Whether 
in his ease the office of Secretary of State will prove a stepping- 
stone to iIk* UepuMiean nomination to the Presidency is a 
question which requires mature consideration, uml about which 
we are likely to hear 11 good deal for some time to come. 


If it be true that the contemporary venlict of foreign na- 
tions forecasts tlie judgment of |tnalcrity, John Hay should 
la* as- ii ml of a place of honor in Aun-rieNii history. Tin- 
rm-s*agi-s of cumlolciict! sent to Washington by Kuru|n*an gov- 
ernments on tin* nniiouuecineiit of his death were fraught 
with a n-spi-et and an esteem that evidently were sincere, 
ami in the ease of (Jrosir Britain they have been followed bv 
a striking demonstration of sorrow and affection. K*|H*eially 
memoralde were tlie wunla uttered by Lord LansisiWNK at 
the Is laied dinner of the American Society of London— ln- 
latol Iss-ausi (Nistpotied to July .* on account of Mr. II av* 
dentil. It was, in truth, an appropriate tribute which the 
Briti-b Minister for Fon-ign Affair* paid to our lute Secretary 
of Slate when lie described him ns a mini “ who *luod for ull 
that is noblest and best in our public life; all that is moat 
sincere and attractive in our social life." We Jcnm with in- 
terest that when Lord Lansoowm: called on Mr. II.av during 
the biller** hriel sojourn in London, just before his last trunie 
n fhm tie A'oyage. the Secretary qmkc of “the gn-at task lying 
before us — iIm* tn*k of preserving ami promoting the close 
intinuiey of the two Knglisli-s)M‘jiking jMNtph*s." Through this 
intimacy. Lord Lv\si*ow\k n-ealhsl with satisfaction, it had 
Is-cn possible to get ri<l of nlliio.*t all the points of difference 
between the two kiudnsl jssiples, and he felt enuvineed that 
if hereafter any now points ritould np|s-ar we would know 


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lii-tf to dispose of them in it reasonable and amicable manner. 
Felicitous also was the testimony l*orne by Andaissudor Rem 
lu the exceptional merits of his predecessor in tile Lomlnu 
cmbus\v anil his lifelong friend. lie well Mini that John Hay 
had served the United State* at the Court of St. James’*, 
aiirl had dtirc served civilization as American Secretary of 
State. Rivalling that Tai.LKTIUND once calbil himself n “ good 
Euri>|imii," Mr. Ran said that, with more propriety, Joint 
llo might be termed a good citizen of the world. Reciprocity, 
arbitration. tlie territorial integrity of China, the Anglo- 
American uuilerMiuiding: such are the four principles or aims 
tihirh will long be associated with the memory of John Hay, 
•uni an- calculated to endear him to men of enlightenment 
and philanthropy all over the globe. The man who under* 
take* to replace John Hay in tin- Slate Department is likely 
to iind the place no sinecure. “ You replace our friend Dr. 
Filin K UN." -aid the Frclieh Minister for Foreign Affairs to 
Mr. (lOt YKItNElR Morris. “Pardon. M. the Minister," rejoined 
“I follow I)r. Fran nun; no one cuu replace him." 


While President Roosevelt ha* been discoursing to college 
graduate*. Mr. William J. Bryan ha* l**cn travelling through 
the ivntral West and talking to the M plain people " about his 
* New Democracy,” by which, of course, is meant the brand 
■m which be rlaiiQ* a patcut. It is tm secret that iu Illinois, 
Indiana. and Ohio his friends expect to control the Democratic 
State orgnnizatir.ns and to name tin- delegates to the next 
Democratic uatioiiul convention. He Inis been telling the 
voters, that in u few years they will see all monopolies in the 
hand* of the people, instead of in the hands of private in- 
dividuals. Among the signs of a landslide iu that direction 
lie notes the fact that some of the sharp-eye-el Republican 
kwk-rs serin dispoaed to infringe upon the Uhvas patent. 
The Republicans whum lie lias in mind are obviously La 
KoUXTTE of Wisconsin, Ci'StMlS* of Iowa, and, above all. 
Ik dci-upnnt of the White House. Mr. BnTAN profe**oa «•» 
give- Mr. Roosevelt full credit for what he ho* done for the 
regulation of railroad rates, but add* tluit he has not gone 
far cii'iugh. “We agree with him," he says, “that power 
to fix railway rates must be given to a commission, but wc 
do not agree, on the other hand, that the individual members 
»f « guilty L-orjKirtition should Ik* sheltered from the law, and 
tlie whole burden of the jieiiwlty niaik- to fall on underling 
nnp!oy«-» of the corporate culprit." On the whole, it is 
r.illu-r a cold greeting that Mr. Hhvax ia giving just now 
1 o the Republican* who seem inclined to swallow a part of 
the doctrine* of the “ New Demo<-raey," Before killing for 
them the foiled calf he would have them bring forth fruits 
nuvt for u-ppntanre. He explains to fellow Democrats in 
tlie central West how they should treat Republican recruits. 
“Just at present," he say*, “while you welcome them, do not 
tala- them into full membership. It will be better to keep 
tiH-m on potation for a while. And this full, when you make 
up your local tickets, you had belter remember this, ami vote 
for Dein«s-r«ts dyed in tin* wool.” Evidently Mr. Bryan 
1 ' 1 'ks upon himself as a east for the star part in the nnti- 
■Wiopoly drama to be put on tlie board* in UK'S, and wants 
it" understudies and lie importations, lie practically tells 
lh-iiM>-rulie voters to recognize in William J. Bryan tlie w>!o 
original, genuine reformer, and not to be deluded into iiocept- 
iw anykiily eta as “anally as good.” In his own mind he 
Asem* the (pit tat tluit used to be bestowed by enthusiastic 
ficnnan youth on Johann Pall Frikukicii Router : Dtr 
KiHiigt — ** The Only." 

Mhnt is a rimutiiuiiua. mid should one who does Hot know 
*ari-h the dirtioiutry or tin* giuu-ttevr to find out f We read 
in the papers, “ Mr. Utrmv will address the Chautauqua 
at Ditflvra to-morrow or, “ District- Attorney Jerome spoke 
at the Fi.nst Park (’hnutniiqiin this afternoon." It *<-ema 
1" have bin chicfiv Chautauqua* tlint Mr. Jerome and Mr. 
Ion** adilrewcd lu*t week. Wo all know lie real stut* that 
t s re i- a lake calbil C'luiutau<|im iu western New York. on 
the borrkra of which summer sts-kera after knowloilge have 
pi* l“‘ r >-oii«lly conducted to it these many years by the 
piMsiblc cuts, m> we can guess at what we have not 
. 1 r*l oU u* da- nature of tin- Western Chautauqua*. Wlien 
tt was given out that Mr. Jerome ami Mr. Lawson wore 
pang n«t to speak at oevcral Chautauqua*, the impression 


some renders girt was tluit tla-y were travelling in the same 
triiiipe, and would probnbly talk to tlie mum* end*. That im- 
prcasioii seem* to have been uiifuumh-d. At the very first go 
we find tlie two apoakera diverging. An accurate report of 
what was »aid ut the Knifc-nnd-Fork Club dinner iu Kun*u* 
City on July 7, at which they both spoke, ha* not conic to 
our notice, but it seems to have been there that Mr. Rinoww, 
of Ei'ergbotlg'it Magazine, first suggested that Cod had raised 
up W.vftiuxuTox to be u father to this country, ami Lincoln 
to Ik* it* emancipator, arid now Lawson, and that Mr. Jerome. 
regretting that he had no press agent with hiui. submitted 
the qualifying opinion that “God hud raised up Lawson 
to m isp hell." 

This disposition to take a conservative view appears in all 
Mr. J rim nil's addresses. At Ottawa, Kansas, when- Mr. Law- 
son told — -or rather read — again the story of frenzied finance, 
and urged the Kansas farmers to crush “the system” under 
the weight of its own securities, Mr. Jerome extenuated Wall 
Street as an institution that had important Uses, declared that 
Mr R(kk>kli.kii had merely done on a very large scale what 
a multitude of business men were striving daily to do on as 
large « nolle a* they could, ami actually commended tlie 
trusts for much good work, condemning them chiefly for 
debauching our public life. Mr. Jerome devoted himself to 
helping the Konspng to *hk* things with Eastern eyes — that is, 
with New York eyes, but not with eyes so Eastern as Mr. 
Lvwson’s. Mr. Lawson. Ik* it said, declared against State 
ownership of things. Not in that way. he thought, would our 
millennium come. Mr. DatUtOW, who spoke the same day. mu<t 
have had government ownership all to himself. Apparently 
it is a feature of tin- Chautauqua system to get u sight of 
subjects under discussion from opposing points of view. We 
think it advantageous to the Western Chnutnuquas to have 
had Mr. Jerome’* point of view ulong with Mr. Lawson".*. 
“Don’t take things you lu-ar too seriously.” Mr. Jerome said. 
M these wildcat stories about trusts and the harm they are 
doing." That was sound advice coming from Mr. JuttoMK, 
who has a fair reputation for taking things seriously enough. 
There arc so many cries of “grnft." “fraud,” and “stop 
thief ” just now that if wc all took them all as seriously a* 
they sound work would have to stop. Yet they are not to be 
ignored, either. They mean a good deal. 


We wonder how Mr. Bryan relishes the reception, given in 
the heart of bleeding Kansas, to Mr. Juno ME, a representative 
of tin* “sane, safe, and conservative " Democrats of the East. 
When we consider tluit in Ottawa the New York District At- 
torney was speaking on a platform prepaml for and shortly to 
be occupied by the most spectacular of trust -busters, we an* 
almost bewildered by the hardihood that could begin by telling 
hi* auditors that “ all thi* talk about trust* i* mostly nonsense. 
I fell you," added Jerome, “and I hold no brief from the 
trust*, that no limn lui* been iu a position to know more of 
the iniquities of trust* than 1 have been, and yet I declare 
that nothing in this country has been touched by a trust that 
ha* not been cnnenl to grow and improve," Fur from howling 
him down, the Kansans heard his words with attention. an«l 
punctuated them with apptnusc. The situation was thus ex- 
plained to a New York reporter bv the editor of a Kansu* 
country newspaper, who had performed the miracle of kivpiug 
his head above water for some year*. “ We people out here 
have had our lesson." In- said. “ It came hard and it sank 
dorp. Fur a generation no long-haired lunutie could tntmp 
across the State without leaving In-hind him a congregation 
of wagging whiskers ami a simoon of hot air. Our cur-m-m-s 
have been thuni|M<d out. The long-ha ireil can still talk to 
u». but it takes more than hot air nowaday* to get our vote*." 

The week’s cruise of the Russian hattlc-dup Kuint Poh nlrin 
hud nil inglorious ending when the mutineers voluntarily 
surrendered to the Rumanian government, but it furnished 
foreign onlookers with a M'lisutiomd -|M-etaele, gave the Si, 
Petersburg authorities some day* of harrowing suspense, and 
threatened at one time to play a jairt of considerable inqsirt 
on the Stage of history. The mutiny was quickly followed 
by similar outbreak* on one or two torj* ibels.nt* and on flh- 
hatth-slii|» Qeorgi Pohirdonmvtz. mul Admiral Kin ».»:» sis-ins 
to have ls*-ii *o apprehensive that tlx* spirit of insurrection 
would infect the crews of the other vessels that la- withdrew 


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the* real of his squadron from Odessa without firing a shot, 
and took the extraordinary step of dismantling ail hi* war- 
ships at Sebastopol. If at this conjuncture the h'nim Potemkin 
bad been, as she was alleged to be, in the hands of a committee 
qualified to carry out the plans of far-sighted revolutionary 
leaders, she would forthwith, or at least as soon as she could 
supply herself with food and coal, have proceeded to the 
southeastern corner of the Black Sea. and there either at 
Hatouin or, if it were deemed imprudent to approaeh a forti- 
fied port, then at Poti, have plaeed herself in communication 
with the disaffected inhabitant* of the Caucasus. Thus placed 
in possession of a harbor and a latHle-ship, and enabled to 
interrupt Russia's transmarine eomiiiunicatious with Trans- 
caucasia. the Circassian rebels ill the mountains could have 
formed a provisional government which would have lieon in 
a position to claim belligerent rights. In this way tile revo- 
lution would have acquired a focus and a fulcrum. 

/ Unluckily for (lie hopes of those who believe tluit the Russian 
’ autneracy can he subverted only by violence, the cruise of 
the fining 1‘ulrmkin proved uu almost farcical Haseo, and the 
other mutinies among sailors quartered at Libnu. Reval. and 
Croiistadt being not simultaneous, but subsequent and iso- 
lated, were suppressed without much difficulty. We have 
had reports also of insubordination on the part of certain 
regiments of tlie Imperial Guard. but up tu the pre-cut time 
the movements have not been concerted, and have thus lacked 
any serious significance. More formidable, Ux-ause more like- 
ly to be widespread and organized, would lie an outbreak on 
the part «»f the reservists, who arc as well trained in tlie use 
of arms os art* the soldiers now under the colors, and who 
are in much closer touch, of course, with the civilian part 
of the community. Apprehending danger from this quarter, 
the Osar's advisers, we are told, have countermanded the order 
to call out the reserves of the St. Petersburg and Moscow 
districts, who would be particularly likely to echo the popular 
clamor for reform, i So violent change of sovereigns has ever 
been brought about in Russia, much less any change of 
dynasty or form of government, without the connivance of 
u |Mirt of the army, and the scheme* of tlie proton t revolution- 
ists are likely to prove futile unless they can win over a 
.certain number of regiments. 


There is presumptive evidence that a compromise is equita- 
ble when each of the parties claims a victory. That is osten- 
sibly the outcome of the Morocco controversy, the terms of 
the settlement of which were read on July 10 by Premier 
Kouvikr in tlie French Chamber of Deputies, and were simul- 
taneously published in Berlin. M. Roi'Vikk thought that the 
Chamber could felicitate itself on the result of the negotia- 


tions between France and Germany, because it had left intact 
the arrangements previously concluded by France with other 
powers — that is to say. the Anglo-French and Franco-Span i»l» 
treaties. In the German capital, on tlie other hand, the 
agreement between the French and German government* is 
looked U|xin as a diplomatic success of tlie first magnitude 
over both Gnat Britain and France, although it is expressed 
in studiously moderate terms. Impartial outsiders will lx? 
apt to take the German view of the situation. It will lie 
remembered that the gi*t of the Gennnn objeetion to the 
Anglo- French and Franco-Spanish treaties was the arrogating 
b.v Great Britain and Spain of a right to confer upon France 
the exclusive privilege of exercising a tutelary function in 
Morocco as regards the maintenance of order and the intro- 


duction of internal reform. The unchallenged exercise of 
such a function would, as experience has shown, have made 
Morocco ultimately a vassal of France, as Egypt is of Eng- 
land. 


France now admits that the treaties named bind no- 
body except the signatories, and simply mean that England 
and Spain will not. on Ihcir part, interfere with the establish- 
ment of a French protectorate over Morocco. France vir- 
tually acknowledges, however, that she cannot move a step 
in that direction without the acquiescence of Germany. The 
latter power does not deny that France, as the owner of Algeria, 
and, consequently, the neighbor of Morocco, has a sjxvial 
interest in the enforcement of law and order within tlie last- 
named country, but she says that the me/jxurrv to be taken 
for that pur|H.FH- must not be determined by France alone. 


or by Frailer. Great Britain, and Spain in concert, but must 
la* defined and authorized by an international conference, in 
which not only the three power* mentioned, but Germany 
and all the oilier powers represented ill the Madrid Conference 
of 1880 -hall participate. Tin* Anglo-French ami Franco- 
Spani-li agreement*, then-fore, with reference to Morocco 
are now txuiceded |o lie waste pafx-r. except so far as by them 
Great Britain and Spain an- estopped from opposing the wishes* 
of France in tlie forthcoming conference. It may l»e that a 
majority of the signatories to the Madrid Convention, in- 
cluding Grmiany herself, will see tit t«> deb-gate to France 
tin* Hpceifie tutelary function in tin* Shcro-fian dominion.*, 
for which site is peculiarly qualified by proximity. On the 
other hand, we may lie quite certain that adequate precaution* 
will Ik- taken to prevent such a tutelary function from being 
applied to ll*e evolution of a French protectorate over Morocco. 

All that France is to gel will In* the right to avert disturbatic*-* 

«n her Algerian frontier. Her dream of reviving the Roman 
Empire in Northwest Africa will have to Is* renounced. 

A great many inferences, none of them very fluttering to 
the former direct* irate of the Equitable Life Assurance So- 
ciety, ore fo be drawn from the evidence given before Super- 
intendeiit IlKMiRU KH, of the State Insurance Department, 
in the course of his investigation into the affairs of tlie we 
eiety. The most important and mint obvious deduction is 
that some of the society's former managers acted with amazing 
disregard of the interests of policy-holders. Another inference 
is that tlie policy-holder and the public generally are eventual- 
ly to know all the facts connected with tlie management of 
this great company. The truth, whatever it may be, is slowly 
coming to tlie surface, mid tlie policy-holder, it would seem, 
is just now in a fair way to learn whether his interests have 
lux>n safeguarded or not. We think the volume of his knowl- 
edge was appreciably swelled by what he read in Su|**r- 
intemlent IIkniibickh's re|>ort a* published in the daily pres*. 

Ever since the appearance of the first cloud on the horizon 
of the Equitable many of the matters disclosed in detail tu 
the report of Mr. IIkvmkickk have been more or less con- 
vincingly iiimotmccd, but now they come ns sworn testimony 
from the high officials of the company. 

Archeologists and students of classical and Bible history 
have naturally read with interest the published account of 
the plan proposed by Sir Wii.ua xi Willa-ocks, lately director 
of reservoirs in Egypt, for the n-clninatiun of the once pro- 
verbially fertile plain? of Mesopotamia to tillage and civiliza- 
tion by meaiiR of extensive and scientific irrigation work*. 

Apparently he confounds Mesopotamia, historically so called, 
with the other and more southerly “land between tlie rivers.” 
to which the name Babylonia is more properly applied. TImiI. 
however, is n detail. If Babylonia enn be put once more 
under tlie plough, by u recurrence to flic old cunalizntion by 
which the surplus waters of the Euphrates and Tigris were 
turned to account, so. eventually, should Mesopotamia proper, 
though in the more northern wet ion of the latter region the 
conditions an- less favorable. Why ancient civilization* flour- 
ished in arid region* was lucidly explained by Mr. E. W. 

IIitjCAiui. Professor of Agriculture in the University of Cali- 
fornia, in a valuable contribution which he made in September, 
llKfcf. to the Xorfh American Rrrietr. The author of that 
article reminded u* that soils hi-c formed primarily hy the 
physical and chemical disintegration (weathering) of racks, 
and these prow-sac* continue in the soil mass. They result 
in the formation of a certain projiortion of water-soluble* 
cnnqHiUlids. chiefly of sodium and potassium, but also of 
calcium and magnesium. Win-rover abundant rains oi-eur more 
or less regularly throughout the year, these water-soluble com- 
pounds are leached out of the land, passing into the sub- 
drainage. and thence through springs, streams, and rivers 
into the sea. But whore the rainfall is si-anty — or where 
there i* no adequate artificial irrigation — this leaching can 
take place only imrtially or not at all: and then wc frequently 
find during die rainless season the salt* of potassium, sodium, 
and magnesium appearing u* a superficial “ bloom," or of- 
florcscence on the land surf ins', heing brought up by the 
evaporation of the soil-moisture — sometime* in such amounts 
as to prevent the growth of ordinary vegetation, and to permit 
only that of “saline” plant*. For. with tlie useful nutrieiil 
substance* (corresponding to the nutritive solutions artificially 

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compounded for the* purpose of growing plants experimentally), 
Qwlm or injurious ones, such as common nnd Glauber’s 
salt and wl-aoda. are left in tin* land. Of these so-called 
“alkali" lands, the “sage-brush” desert of Nevada is a fa- 
miliar example. Although, however, an excess of these salts 
is injurious to useful vegetation, it is obvious that where 
such caws does not occur, or can be minimized, there must 
le formed in the soils of arid regions accumulations of plant 
food whirh may render it possible to defer for a long time the 
nuil of artificial fertilization. Tim fact explains the high 
productiveness of irrigated himl in arid regions and the dense 
population supported within a comparatively limited area 
in sneient Babylonia and Mesopotamia. What was the rule 
in tlvse regions three or four thousand years ago is now 
exemplified in Californian irrigated colonies, where from ten 
to twenty acre* constitute the soil-unit offered to n family, 
instead of the forty to one hundred and sixty considered need- 
ful in the humid portion of the United States. 

No doubt the President makes too many speeches, but 
they are very goad speeches considering how many of them 
lie makes. We don’t wonder that ho makes a lot of them, 
because they give such immense satisfaction to the people 
he makes them to. and besides he delights to do it. His 
speech to the teachers at Ocean Grove on July 7. for example, 
rr* merited with grateful enthusiasm by an immense au- 
dience. There were fifty thousand people down there that 
day, the papers said, nnd a great many of them heard him. 
Moreover, lire teachers are very important people and well 
north talking to. And they got even with him that day. 
11c pleased them, and when Mrs. Iji.uk Dkvkkki’X Blank’s 
■laughter, in seconding a vote of thanks, called him M the most 
popular, the brst-loved man in the whole round earth,” un- 
doubtedly she pleased the President, in spite of his blushes, 
expost illation*, and remonstrances. Moreover, it is doubtful 
vJiethcr Mbs Blink inneh overstated the fact, for the Presi- 
dent is an extraordinarily popular human being. It is his 
advantage that society is a mirror which reflects the fare it 
sees, for the President almost always has a good time, and al- 
sjvB looks so. Mis salvation a* a sjieaker is the scope of his 
deliverances, lie can talk pretty well nlxnit anything front 
earthworms to kings. It j* not likely that he will ever make 
a great speech, but by many speeches not individually re- 
markable hi* luis made a great impression. Moreover, he does 
not weaken it by bis much speaking, but rather strengthens 
it. That is perhaps because it is a personal impression rather 
than an intellectual one. What he imparts is his spirit, his 
individuality. 


Some observer* complain that we Americans as a people ore 
getting to be too noisy and emotional; that there is altogether 
too much sound and fury about our contemporary demeanor. nnd 
that we ought to keep much quieter and do more hard think- 
ing. They accuse us of letting our energy expend itself in 
owusttioM, recriminations, exultations exaggerations, and 
•cctninatioM. It isn’t dignified, they tell us, to behave as 
»i* behave. They think we waste our capacity for moral 
indignntion in shrieking, instead of saving it up to regulate 
0,ir conduct. No doubt this impression is due to a much 
wi»h*r nnd more searching daily distribution of louder printed 
word* over a Inrgrr extent of territory to more folks who can 
wad than was erer known before in what Miss Blank ctril* 
"the whole round earth.” We hare the greatest apparatus 
for n-|ir-tition that ever was. Whenever the President, for 
example. Apeak*. it gets not merely into the paper, hut into 
a thousand paper*, and we have it with and without pictures 
and with all degree* of more or less pyrnteehnicnl head-, 
lines at breakfast the nnxt morning. List week when all the 
* onuneneement orators let loose we got reports of the views 
of one. nor of fire, but of at least fifty. It is not that we 
an* so voluble or vocally obstreperous; it is five reiteration 
nod o virlsmtiiifi nf the newspapers that make the din. As 
if llie new* columns and the editorial columns of them were 
vociferous enough, Lawson lately contributed a new note 
by his fulminating advertisements. 

We are a calm, phlegmatic people, considering what our 
mind* are fed on. Indeed, it is n question whether we an* 
not too calm and too prone to feel that we have accomplished 
0Br political and moral duty when we have perused the 


head-linos and cartoons in live newspapers, and the reform 
pieces in the ten-cent magazines, and tho President’s latest 
assurance that it is more necessary to be good and prolific 
and impatient of frauds than to be rich. If we read better 
reading than we do, and spent our strength more in trying 
to lie personally honed and not so much examining the details 
of our neighbor's misconduct and looking for easy money for 
ourselves, very likely we would be better people. But being 
such ns we are, our reading, such as it is, probably does ns 
good. Everything is specialized in modem life. That 
vigilance which is traditionally tho price of liberty (and also 
of low taxation nnd economical government) seems to have 
become a specialty of the public prints. If t hey screech, we 
can stand it provided they give us information, and that they 
do, and those that do it best get their reward. We are readier 
to condone faults of taste or manner or even of accuracy in 
our newspaper* than a failure to tell us what we are entitled 
to know about what is going on. 


Our weekly contemporary the Nation was forty years old 
on tho 6th of July. Its anniversary was celebrated by 
tlie gift of a silver vase from nearly two hundred of its 
contributors to the literary editor. Mr. Wendell Phillips 
Garrison. Mr. Garrison has been its literary editor since its 
foundation in IfWUJ. The list of contributors ns published in 
the Evening Pont of July fl was intended to include all persons 
now living who had written for the Nation since it was 
started. It is not complete, the Pott says, but as it stands 
it constitutes an impressive roll of erudition and literary 
ami critical ability which, we presume, many editors will file 
away for future reference. Since Mr. Godmn became editor 
of the Evening Post, the Nation has been published in co- 
operation with that psi|>er as a weekly edition of its editorial 
departments. Persons who consecrate a portion of every day 
to the assimilation of the Pont incidentally get the microbe 
of the Nation into their system*, and therefore do not have 
to read the Nation separately. We presume that that arrange- 
ment. though highly convenient, hit* modified to some extent 
tlic Nation'* diffusion. In the Boston district thirty years 
ago. and especially in Harvard College, it was mutter of 
perennial dispute whether tlie “ pessimism ” imputed to the 
Nation was the right sort of literary pabulum for rising 
American patriots to feed their minds upoii, Such discussion 
has been less prevalent since the time when the paper ceased 
lo he the chief wea|Min with which the late Mr. Gorkin gut 
angry with the wicked and smote them in his wrath. It was 
exceedingly readable wrath. Of thirty-four distinguished con- 
tributors whose names were set down forty years ago in the 
Nation’s prospectus, those who survive are Professor C. E. 
Norton, Professor Ooi-DWIN Smith. Professor B. C. Gilman, 
and Mr. Uknuy James. One of them. Professor Norton, 
wrote the note of congratulation and ackiiowhslgment that, 
accompanied the gift to Mr. Garriisos. 

We spoke last week with dome concern at finding the name 
of T. W. ITiooinron signed, uniting otliers, to a call for a 
school to encourage the study of socialism in our colleges. 
Our observations were based on a piece published in tlie 
Boston Transcript. Colonel HkioivsoN ha* since made gentle 
complaint to the Transcript about its said piece, averring that 
it ha* mixed up the aims of the organization whose call he 
signed with tliose of the Collectivist Society in New York. 
He knew nothing of the Collectivist. Society, he said, hut it 
aremed to have aims which ought hot to bp confused with 
those lie was backing. What he is after, it aroma, is simply 
lo have courses in socialism given in (he Colleges, UK j* a ]. 
ready done at Harvard, on I ha ground that it is altogether 
ton important a present -time tendency to la* ignored. Colonel 
Ilmr.iNsoN think* it is worth studying. It is. undoubtedly, 
if only for tlie better protection of aoriety against the extremes 
advocated by jicrsons who call ihcmsclvcs socialists. Wherein 
the call which Colonel HhmiINRON signed was. perhnpa. some- 
what mislowding. so far as la* was concerned, wn* in that it 
exhibited his name in a short list with those of (War Lovell 
Taira:*. Clarence 8. Harrow, B. O. Flowkr, Jack London, 
nml other*, who are more or less associated with intentions to 
take society up by the roots ami plant it ugaiii toperiib* down, 
hoping that it* growth will he more satisfactory that way! 
There is no reason to suppose that Colonel IIiooinson oo Un ! 
tenancea such intentions. 


IOC# 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


The European Situation 

When tlir Crimean war waa ended in 1 Hat' hy the Treaty of 
I’aiin it required no |»i «>|«lict to foresee that material changes in 
llm condition of Europe were impending. It in true that Great 
Hrituin, having Uvn left prneticully in the lurch lay her Krenrli 
ally, hud quintal l>v her waste of blnn«| nnd treasure next to nolle 
in# for herself and but little for her Turkish pirot/fjf. Hut 
Sakhjsux III., who began a» an adventurer, hatl vindicated hi* 
title to a place among legitimate sovereign*, and had acquired a 
hold mi the imagination of Frt'Ui'hineii by humbling the greatest 
of the three Continental power*. Russia. Austria, nnd Prussia, 
to whieh hi* uncle had owed hi* downfall. That Austria'* turn 
would come next was evident, for. in view of her recent exhibition 
of ingratitude, it wa* not to he expected that a Kii*-iun nutoerat 
would ever again commit the blunder of which Nicholas II.. like 
-Ion* Siiukhki. had hron guilty, the blunder of wiving Vienna. 
Even had he wished, the new C/ar. Alkxanukk II., could hardly 
have averted thr Franco- Austrian war of which gave lami- 

I tardy to Victor Kmuamm.. and began the unification of Italy: 
for not only lutd the Russian army and navy liren *en*lbly weak- 
cned bj- the struggle with the wotern power*. but the Russian 
ruler was confronted with pressing problems of internal reform, 
the gravest of which was to be solved in ItMlJ by the idiolition of 
serfdom. The deliverance of central Kurope from the pressure 
which had liecn exercised by the great northern empire since ISIS 
also paved the way for the reorganization of most of (Jcrmany 
under Prii*->itin hegemony, and for the recovery of Hungary’* 
traditional right* under the dual constitution conceded to the 
HAl**nt'ltiU realms after the hattfc of Sndowa. What nobody pule 
lii 1y predicted in IRAQ. and what in all likelihood wo reel y any one 
privately foresaw, was that men would see within fifteen year* 
the ignominious prostration, dismemberment. and s|Mv|iation of 
Frants* at the hards of Prussia, presumably the weakest of the 
great Napoleon's inexorable enemies. Vet the distribution of 
Innindarii-* and power, which we now liebold on the Continent of 
Europe, is the direct, tl»* logical, and the inevitable outcome of 
cireurnstanres and vicissitudes for the inception of which we must 
go link to the Crimean war. 

The present war in the Far Ea*t ha* affected far more decisive- 
ly the actual nnd prospective influence of Russia on her European 
ncighlmrv The Russian navy is practically extinct, except as re- 
gards the battle-ships in the Mack ?*en. which, a* recent experi- 
ence has shown, arc far from being trustworthy. The Car’s army, 
also, has liecn grievously depleted, and the reputation of its gen- 
eral* has sunk to a low chh. for. in the roursc of seventeen 
month*' fighting with the Japanese, they have not a single victory 
to their credit. Moreover, Russia’* financial rc*oiircc* have under- 
gone a serious strain since Fehruary, 1 lWi4. and they will he taxed 
murh more severely to meet the huge money indemnity which the 
Mikado is certain to demand. Tlie Romanoff dynasty for year* 
to come will lie impotent to play a great part in Europe or in 
Asia, even should it prove equal to roping with a popular up- 
rising which look* more formidable every day. 

What will happen in central nml western Eurojw when the 
dread of interference front the Muscovite rolo*»UH cease* to cheek 
the ambitious dreams of sovereigns nnd the hope* of nationality? 
Have the ('hristinn Seths, liiilgnrs. Greek*, and Rumanians a 
belter ehatirr. or a worse chance, than they had in IH7K of see- 
ing the Turk ex|H*lled from Constantinople? Can the Magyars in- 
crease the privileges which they extorted when their Austrian 
toaster wn* brought low in I Slid : or would they be likely to find 
themselves in a much more critical position should the nine or 
ten million Germnn-spcfiking subjects of the Hapmh no Kaiser 1* 
incorporated in the German Empire? Would Italy’s hope of se- 
curing the Trent ino, Trieste, Dalmatia, and Albania la* furthered, 
or deferred indefinitely, by the gravitation of Germany toward 
the Adriatic and tlie .Egr-an? Wlmt i* France to do, now that 
her lliiivinii ally ha* liecome. from n military view-point, too weak 
to render a quid pro quo for the pecuniary aid which the St. 
Petersburg government is continually seeking? It in idle to say 
that in Great Hrituin the French could find a substitute for what 
Russia wa* imagined to he Itut yesterday, for the utmost that 
Great Hrituin could do would Is* to lend idii|M and money, of whieh 
France already ha* a sufficiency. Of cooperative army corps, whereof 
France might have desperate need should she find herself in- 
volved once more in a duel with Germany. lu-r Rritish neighbor, 
however friendly, could furnish next to ticnc. Whether. Is-hind the 
rampart of their fleet, the Itrilish Isle* could or could not defend 
themselves Against invasion, i* a question which for Frenchmen 
ha* only an n endemic interest. What rfoca concern them is live 
certainty that England, under her present military system, could 
not place over 2A,(KI0 effective soldiers on the Continent, and that 
long In-foie these had disembarked a huge German army would 
have seized strategic coigns of vantage. How i,« it possible, then, 
to attach to Great Rtilain any military, as distinguished from 
naval and financial, importance in Continental warfare under the 
existing conditions? Merely a* a paymaster, indeed, England 
played a great role for a couple of decade* in the war against 


the French Republic and French Empire. Rut of what use would 
I** her money-ling* to-day? The Russian giant ha* Is-en ham- 
strung, and dare not lift mi much a* a linger ngnin»t Germany 
lest an insurrection in Poland should lie encouraged from lu*rlin. 
A* for Austria and Italy, even if they »ympu thiwd with France, 
they would find themselves Itound hand and font to the German 
Empire by the Triple Alliunrs*. 

I’nder such exceptional conditions — much more extraordinary 
and one-sided than were those which followed the Crimean war — 
wlmt except the purely spiritual restraint of public opinion ran **-t 
iMUinds to the aggrandizement which the Eiu|MT»r WILLIAM might 
attain in Europe? Were he a* little aim-milde |o moral inflm-m-i « 
us was Petek tub Gbcat, or Ciiaklkh XII., or Fkeiiekick the 
Great, or NvPWjgnx I., wlmt i* there in the way of material force 
that could circumscribe the expansion of the German Empire west- 
ward or southward? In view of thr existing situation, what do 
the guarantees of Holland’s neutrality amount to? Wlmt do Ref 
giurn’*? What do Switzerland’*? What. r\«*cpt magnanimity or 
mercy, preserve* the independence of Denmark, of Norway, or of 
Sweden? How long would the Ottoman Caliph retain hi* last 
foothold in southeastern Europe if tlie German Em|s-ror should in- 
timate that it wa* time for him to go? We have just wen that 
the Mediterranean | lower* — Great llritain. France. Spain, nnd 
Italy — which Mippo-cd themselves at lilwrtv to enter into an 
arrangement between themselves with regard to the future of 
Morocco, have liecn sternly brought to t**»W liv a peremptory' notice 
from lteilin, am! informed that their agieement is but waste 
paper unless reviewed and certified at an international conference, 
whieh, practically, lias been convoked by the Emperor William II. 

I’nder all tin* circiinistanrr* must we not acknowledge that, since 
the temporal? effacement of Russia from the list, there are left 
only four great power* on earth, to wit. Japan in the Orient : 
Germany on the European Continent: England, by virtue of her 
insular inviolability and her globe-encircling possessions: and the 
l ’nited Stales in the New World? Ami if there Is* left also any 
where a moral influence that can stay the arm of the strong 
and «ay to the seemingly omnipotent. Thus far shall thou go nml 
no further, must we not look for it on thi* aide of tlie Atlantic, 
and recognise its source in Washington? It wa* an American Sec- 
retary of State who reamed China’s territorial integrity. May it 
not In* reserved for an Ameriean President in this, their hour of 
imminent danger, to safeguard the inde|ie»denre of many a weak 
European Mate? 


The Scandal In the Department of Agriculture 

The exposure of the frauds perpetrated in the Post-office De- 
partment nnd in the lainr) • office of tin* I Vpart 1111 * 11 ! of the In- 
tel ior has l»een followed hy the proof of the existence of a corrupt 
ring which hn* hern using the llureau of Statistic* of the Agri- 
cultural Department for private benefit. There is no room for 
rascal* under the Rmmkvki.t administration, and we muv expect 
to ms* n drastic Investigation of the scandal and a ruthless pun- 
ishment of the delinquents. The fa«-t». so far n» they have yet 
Wn divulged, may In* lumlenwil a* follow*: Rome time ago Mr. 
Rhii.vro Ciifatiiam. of Atlanta, Georgia, secretary of the South- 
ern Cot ton -growers' Association, charged, in «n interview with 
Secretary WlLMHt, that the figure* relative to cotton crop* puli- 
liMied hy the Hunan of KtatiMir* were not only manipulated for 
the purpose of affecting the cxifton-inarket at different times, hut 
were coiiuniinientisl in advance hy Kmvtx S. Holme*, associate 
statistician, for use in a speculative way. to a New York broker, 
with an eye to the benefit of Holmes and prolaibly of other per- 
son*. Seen*! - service agent* were directed to investigate the ac- 
cusation. nml their r>-|>ort via* made public on July 8. On the 
same day Hot .mew. who previously had been *u*|M*nded. wa* dis- 
missed. Tin* secret -service agents found that during nearly the 
entire cotton-reporting season of 1!«3 Hoimes was in charge of 
the Hurejiu of Statistic* tin the absence of Chief - Statistician 
I f v hk, who wn* in Europe! , and that since that time lie hud had 
iii-ecs* |n the rejsirt* of the field agent* who furnished the data 
upon which the department's cotton forecast* are baaed. They 
also found that, alteration* had lion made In the figure* of rate of 
these ugcuts, and that these alterations appeared in Hot. MR*’* 
handwriting. They further learned from one L. S. Van Riitw. » 
rotton broker in New York, that he became ucqunintrd with 
Hoi.mes in August, Putt, and was informed by the hitter that lie 
could get information concerning the rotton crop in advance of 
the publication of the olUrial figures. Some letters produced hy 
Van Ripkil whieh. :i* lie alleged. were written by Holmes, were 
signed with the initial II. One of them, whieh ha* been pub 
lished, distinctly indiiYitc* the nature of the relationship between 
the writer and the recipient of the letter. Other letter* and tele 
grams divulged bore the nutiul F.. and an* mid hy the •ecrel- 
*i-rvlce agents to have been written hy one F. A. PWKHAM. ol 
Xi-w York, Nearly all of these contained informat ion eonrorning 
the forthcoming rotton report, together with inM ructions to ***11 
or Iniy on tint Cotton Exchange according |o tlie information 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


furnisliisl. anti nil o| them closed with the admonition to destroy 
l lie letter or telegram. The secret-service agents ascertained that 
the " l*.” mentioned in one of lIol.MKs'x letter* referred to the said 
I'rtkiiam. and thut the two nun w-cic in eonfidt-nlial relntiniM, 
IIuijies, when examined. admitt<xl thut on hi* visit to New York 
hie hotel hill* were generally |Miil hy Van Itier.n or Pm kiiam, mid 
hr acknowledged alw that hr hfltl received from Van Itirr.U $71,000 
in two instalment*, which was paid, however, he asserted, for his 
interest in a minim* property. It seems to have been demonstrated 
that IhK.ME*, while receiving only it small salary from the Fed- 
nal government, lias grown exceedingly rich in the course of a few 
)Mn, 

It appear* that when the existence of a leak in the cotton-crop 
report* was brought to the knowledge of Sccretu ry Wit-sox he 
was greatly shocked, and exliihited ns miicli incredulity ns war 
cviaied hy Po»timt«trr <ienenil Pay.nk on nn analogous occasion. 
He had Himself invented the system of collecting and compiling 
the report* from the cotton field, and regarded it ns absolutely 
iniauinr from fraud. When the charge was made that the official 
data of the department were privately divulged and even tain- 
fered with he »« said to have shown a good deal of irnputienee. and 
In have declared tlmt n leak was :i physical and mathematical iiu- 
l»— ihility. Now. however, that the betrayal of trust has ticen 
I'tnaght home to llol.v R*, the Sei-retary ha* not only removed that 
oflirinl. but Mem eager to subject hint to criminal prosecution, 
*HImiu"Ii District-Attorney Dka<ii, nf the District of Columbia, 
who** leiignation. hy the way, is in the hands of the President, 
tins given an opinion in which he expresses dnuht ns to whether 
a Fulcra] functionary can be prosecuted for divulging secret in- 
f.'rnulinn. It if. of coui«c. undisputed that the government can 
prrarculp for conspiracy to itcfruud. hut as yet I lot. Mrs is the 
only employee caught. The officials of the Southern Cotton -grow- 
«n' AworutkiB insist tint Chief - Statistician IItoe should not 
U> allowed to remain ut the head of the Itureau of Statistics, in- 
j-tt. ill'll a* he bad an opportunity of discovering what IIoi.mkk 
was doing, hut failed to secure any knowledge of what Wn* going 
i*. Up to the hour when wn write, Secretary Wn.au Jt has w-enn-d 
to hold Mr. Hrtw blanM-lc**, and to regard any further invest ign- 
lui of Ihe scandal a* !Uiprrlltioiie. He has not yet heard from 
th-ter Ibtr. however. We venture to predict that 1 ’resilient 
liwevKir will ileal with the Department of Agriculture precisely 
** he dealt with the Post-office Department and with the Land- 
ufllre hraorii «f the Departiuent of the Interior. That habit of sit- 
ting no the lid. which <eenis to be voitlivmed with Nome officials, 
nirvts with no indulgence from the present t hief Magistrate, ft 
i> no fault of his that tin- Federal government was trot clean 
shra he hemme the head of it, hut he is determined to /care it 
ibsa, ami lie ha* alicady gone a long way toward the «iwm- 
l>! Mum-ill of that result, Tliere are rumors that the Pension 
iUurau will he the next subject of inquiry. 


Our Degree Factories 

It w repotted thut the faculty of Ynlr University voted, just 
hrtnre the dose of Ihe academic year, to ap|*iint n committee 
with the duty of investigating the matter of conferring 
degree* at Yale — whether bused on right principles, whether rx- 
wwire, and whether properly under the control nf the faculty, or 
improperly under the control of a eor]M>niti»n not Is-st ipmliricd 
t» make awards. 

ft i» gratifying to note that one of our ohlest ami largest- uni- 
versities t* ili>jMMc<l to face this industry of degree-manufacturing 
hy our hist it ut ion* of learning and put it mi a more rational basin. 
Mot that Yale or the other New England college* me conspicuous 
offender*. Indeed, this year— -with the exception of Tuft* Col- 
they hive done admirably so far as the nunilicr of degree* 
o-nferred got*, and there ha* been a decided improvement also in 
the ap|iriipriMtenc«« of the honors conferred. The most prolific 
f i the degree factories now, as formerly, arc in the Middle States 
*nd tin- interior— denominational i-ollcges in the main, for the 
t*tate nnirersitirs are chary of their honor*. 

The country over, however, there is need nf reform in two re- 
«pni»— in conferring the degree of Doctor of Divinity arid in giv- 
ing the title of LL.D. So common has the title of *' l)r.‘‘ lw- 
7* n *- as applied to clergymen, that it makes us a laughing-stock 
in th* estimation of British and Continental scholars mid edit* 
«!«*•. and can*#* many of our aide*! and moat refilled clergymen 
a* home to shrink from accepting the honor even when it is de- 
**md or proffered hy institution* from which it i- a mark of 
l "‘*" T ,0 rcwiie it, Harvard gave no degree of this sort this 
.’ear, Amherst but me, and Yale, Dartmouth, and William* lint 
Ian each. This *hom restraint compand with the record *»f a 
•hraiie ago. Visit mu.-inro of this policy will benefit instil 111 km* 
awl in-ipients of degree*. 

When it mines In the degree of Doctor of laws, which W«* e.m- 
rr ™* 0,1 b'-* than ninety person* this yiur. then i*infli*»oli 

»or«e imfunnibd. Scantling the list, urn- rinlt/c* us never be- 


fore the fact that the " punishment doe* not fit the crime,” or the 
title the recipient; and that it is imperative thut our educational 
niithnritic* devise another title which will stand for. if not lie culled. 
Doctor of Achievement, for that i* what the overworked title of 
LL.D. practically now means. 

Here is a list of the callings in which men who now are Doctors 
of Ijiwh by the grace of our colleges at the recent i'otnmeneeiuenl 
season have attained fame, that in not a few cases >« solely local; 
naturalist, clergyman, text - Imok writer, nrchiteet, <uni|Nirer «f 
music, general in the army, diplomat, economist, in*urancr-*siinpiiny 
president, physicist, metallurgist, physician, missionary to the 
heathen, editor, si-ulplor, astronomer, and educator. The title 
rightly goes to great, lawyers and eminent jurists. Federal and 
State; it may with propriety in some cases Is- given to diplomatists 
— American and foreign ; it can Is* stretched on occasion to reward 
distinguished public nflkial* who administer or devise law*. But 
what pertinency ha* it to a composer of music or a naturalist, 
unless th» wiird law i* to Im- extrnded to include everything that 
deserils-s the workings of cause ami effect? 

One change for the better to Is* *ern in the settlement of this 
important detail of our academic life i* the more frnpieul selection 
of the title of Doctor of Letter* or Doctor of Humanities for those 
who are distinctly in the class of author*, or who are contributor* 
to social welfare, through literature, education, administration, 
and the like. For musirian* or composer* of music there is a 
sjM-rial degree, well established in the theory and practice of degree- 
giving; and when niusieiuiis are to lie honored, us Sir Howard 
K l oak. of England, was by Yale this year— the degree of Doctor 
of Music — it should In* used us Yale did. Men of rniim-nre in 
the scientific world can Is- more fitly honored with titles t lint in- 
dicate scientific attainment. 

If. as seems likely, there is to lie more frequent bestowal of 
academic honors by American educational institutions on Euro- 
pean*, and rice reran, it. behoove* us to have stricter standard* and 
a more aeeuriitc terminology limn we have hud in the past. The 
duty is especially ineumlient on I’rotestuiit institution* to derate 
the title of Doctor of Divinity to something approarhing it* sig- 
nificance in Europe nr among |{nniun Catholic* the world over. 
It should represent acknowledged contribution* to tin* science of 
religion, or to a Biblical scholarship, or very ernispicuott* eminence 
as a preacher of religion. Like the degree of M.A., ns formerly 
uwnnh-d. the title of D.D. must he taken out of the "in course" 
realm and put. in the field of proven wottli. Reform luis Imh-ii 
registered in this way during the past decade, hut much remains 
to he done. 

If the control of the matter can Is- put where it belong* — mnrr 
with those who are scholars and lc*» with those who administer 
colleges, with the facultie* of our institutions und not with their 
trustees — the reform will he hastened. Sehidur* will hesitate longer 
over assenting to proiiosition* which are a species of institutional 
politic*, and that frequently of a low type. They will not vote 
to make Doctor* of Ijisvs nut of Governor* solely because t bey arc 
in nilicc, nor dub clergymen Doctor* of Divinity who do nnt know 
the difference between AiiMiMl'H and Cai.vi.n. They will not 
trade n Commencement degree for donations — prospective or in 
hand — to eul lege treasuries. All these thing* collrge triistis-s 
have dune, still do. and will do. 

Whatever the future, one detail nf present dnv method which is 
increasing in it* use deserve* praise. The custom of giving reasons 
why degree* are ronlmnl, ls-gun at Harvard hy l’reshlent Ei.iot 
n few year* ago. make* for reform and for higher standard*, just 
a* publicity does everywhere. Not every pic-nli-tii cun state 
what a candidate lias done and why the degree is conferred with 
the art which Presidents Ki.nrr of Harvard and Tickkr of Dart- 
mouth conspicuously employ; lait all pre*idents can adopt the policy 
of publicity and oslr-isorfi iw appraisal. 


King Edward’s Birthday 

Tm: rt-lelinilinii of King KmVAtm's bill inlay lids year on dune .10 
at all “ home stations." mid on November u nt all ether stations, 
is luoiight alsHit by a cut inti* coincidence of date*. Khward \ II 
wn* Isirn on November IH41, while lsui«bin was celebrating 
the inaugiir.it imi of iu-r l.nnl Mayor. For more than half a 
century, up In Ihe lime of KnWAgo'ft acce«sion, the great throngs 
from the Ea*t End have Iss-u in the habit of sjiending the evening 
of Lord Mayor’s Day. after witiM-**lng the pmeession, among the 
fashionable \V«-*t End «hnps, where the patriotic tradesmen were 
wont to illiiiidniite their phires of husim*** in honor of (he birth- 
day of the Prince of Wales, so that it is liith- wnn«lcr that ,i (1 ne 
of the people got the impression that the i I lion ination* in o-«s.g 
nit ion of the heir to tin- throne were merely a wind-up in o,e 
demoii-lr.it i- hi over the laird Mayor. While Enwxun might have 
put up with these eiih-lilions while he was only Prims- of Wales 
il is too much to he l*>i m- now Hint In- is on ihe throne, and as 
Imnilon would rise in revolt rather (linn cluing* laonl Mayor’* 
Day, the King’* birllnlny had In Is- uiovisl in-Pad. 


IOI1 


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The Man behind the Panama Canal 

By Henry Harrison Lewis 


T IIKRK U a cloud, lit 
present no larger 
than a man’* hand, 
on the political 
h o r i x o n of the 
I'nitrd States, It may dis- 
ap|M*itr and lie forgotten, or 
It iiuiv increase until it Is*- 
comes n national question 
overshadowing in importance 
every other question of state. 

That question is the build- 
ing of the Panama Canal. 

There in no denying that 
the Panama quest ion contains 
some of the ingredient* neces- 
sary to a grave national scan- 
dal. The entire political 
horizon of the country docs 
not offer a aubjevt more sus* 
rcptilile to discussion and at- 
tuck upon the nationnl ad- 
ministration than the canal. 

1 can go even further and 
say that it is entirely possi- 
ble for the Panama ('anal 
question to become the most 
important political feature 
dominating the next Presi- 
dential campaign. This state- 
ment. strong as it may seem, 
can easily lx* proved. 

In the first place, (he 
Spooner bill, when it became 
ojMTativc and appropriated a 
definite sum of money for n 
definite purpose, saddled upon 
the President of the United 
States the entire responsi- 
bility connected with the suc- 
ccsaful const ruction of the 
Pannnin Canal. The S|MMincr hill did not provide for the con- 
struction of (he canal by the United States — it directly calls upon 
the President to do it. There i* no equivocation, no allowance* 
for insurmountable obstacles, no liNipholc of ess-ape, but a direct 
I'ommand to the Pn-sident of the United States to “build the 
canal.” 

The task, then, confronting President Roosevelt is to nehirve a 
success where France failed, and to win for his country the glory 
denied the French Republic. If lie fails, what will lie the effect 
upon his reputation nnd what the effect ii|mu the fuim* of the 
Cniled States? If he fails, what will la* the effect upon the next 
Presidential election, ami what the effect upon the future of the 


Republican party? The task 
is estimated to require in it« 
accomplishment at least eight 
years. President Roosevelt ‘w 
term of service will end in 
half that time, so it will seem 
that he must share the re- 
sponsibility for a possible fail- 
ure or for a possible suc-ecaa 
with his successor in the 
Presidential chair. 

The greater nnd more im- 
portant part of the task will 
rest with President Roosevelt. 
The vast ami serious work of 
preparation is his. and as he 
builds so will the canal suc- 
ceed or fail. It is reasonable 
to suppose that by the spring 
of M. when President 
Roosevelt's term of office ex- 
pires. the fate of tlu* cnnnl 
will have Wen settled to a 
great extent. It will have 

n ssed from the stage of pre- 
iiinary experiment* nnd san- 
itary construction, and will 
have Mitered tl|mn the stage of 
actual ii instructive work 
along the lines of a settled 
policy. Still, there will re- 
main grave responsibility for 
the Miieeewaor to the I ’resi- 
dential chair, and it will Is* 
necessary for the safety anil 
further glory of the Repub- 
lican party to rlcct one who 
will l»c able to complete the 
enormous task. 

President Roosevelt under- 
stand* the situation In tin- 
last degree, and he feels the enormous responsibility thrust u|m>ii 
hint by the Spooner bill, lie accepted that responsibility as In* 
has accepted every task, desirable or undesirable, placed tl|sm 
bint since he entered public life. If he were asked tomorrow 
what hi* part of the great task i* he would answer without Imi- 
tation. “ Finding the men.” 

Here is the key note of the whole situation. President Roose- 
velt's reputation, the future of the Republican pirty. the national 
honor, all rest upon President Roosevelt'* one task iff finding the 
proper men to carry mil the great work. The sanilury condition* 
of the isthmus, thr question of a sea-level canal or a canal with 
locks, thr policy of lulling supplies at home or abroad, the 





Cungtructing the Telephone Line along the Canal I tout c 


Looking La a heard doirn the gnat Cult bra Cut 


1(M2 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


enormous rogitwrine prop- 
exit inn presented by the 
Ctilrbr* rut — thr whole 
Lrn in 1 1 1 of detail*) small and 
great — are but secondary in 
ini|Mirtjiiiee to the President's 
one U«k of ” finding the 
men ''! 

What has he done in this 
connection to date? First, 
he lias found hi* successor, 
the man who will take up 
the reins of responsibility 
when he lay* them dovrn in 
11100, the man who will con- 
tinue the work and bring to 
a successful issue the great 
task. That man in Klihu 
Root. 

The President's selection of 
Mr. Root for the Neeretarv- 
sliip of State undoubtedly 
was influenced by Mr. Runt's 
well-known inti rest in canal 
maltrrs, ami hrcuuse he 
neemeii to la* thr man of all 
men for the position. Mr. 

Itout's acceptance of the 
State portfolio means a com- 
part Istwi-cn the President 
and himself, with the build- 
ing of the Panama Canal as 
one of the priori |>a I objects. 

Thr appointment materially 
strengthens the l*rcsidcnt's 
position as responsible head 
of the canal enterprise, as it 
places at his servire a lieu- 
tenant of rare intellect and 
remarkable executive ability. 

The President's next se- 
lection and probably first in importance i* William H. Tatt, Scc~- 
retary of War. Mr* Taft is at the head of canal all.iirs by special 
warrant from the President. His inclinations, his ability, and the 
machinery of his olTice all are in favor of the canal administra- 
tion, ami whereas Secretary Root will handle the diplomatic ques- 
tions concerning the canal and will lie consulted on ull very mi- 
|>orUnt ami broad subjects. Secretary Taft will look alter the 
multitude of details. 

And now appear* another factor in the situation, a factor which, 
strange to say. is almost entirely unknown to the general public. 
In his search for men to assist him in carrying out the great 
work the Prcsidimt lias had the uid of a man who not only has 
Issii en it iircicd with the Punama Canal question for the |Mtsi 
eleven years, but who is primarily responsible for the selection 
of the Panama route by tlie government. That man is William 
Nelson Cromwell, general counsel to the New Panama Canal Com- 


pany. the Panama Railway, 
the Republic of Panama, the 
Fiscal Commissioner of Pana- 
ma, adviser to Secrets ry-of- 
War Tall, and adviser on 
Puniima mutters to President 
Roosevelt. 

Although little known to 
the general public. Mr. Crom- 
well is extraordinarily well 
posted on muttirs |*i taming 
to the Panama Canal. The 
history of his connection with 
isthmian affairs is extremely 
interesting. There is not 
enough s|Nirr in Hu* article 
to give more than a liriet sum 
maty of tlie laris, but it is 
well to know something of 
the record of the man whose 
interest is piirummint in tlie 
ulTairs ot tlie Panama Canal, 
and whose advirr i* of the 
greatest value to President 
Roosevelt. 

Mr. Cromwell's first eon 
nccliun wit li the canal oc- 
curred in 18!>4. when lie was 
appointed general counsel in 
the Cnited Slates to the New 
Panama Canal Company, 
which succeeded the old ur 
Ijessep*) company. In the 
course ol his duties Mr. Crom- 
well discovered that tlie ngitu 
tion in favor of a route across 
Nicaragua was attracting fa- 
vorable attention in the 
Cnited States, and that it of- 
fered a distinct menace to his 
clients, the New Panama 
Canal Company, who were endeavoring to build a canal across 
the isthmus. It was apparent to him that the building of two 
canals would Ik- unprofitable to each, and that il the Nicaragua 
project wua carried out liy a rich and powerful nation like 
America the private enterprise of the French coiii|»any would 
sulfcr. Mr. Cromwell was anxious to protect the interesi* of his 
clients in a manner entirely consistent with the public policy of 
the Cnited States, recognizing that u|sin no other theory could 
thr Panuimi Company succeed in its undertaking. As an Amer- 
ican citizen he frit that he owed every allegiance to his country, 
and that it was his duty to thoroughly satisfy himself that the 
Panama route whs the beat In-fore furthering its interests. To 
this end lie bripiii a careful ami exhaustive study of thr entire 
subject, with the result that he finally convinced himself of the 
merits of the Panama route in every particular. 

A careful survey of the field was not reussuring Public 




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II A R r E R ' S WEEKLY 


sentiment wan rnliffly in fa- 
vor of Nicaragua. In the 
United States the very word 
Nicaragua was n synonym 
for an isthmian canal. When 
u canal was mentioned in the 
press, in CungrtM, on the 
lecture platform, or in general 
conversation, it was under- 
stood that the Nicaragua 
routp was the one under dis- 
cussion. The New Ihmama 
Canal Conijwiny was pur- 
suing a private enterprise, 
and was supremely indifferent 
to public opinion outside of 
France and the republic of 
Colombia. The result of this 
policy was a degree of igno- 
rance concerning the Panama 
Canal whieii caused even well- 
known and well - informed 
statrsnien to lielieve that the 
Panama “ ditch." us they con- 
tempt uoiisly culled it. was an 
abandoned enterprise, almost 
forgotten extent for the malo- 
dorous scandal which had at- 
tended its early history. 

Mr. Cromwell's first duty 
was to dispel this ignorance 
and to give widespread pub- 
licity to the real conditions 
on the isthmus. Ity working 
practically night and clay he 
finally aroused the dim-tors, 
and a campaign of education 
was inaugurated. The first 
illustrated |iumphlet sent out 
received want attention save 
from u very few member* of 
Congress. Tlio Nicaragua 
forces inuiiediately t ruined 
their guns iiimui the com- 
pany and. headed by Senator 
John T. Morgan, Is-gan lire pa- 
rat ions to *' scotch the PuiMiun Het’|M'iit.'* as one of them remarked. 
Now followed a fight which has no parallel in bitterness in the 
annals of the country. Mr. Cromwell was accused from the Is- 
ginning of attempting to unload upon the country « discredited 
and utterly worthless enterprise. In his efforts to defend his 
cause he was pilloried by the press of the country ami In the 
halls of Congress. Senator Morgan openly accused him of main- 
taining a lobby in Washington, and even went to the extent of 
huviug committees appointed to investigate the lobby ami punish 
those interested in it. Mr. Cromwell persisted, however. After 
great effort he jicrsuudcd Representative Hepburn, chairman of 
the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, to give him a 
public hearing. 'Hie hearing was held in January, 18!l!», and. al- 
though the Panama advocates were given scant attention, the 
hearing really resulted in enlisting for Panainu the powerful us- 
aistnnee of the late Speaker Heed. 

The Nicaragua bill, however, was passed by the House by a 


very large majority, and Mr. 
Cromwell found himself con- 
fronted by the task of pre- 
venting its |M»sagc in the 
Senate. His successful efforts 
in enlisting the aid of the 
iatr Senator Huntiu and Con- 
gressmen Iturton and < 'a noon 
arc well known. The Nica- 
ragua hill was killed in the 
Senate, and after many weary 
months of delay and discour- 
agement the lentous Walker 
Commission was ap|siinte<|, 
which finally resulted in the 
acceptance of the Panama 
route. 

In achieving a triumph for 
the Punmiui route. Mr. Crom- 
well fought practically alone. 
There were at rayed again-t 
him a couibim-J clique of men. 
conditions, and circumstances 
that has no canal in history. 
lU-ginning in IKIM. there ha* 
not been un hour in. the day 
nor a day in the week that 
he has not devoted his waking 
thoughts to the great task. 
When he rclind ut night 
triumphant over one obstacle 
hr found another i-onfronting 
him in the morning. Not 
only did lie have to coinUit a 
hostile press and an adverse 
public opinion, but it waa 
necessary for him to direct 
the negotiating of interna- 
tional treaties, lie hud a host 
of enemies at home and a host 
even in Colombia. More than 
one Ktiro|n-un power fought 
him. and to-day. after victory 
seems assnretl, there arr se- 
cret forrs-s at work, just as 
virulent and just as |«mirfiil 
ns the forces defeated by him in the early days of the struggle. 

,\s to present condition* on the Mhiiiu* of Puiiiimu it must Is- 
eonfessisl that they are not entirely satisfactory. This is not 
due to the presence of yellow fever. The few ca-r* occurring from 
time to time would not attract attention if the disease had been 
anything else. During the building of the Chicago Drainage Canal 
there was a greater percentage of deaths from dysentery than has 
occurred at Panama from fever. The sanitary work being accom- 
plished by Dr. tlorgas is Inuring fruit, and it is rational to be- 
lieve that he will make an epidcinie practically im|Mi*sib1e. 

The unsatisfactory conditions now existing arc dm- to one preg- 
nant cause — the lack of a sufficient nil mis r of competent men. 
The canal organisation in itself is us perfect as it is |K*«*ilih- to 
make it with a limited experience. The appointment of an in- 
ternational advisory commission lias called to the President's 
aid the services of tin- greatest e\|s-rts on eurth. When this 
ff'unfiuuof on puye lOtil.) 


I 



U Arm the IHyyna muni yu 190 fat deeper in the Culrbra Cut 



1011 


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One of the Military Automobile I'alnda trhirh yuarded the Ihtnyrrouu t'ouine 


SCENES CONNECTED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOBILE 
RACE FOR THE JAMES GORDON BENNETT CUP 

lit the international nubwiahils mmtent for llu hum n (Ionian Hrnnrtt rw/», run in France nr *r the Suerrync course on July 
<5, Franr*‘ iifiin mtablished hrr •Mjwvinflpjp, Thera. the icinurr of hint year's race, heiny /(r»/ M/ff (Wlt r ii III'' J 

ODlir«r mi 7 hours III minutes, irilh ('ay no, Ihr Italian. second ll.'lif, anil Vurtrtri, also nyrrsentiny Italy. thinl CI-iT/. For 
a part of thr distance Tlx >v had a close f*nif<*l irifA Lancia, our of thr Italian mlrior, Kun* «^/»r the start Ihr lattrr 
gained a six minute Iruit, hut his machine broke ilorrn in the third lap. Of Ihr three American conti slants, Dinghy, Lyttte, 
and Tracy, only Lyttlc finished, lie uas in ticdfth place 

1015 


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Lessening the Dangers of Living 

By Ralph H. Graves 


I N the operation of railroad*, 
despite astonishing increases in 
speed, there ha* I wen a steady dc- 
c reuse in the percentage of dmih* 
and injuries. Aboard ship, al- 
though the tinH* of travel has lieeu rut 
in half within a decade, the ehanees 
of an untimely end are lessened yearly 
hern use of inventions to offset the un- 
certainties of wind and wave. In the 
great cities, through the discovery of 
new appliance* ami the wisdom of new 
laws, there is no longer the old fear of 
tire or riot. And everywhere in the 
civilized world the efforts to prolong 
life by hygienic precaution* and organ- 
ized investigations of epidemic mal- 
adies have n— tilted in raising the aver- 
age period of human existence. 

According to the United Slates cen- 
sus figures, the average age of ileal h 
increased from 31.1 year* in IK1HI to 
33.2 years in 11MJ0. * The decrease of 
dentils in cities where careful statistic* 
had been kept was nearly ten per cent. 

The inechaiiieal head of one of the 
greatest American railroads said to 
the writer last week: 

“Our tracks, trains, and signal- 
as nearly |>erfcct as ingenuity and ex- 
pense cun make them. To reduce to a 
minimum the ntiuilier of accident* we 
need two reforms — the protection of the 
In w against trespassers on our right of 
way and the utsditlon of grade cross- 
ings." 

The second of these improvements is 
being secured gradually by the railroad* 
themselves; the first must wait upon 
puhlie sentiment. 

The New York ('entrul and Pennsyl- 
vania companies maintain signal systems of the highest ly|H‘. 
Then' arc more than 200 block-towers on the Central between 
New York und Ituffulo. Over this route the " Kmpire State Kx- 
press " Inis travelled for fourteen years without a Istality. The 
system is not onlv a block system — it is culled “ lock and block." 
Isfiiiise u train, after (Mssing a Cower, leaves the signul at that sta- 
tion locked tight until it has entered the second block uhead. On li- 
the red lights of danger arc locked bv the train, the tower o|M-ratur 
is powerless to unfasten them until the tsilts are withdrawn. 


In the New York city Subway, the 
newest ele<- trie road and the la-st 
i*|iiip|M-d, the block arrangeiueiit and 
inter locking switches, incapable of lie- 
ing crossed eXi-ept by malicious violence, 
are ns complete a* on the steam line*. 
The Subway lias the safety trip a* an 
extra precaution. Should the motor- 
man fail to heed the danger light, the 
train would slop anyway. The signal- 
imst i* connected with the trip, which 
i* a hit of steel that projects upward 
la-side the outer rail whenever the red 
lens is ex|ai*cd. As soon as a train 
dares to pass the warning beacon, the 
trip strikes a trigger mnncrlcd with 
the powerful air brake*, and the train 
halts within its own length. Frank 
Medley, general manager of the Sub- 
way, mode a convincing test of this 
automatic device just Is-fore the tun- 
nel was opened, fie “ fixed " a signal 
in such u way that the trip would 
Ik- set, alt liougii the light shone grcetl. 
The motorman of an express - train, 
rushing down-town at forty-five miles 
an hour, <-uiiglil sight of the reassuring 
color, and kept ahead lit full speed. 
There wua a sudden roar as the air 
brake* came into action, then a grating 
of w herds suddenly cheeked. Thr train 
*1 oppet! in less thuu a hundred yards. 

Dared and wild -eyed. the motornmn 
hastened to alight, and ran buck to- 
ward the signal post, when- the gen- 
eral manager was smilingly explaining 
thing* t«> a friend. 

“ It was green, .Mr. Medley — I swear 
n. excitedly. 

Me has never forgiien his Isis* for 
the trick, they sav. A« he told Ilia 
companions the next day: “ It was enough to run a man crazy 
to have a train jerk up under him after he'd seen the elear-traek 
signal." 

Track-walkers patrol the rity's tunnel, on all four tracks, every 
hour of the day mid night, tin the New York t 'entrul there is a 
wuti-hiiiiin for cueh stretch of two und a half miles throughout the 
twenty-four hours, trudging hack and forth like a |M>licctuan on 
I m is t . For avoiding accident* that neither block signals nor con- 
tinual in*|»cctinn can antiri|Mle. there are novel signal-boxes on 



ltTw/oir 



T nii ni ikj Firtmcn trilh Ihv Lift ml to tvlrh Pcraona icho ,/am/i from Iturnimj HuHttiiuja 


1040 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 



the Subway station pint for iih having 
a lever by which an attendant or pus- 
(NDgrr cun shut off the electric cur- 
rent and stop all trullic instantly in 
case of fire or panic. 

” Does hit’ll speed produce greater 
cunt ion t” i* a question often asked in 
tln-*e day* — eapct-iitlly since the wreck 
of the “Twentieth Century Limited” 
last month. 'Hie answer of the olficinl 
of a tir*t i In-** road i* “ No.” 

“On the largest transportation svs- 
trills.*' he explains. ** the limit of cau- 
tion was reached long la-fore nnyliody 
thoiight of an eighteen -hour trip from 
New Vork to ('hiiwgo.’’ 

Hardly a month passe* hut amir 
improvement in safety appliances on 
steamships i» invented, or some new 
method of applying old principles. 

The “ surf telephone,” ns yet only used 
to a limited extent and mostly on 
coastwise vessels, is a delicate ap- 
paratus in the forward hold of the 
steamship which registers vibrations 
-cut through the water hy the liell at- 
tached to a buoy. When the tele- 
phone lings in the ca plain's cabin he 
Is aide to detect the (HMition of the 
liell and to change the ship's emirse no 
as to avoid the shoal marked hy the 
buoy. The instrument i* said to re- 
port vibration* accurately at a dis- 
tance of seven or right mile*. 

h ire drill* and life limit drill*, on 
vessels whose owner* nliey the strict 
law* of the sen, are conducted so fre- 
quently that the crews lire kept in 
constant readiness for an emergency. 

All the time, too, the old safeguard* 
are maintained- the lookout in the 
crow’s nest, the signal-lights mast-high, and the weird fog-horn 
when tiie ship is creeping through the mist*. Many passenger 
vessels have fire and boat drills every day. 

At home, a* well as in our travels, we are guarded against death 
by accident. To no precautionary science, so to *|ieak, do we owe 
more, especially in trie great cities, than to the improved url of 
fire-fighting. Except lor the scurch- light, which was devised by 
New York's fire chief. Kdw-ard E. C'roker, there hu* licen 
startling invention in fire apparatus within tin- last decade; hut 
the discipline, the system, mid the personality of the chief have 
given to the New York firemen n worldwide reputation. The 
search-light is so powerful that it enables the men to see through 
clouds of black smoke that formerly were impend ruble. About n 
year ago. during a tenement lire in’ the lower Hast Side, the light 


wns thrown ii|*on n high window that 
had been hidden by the blanket of 
siuokr. A foreman sow, lying uncon- 
scious on the sill, a little girl. A few 
seconds later, hi* mouth wrnp|x-d in 
a wet elotli to prevent suffocation, 
lie swung down on a rope from the 
roof mid drew the child to safety. 

With tin* water-tower it i* possible 
to throw a Hlreum into windows niter 
out of reach, and there i* a compara- 
tively new appliance for governing 
lin*c in a cellar without sending down 
firemen to hold khe nozzles. Sea ling- 
ladders have Wen lightened and im- 
proved until they can In* used in series 
to the top of the tall buildings. 

“ In an hour we can summon a hun- 
dred com|tanir* to any part of town.” 
said ("raker • few days ago. 

The number of engine* and trucks 
answering an alarm depend.*, of course, 
upon the neighborhood. One call in 
the Wall Street district, for example, 
bring* more apparatus than two in 
any outlying section of Bronx Borough. 
Three alarm* down town will summon 
between twenty live and forty engine*, 
half a dozen honk and lander com- 
panies. two wnlrr-towrr*, and one or 
more search light*. ttn rare occasion* 
when the ilanie* threaten large ureas 
the signul that has come to lie known 
a* the •' two nine* ” is given. This 
awakes New York from the Battery to 
the Bronx. The signal mean* that the 
city is in grave danger, that the re- 
serve fire-fighting apparatus from all 
na from a Strrrt quarter* is being called into play, that 
every effort i* being strained to avert 
a disaster. All the engini s within reach 
are rushed to the fire. Into the vacated engine-houses are shifted 
the auxiliaries from more distant stations, and these iu turn lire re- 
placed bv extra machine* from still further point*. No neighbor- 
hood is left entirely unprotected, and there is a general movement 
of np|MinituH all over the town. No records of lives lost in fires urc 
kept. The fact that the property loss in New York decreased from 
21. H2 per cent, in IH72 to fi.sl per cent, in 1903. however, indicates 
the improvement of the fire-fighting service. 

Protecting crowd* from accidents i* a problem of the cities. The 
averting of euta*tro|die* in schools and theatres, at meeting* and 
on rxcti rsioit*. rest* with thr law maker*, the police. and the fire- 
men. There have been »ix school fires in New York during the 
last year. In none of them was there a death, and the only 
reported injury was u Htuiii|*ed toe. I'uder the law the public 


Sum zoning thr t*olier finin' 
('all-box 



I.ottt riity Hint if (hr Until s ilurmif Iht Ihiilif thill on <r largr I‘ai9niy*r .X7><ii»<di>p 


1017 


Digitized by Google 







school* iiiii-i Ini V4* exits and hose stations n plenty, and there 
must Is- lire drills in ••iii-h building :il Iraist twier n month. No 
thoroughly trniiii'il nre the pupil* (hut they drop every! king on 
the Instant, form in •lonUli* file*. hihI niiireh out. It take* Iwu min 
vites to get thro 1 I lioii*;ind of Iheni to the stri*et. The signul 
sound* **» frequently fur drill* that when a rral danger arise* 
the ehililrrn iii'Vrr realize it, hut go down-stair* laughing ami 
talking an though tires were every-iiay nlTairs, 

In the theatre* — where aalientos curtain*, rial light* nver each 
exit, undraped door*. wide aisle*. and ample llrc-i trapes an* re- 
quired by statute — firemen are on ilutv nightly. Whenever there 
i* a disaster in a playhouse it in the result of wilful violation of 
the law. 

Innovation!! in |>olieo protection are the street slgnal-lanx and 
(lie " tralVii- squad." Hie latest method of using detectives in the 
” street-oar watch.” which means that olllcer* under Innpeetor 
Stephen O’Brien's orders sin ml their time riding in cars. looking 
for " rrooks " and criminals, who are urre*led on niglit, and sent 
to prison or frightened into leaving town. 

Bat rolling tin park drives and I am levari I » are mounted officer* 
ami hieycle polimucn, on watch for sis-cding nutomohilistx ami 
runaway horses. On the rivers and liiirlnir ure |Hdice-ho«l*, ready 
to suppress mid prevent lawlessness along the water-front and on 
ships at unehor. At every loisv corner in town picked men guard 
the crossings, and wherever a large crowd in to gather sjievinl de- 
tails are assigned to muintain order. 

Of the work of health niliccr* in onr eitic* within recent, yearn 
enough has been written to rill a library. Tuliereulosia, pneumonia, 
fevers, ami nearly all the rmt of the infectious diseases ure meet- 


ing their match in *y»tenintir hygienic crusades. The |Msiple in 
crowded quarters are (icing taught at public expense to tight 
noxious germ*. Tenement* and seh«*d* are inspected rigidly each 
year, and regulations are constantly Is-ing devised to isolate an 
infection at the first warning of its presence, At the nation's main 
gateway, the Quarantine Station. «>n the Narrows of New York 
llarlnir, not a ship from foreign or southern elintes ran avoid the 
scrutiny of the health officers of the port. If there is disease 
ahourd, the passenger* nre imprisoned on llnlfman or Swinhurne 
island until the danger of their carrying the |ie*t into the city is 
past. The ship licr«c!f rannot proceed until the "disinfecting 
tug" equip|K-d with formaldehyde sprays, has moistened every 
inch of her interior with perm • killing fluids and cleansed her 
cargo. 

And not only is the public safety insured against accidents and 
ills affecting large numliers of ]*T*i>n*. Inventions to protect in- 
dividuals are multiply ing with the days. A gasoline tank that 
cannot explode is being |m*i fecteil. and will, if successful, do nwav 
with the chief danger to autoniohilists. a* most self - propelled 
vehicles are of the gu-olioc variety. In factorien and mill* and 
mines safety devices to present injuries by the nuichinery have 
shortened the deutli-roll of operative*. Whatever iinplement or 
mechanism is used in the various industries, whether commercial 
or agricultural or scientific, is designed in our common- sens*" times 
to Is- safe as wi ll a* efficient. 

One of these da vs. perhaps, inventive science will have put an 
etui to " unavoidable accidents.” Then then- will lie no ratuslrophe 
for which somebody's malice, ignorance, or carelessness cannot la* 
held legally rc*|K»nsihlc. 



1«US 


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The Terms of Peace 


By Sydney Brooks 


LoxnoK. Jmlr $, 

I NCAlM'KI.Y exaggerate in saving that nnlmtly in Kurope ex- 
prrtrd Mr. Ilwmrirn mnrw in bringing In u lurmwfut 
conclusion the preliminary in~$r«i( ijtt i<»nx toward wurinK 
peace. whirl) have resulted in tin* appointment l*y the Rus- 
sian mid • I it | nt n« «*•• *»• »v«*» niiirnt(» of four ideni|>ot«ntiuric* to 
in N't in Waahington in August. When it was kmmn that he was 
trying to bring Russia ami Japan, if not together, nt least within 
diplomatic* speaking distance. people smiled ami nIiooIc their lu-ud*. 
It wax only when it wax seen that he had really ami almost in- 
eredildy iirhleved what he set out to nehirve that they* took to 
flapping their hands ; hut they clapnet) them. I admit, all tin* 
toon* vigorously fc»r their prrviou* dotiiits and hesitations. 

Itut while the magnitude of Mr. Roosevelt's •ukwh was un- 
prutlgingh admitted, and while Knglund has followed with the 
keenest interest the negotiations as to the precise powers of the 
Russian and Japanese representatives, ns to the time nnd place 
of their meeting, and in |»uilit-ular ns to whether there was any 
likrlihond of an armistice — which vre now know will not la* ef- 


fected during the negotiations now (lending — there was never, nor 
is there now. much expectation of an immediate or even an early 
peace. 

The situation is not yet surh as to warrant so favorable nn 
inference. It is true that we do not know officially wluit the 
Japanese terms of peace may Is*. The state-men of Tokio. in this 
us in everything, have kept their own counsels, and declined with 
their invariable perspicacity to commit themselves in advance*. 
Nevertheless, to formulate the probable conditions of a final set- 
tlement need not la* all guesswork. There are some “ unofficially 
official" declarations to go upon; there are certain paljinblc fuels 
and their not less pul|mlde consequences that can already be reck- 
oned with. There is, for instants*, one point on which all who 
claim to speuk for Japan are in agreement. They ask that what- 
ever pence is arranged shall Is* u real |wnce, not a mere truce. 
I la run Suyemnlsii. who is serving his country In Knglnml in the 
sanw* capacity us Itnron Knncko in thr I'nitcd States, recently de- 
clared, ” We want a pean* which will secure tranquillity in the 
f fort turner/ oil /*n/f HHi.i.f 



1010 


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Fifty Years of Progress in America 

II. — The Immense Irvcrea.se in the Production of Fruits and Cereals 



The Production of Barley 





California's Fruit Wraith 



State Supremmey in mining 
Minor GrOftt in 1900 


By F. W. Hewes 


N apoleon fed his 

victor MiU * legions 
o« barley bread. 
I 'mil the advent of 
the potato, larlry 
was the chief. almost the 
sole, European bread food of 
all nave the very wealthy, 
who alone eoulil atToril the 
luxury of wUrait. The early 
American colonist* used bar- 
ley n little while, but it ««>n 
fell into neglect except for 
lieer. It is the great mult- 
liquor grain. corn i* the 
chief material for distilled 
liquor. The use of malt 
liquor is greatly increasing in 
the United States, and the in 
crease in the production of 
barley relatively outstrip* 
that of cither of the three 
greater cereals during the 
period under review. In the 
Pacific States the principal 
use of barley i» for horse 
feed. In the three Pacific 
coast States more than one- 
third of the entire national 
crop of barley is grown, chief- 
ly in California, where its 
product f 11MK)| is five times 
that of oats and sixteen times 
that of corn. 

Much smaller in money 
measure, but not in personal 
interest to those who grow 
them, and to those who con- 
sume them, are rye. rice, anti 
buck wheat. " lUue -blooded " 
beyond iierad venture — for its 
ancestral record reaches hack 
into the dint ami voiceless 
past — rye, for the reason that 
It flourishes on poor soil, has 
liecome unpopular among 
farmers. They look upon it 
as an advertisement of an ini- 
|Miverislied farm. Even where 
the straw pays well -and 
often the straw value exceeds 
that of the grain — it is 
grown s|utring1y. In spite of 
the efforts id the Depart inent 
of Agriculture to inaugurate 
new species, and an encour- 
aging result of Alaskan ex- 
neriment. it looks very much 
like one of those instances in 
which blue blood does not 
count. 

Whether the civil war 
diminished the national relish 
for buck wheat -cukes, as much 
ns it inereused that for lienus, 
or whether the dollar side of 
the situation t«s>k the saddle, 
ran onlv Is* guessed. How- 
ever, tiie per • capita pro- 
duction of buckwheat was cut 
in half during that dt-cudc, 
and, thus far. gives no prom- 
ise of rets ivery. New York 
anil Pennsylvania are still the 
leaders of the diminishing 
product ion. a* they have lx-en 
all through the past fifty 
years, with Michigan ami 
Wisconsin next in order. 

The birthplace of rice- 
growing in the United State*, 
and for years almost its only 
home, is South Carolina. 
Horn at the eighteenth-cen- 
tury «»|N-ning. by the close of 
the flr-t third of that cen- 
tury it was the leading State 
produet. Hy the middle of 
the century successful rice- 
planters were ts-ei hi ling rivals 
of the wealthy tobnci-o plant- 
er* of Virginia. Its pro- 
duction spread throughout 
the swampy coast lands of the 


Atlantic and the Uulf. and in the early national records its wealth 
value was of high rank. For alsiut twenty years it staved at the 
low level reached in 1870, then ls-gsn iis rise. 11 m* per-capita 
pi. slml inn. which was 3.2 |m>uiii(s in l!MM). had inon- than tiebled 
in I MM. and now liiils fair to double even that within the next 
decade. 

About the lime the prairie farmers of the Northwest migrated to 
the Southern prairie and l**gan to raise rice by prairie methods, 
the United States government, having i wri-full v completed its 
scientific work thereon, introduced kafir-eorn front Africa. It has 
no “ ear*," Its kernels, which are very small, grow compactly in 
a ’* head " at the top of the stalk, alsiut the sire of a large iwr of 
com. hut without cob. Its chief advantage over Indian corn lies 
in the fact that a drouth or a hot wind, which kills Indian cum. 
merely halts katir corn. 

That u valuable oil is contained in cottonseed was known at an 
early date. In 178.3 the Society of Arta, Manufacture, and Com- 
merce of l^indon. Knglaml. made record of the extraction of cot 
ton*eed oil by a mill in that city. In 1820 a small cotton seed -oil 
mill was creel is I in Columbia. South Carolina; in 1*32, one on an 
island off llie Ccorgia roast In 1847 a Mr. Hood Is-gan to ex- 
tract cottonseed oil in New Orleans. Louisiana, and exhibited! a 
small Is it tb* of it. which, lie -aid, diet him 812.000. For the rea- 
son that cottonseed, without the oil extracted, is harmful to both 
land and stock, it was. prior to the civil war. ordinarily piled to 
rot. or burned, or dumped into rivers. A Mississippi law (181171 
compelled its destruction nr removal from any gin within a half- 
mile of any city, town, or village, upon penalty of 820 per day. 
after five days" notice. Also there was a fine of 82oo for dump- 
ing the and into any stream used for fishing or drinking. 

(•radually, however, the process of extracting the oil was im- 
proved. The little cottonseed-nil mills were enlarged, and in 1800 
the national census reported seven establishment* with a productive 
value of *741.000. 

As a ** curiosity in agriculture " flaxseed growing has in the 
past thirty year* made a long step toward something more prom- 
ising. In 1720 Pennsylvania exported 1‘H.i bushels of flaxseed, 
ami two years later sixty wagon loads were marketed in Haltimorc. 
Fifty years ago Ohio. New York, and Kentucky were the leaders 
in production, producing almost sixty per cent, of the entire crop. 
To-day, North Dakota I rads with a crop of nearly eight million 
busheis (greater than the entire national crop of 1880), while 
the two Ihikota* and Minnesota grow over eighty per cent, of 
the entire national yield, thir present production exceeds that of 
any other country, and is over one fourth of that of the entire 
world. 

The history of fruit production during the past fifty years must 
Is* crystallised through analogy rather than through statistics. 
Even young men ran recall the great multiplication of varieties 
and the wonderfully increased abundance of market fruits during 
the past ten or fifteen years. The government took no thorough 
slept* to measure fruit production until 1818 ). and even then omitted 
inquiries regarding -mull fruits. Twenty five million dollars i« 
their measure in I D00. and their measure in this present year of 
gastronomic grariousneas can easily be put down a long, long way 
above that figure. 

In hulk, even more than in value, orchard fruits greatly exceed 
any oilier division, and by far the greater bulk grow* on the hi*- 
tone apple tree. This fact is so clearly set forth bv the results 
of lSIMI-IINHt a* to make it appear that all the other orchard fruits 
combined are “small potatoes." Awfully small! Yet the Davids 
sometime* measure lugger than the (Joliath. 

Until the last half century the chief object in commercial apple- 
growing was to make eider; hut from that time onward the heaps 
of cider apples have been replaced by scores of apple barrels. The 
carefully packed barrels go to cold-storage vaults instead of to the 
eider mill, later to find their way in perfect condition to the 
ever growing rity market*. 

The peach prop of IfOO was leas than half that of ten years 
earlier, and pr ninthly not one fourth that of two years earlier. The 
severe freeze of the winter of 18!l8-tl killed thousands of peach-trees 



Digitized by Google 


1060 




The remarkable L rail r nth i/i of y etc Tofi'l .4/»/dr f'rop and a COMfinUH o/ Orchard Crops in other Stairs 


und destroyed many whole orehnrd*. As California did not shun* 
in Hint experience. and as her census crop was nlwinrmally large, 
more than half of the entire peach production stand* to the 
credit of that one State. Outside of California, the ln»t census 
give* the county lianner to Ik'rrien County. Michigan, with a 
credit «f I bushel*; next, to Niagara County. New York, 
with 159,51(1 bushel*; third, to Smith County. Texas. 118.17ft bushels. 
The few nectarines ruined are counted ns |w*aclte*. 

Allied to peaches in phvaitnl features are apricots. These are 
♦■minted separately, and ninety-seven per cent, of tlie whole two 
and a half million !m*hel* credited to California. A few are 
rnised in Arizona and New York, but the two together fall abort 
of one-sixtieth of the Golden Slate produet. 

The plum record shows an increase of n)>«ut 240 per cent, in tin* 
decade. Fifty years ago, at San Just 1 , California, the ttrst prune* 
were grafted, and fourteen years later the first large prune-orchard 
wan planted. They are properly included in the count of plum*, 
und California carries the credit of almost half of the natinnal 
id tt tn crop of IH1N). and considerably over hnlf (ft.fi million bushel*! 
in lIKKI. Oregon is second, with a little over a third of a million 
budiels: and New York is next, with a little less than a third. 

As to pour*. there was nn increased product of considerably 
over 100 per rent, during the decade 1800-1000, and the market- 
stand* reveal very plainly n large improvement in quality. One 
wonder* now ju*t what sort of pear it was that the Jesuit father* 
planted, about 15rt2, in the region of the Great ls»ke*. more than 
fifty years Indore J*me»|iiwn. Virginia, wn* settled, Perhaps 
there lie those living in New York city who can tell u* jn*L what 
variety was Isirne hv that 1fil4 pear tn** at the corner of Thin! 
Avenue and Thirteenth Street. and whether it was ever grafted. 
As it lived until lHIHt. there should still Is* living some gray-haired 
man or woman, or some hald-hradrd sage, who lusted that fruit. 

It is in California that the pear crop makes its highest ««-orc. 
and the fniuoii* " Hurl left '* count* its glorious victory. Almost 
two million bushel* is the entry, ami nine-tenths of them Hartletts. 
In the Eastern States, the nearly blight-proof Kciffcr pear is re- 


placing the Rartlctt, and in Delaware pear-orchards are rapidly 
replacing the more easily frost -killed peach-trees. 

Ijtst and least come* the cherry, of which a million and a half 
bushejs were produced in IStm, am! nearly twice a* many in UNM. 

California, lwi-aiise of its great orange and peach crops, lead* 
in total fruit production, leaving New York a distant second. Tlie 
State circles on total orchard fruits leave New York still second, 
although laiieli closer to the leader. When the delicious small 
fruits are counted. New ^ork leaves California entirely out of 
sight. 

Wliether classed a* small fruits, or set in a class by themselves, 
the ambrosial grape* of the country call for thirteen thousand 
fruit-mr*. each carrying fifty tons, to take the luscious bunches 
from the vineyard* to the market -places. 

Raisin*. fir*t produced in lftlij. hern me of ♦■ommcrrinl note in 
1873. This branch i* carried on in California only. It take* from 
threw to four pound* of grapes for one pound of raisins, and pro- 
duction in rerent year* has ranged choc to one hundred million 

r minds of raisins annually. The price of gm|M-s at the vineyard* 
n* changed greatly. In New \ork thirty years ago the price 
was five to six ends per ]Humd. From iHUfl to lIHll almiit six- 
lent h* of a rent. Kale* have liecn inadr at much lower price*. Ill 
California good grape-land eo* 1 * ulsmt # 2 t«i |**r acre; lultivu 
lion, 340 tn 87 ft per acre; return* range from 4512ft to $fton per 
acre. Many California vim-yard* contain live hundred uerrs each. 
The larger one* cover from one thousand to two thousand five 
hundred acres each. That of the late Iceland Stanford was over 
seven miles long, and coni nine.) nearly five thousand acre*. 

It i* only within the past thirty years that cultivated orange* 
have come into commercial impoitain-c. Even fifteen years ago 
I I Stilt | (he Florida crop was only al*mt three million lmxe*. hut 
in the succeeding five years there was a rapid increase. Then came 
the gri-at freeze, which destroyed the industry in that State, Many 
thought the ruin final. It wn* doubt le*s the most complete dis- 
aster ever suffered by any brunch of agriculture. The rallying has 
f Cow flawed on page 1061. J 



Com[>anson of the Crop* of Small Fruits in the Leading Stairs for WOO 


1051 


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R tv d i vi m a. rvd the Origin of Life 

By C. S a lee by, M.D. 


HERE has rwnlly been made, nt the Civndivh I .n l>nra 
ti.ry, Cambridge, a discovery ao sensational. so subversive 
of the orthodox scientific belief of the last thirty year*, 
and yet so welcome to the man of science. that it in all 
I no! utbiiitv marks the o|*ning of un epoch in biology as 
signal a* that which was marked l»y the publication of the Origin 
of S/irriiH in 18SH. And the one piece nt work, small in actual ex- 
tent though it may Ik*, and totally distinct in principle, is the com- 
plement of the other. The last touch of " sensationalism " is added 
to this amazing discovery by the fact that it dependa upon the 
piniM>rlh-M of radium, which seems destined to have its any in nil 
sublunary affairs without exception. 

Darw in assumed the existence of a " few forms of life." ns sim- 
ple a* living matter could be. Granted these, he advanced a theory 
which went far to explain how these primal forms might nat- 
urally evolve into higher and higher organisms — culminating in 
" the’ paragon of animals." man himself. Rut whence these lowly 
forms Darwin did nut inquire. In 18fi3 he smite to Sir O. 
Hooker, ” It is mere rubbish thinking at present of the origin of 
life: one might ns well think of the origin of matter.” 

If geology- and astronomy were to Is* trusted in their must posi- 
tive moments, the surface of the earth was once too hot to har- 
hor living things, however lowly or few or small. Three possi- 
bilities of the origin of life upon the earth could be conceived. 

The first possibility was that the primal origin of life was 
miraculous: that it was nn instance, if perhaps the only instants', 
of u break in the continuity of nature: a refutation, if perhaps 
the only refutation, of the philosophic dogma that " causation is 
universal.” This was a possibility which no man of science, as a 
man of science, could entertain. 

The second possibility was suggested by Lord Kelvin. It was 
I lisil the first germs of life were liornc to the earth on a meteorite 
“ from Hie moss-grown ruins of another world." This merely 
shifted the foeofc of the problem ; nor did it explain the fact that 
then' are marked signs of the past action of vegetation on the 
moon, In order (o meet this most conjectural and unsupported 
suggestion we had merely to widen tlic question thus: “ How ilia’s 
living matter <-oine to be found where nothing but lifeless mat- 
ter formerly was?" 

The third possibility, the only one that could be seriously en- 
tertained. was that life has arisen by natural processes from life- 
less matter. 

Thu* it became a necessity of the first importance to ascertain 
whether, in point of fact, life can be observed to take its origin 
in lifeless mutter, and there arose a colossal controversy on this 
mint. For the satisfaction of the evolutionist or for any who 
sdieved in the uniformity of nature, it was much to lie desired 
that the natural evolution of life in lifelww matter should be posi- 
tively demonstrated. Hut finally the controversy was closed — to 
all appearances — by the cx|M‘riiuents ami conclusions of Pasteur, 
Huxley, ami Tyndall, wlicrehy the belief in such “ spontaneous 
generation” was regarded as having been completely and finally 
exploded. Organic infusions of hay and other substances were 
Imu led, so ns to kill all the germs they contained, were there- 
after protected from nil possibility of contamination by the perms 
of Du* utmosplierc and, un being watched, were found never to 
display any sign* of life, whatever nutritious compounds they 
contained. 

This was a most anomalous and inexplicable result for those 
who believed in the uniformity of nature. This very belief im- 
| wiled them to argue that what was true now hud always been 
true: and, on the contrary, that it cannot always have been true! 
Spontaneous generation must be a myth: and mythical, too, Her* 
bit Spencer’s theory of universal, orderly, uninterrupted evolu- 
tion, For it had been proved — so we thought — that life cannot 
arise in lifeless matter: and we were left with no rational ex- 
planation of the origin of the "few simple forms” of life from 
which we believed all others to lie descended. 

One young man, however, questioned the justice of basing the 
dogma name riririu rr rico, the denial of spontaneous generation, 
upon the experiments iu question. Rut Dr. Charlton Haitian, 
though a Fellow of tin* Royal Society, was only a young mail; 
lie was not an expert biologist hut a physician, and the draw- 
ings he published were doubtless dictated — people said — rather 
by imagination than by actual vision. Nevertheless, Dr. Ilnsthin, 
though silenced for the nonce, was not convinced. 

Recently hr returned to the fray, though not without meeting 
every manner of discouragement from those in authority. He pub- 
lished photographs taken through the microscope instead of draw- 
ing*: u nd reminded ns that the camera has no imagination and 
no case to prove. His book and the preparations which he showed 
to the present writer convinced him that the Inst had yet to be 
heard of spontaneous geiu-rution. and that conviction was more 
than once expressed in print: but the power of authority pre- 
vailed. Dr. Hast inn maintained that the process of lioiliiig de- 
stroys the complex chemical molecules from which life can spon- 
taneously arise. This is indeed so. but the Is- 1 levers ip owtH* fir inn 
* j- i ii-o filtered organic solutions through the ltcrkefehl filter, 
which detains all microorganisms, and proved that no signs of 
life were ever displayed in such filtered solutions. To which 
the reply i« that the very act of filtration, like that of Isiiling. 
simplifies or “ degrade* " the chemical rompnsition of nuch fluids, 
and that, this mnlcruhir degradation prevents the stKintancous 
generation of life therein. 

At this stage in the controversy there intervenes! a physicist , 


Mr. .1. H. Rurke, who was studying the chemical action of radium 
on organic matter, at the Cavendish laboratory, where radium 
has already been studied to the signal glory of contemporary 
physical chemistry. Mr. Iturke waa seeking to ascertain whether 
radium could cause organic romiMuiiuU to assume unstable form*, 
a result which might lie exiwcted to follow from the bomlurdment 
to which radium incessantly subjects its surrounding*. For this 
purpose Mr. Rurke prepared solutions of beef gelatin, usually 
known to the bacteriologist a* bouillon, and sought to observe the 
action of radium upon them. So extraordinary and seemingly 
incredible was the result that he was compelled to devise u munlier 
of experiments in order to test it. He found that various radio- 
active bodies la-side* radium induced the same sequence of events; 
but I will continue to speak of radium alone, merely noting that 
the results may Is- assumed to la* due to that property of radium 
activity which radium possesses in preeminent degree, but which is 
displayed by the constituents of earth and sen and nir alike — a 
fact of the first importance in this eonnec-tion. 

Mr. Rurke found that when a few grains of radium chloride 
or radium bromide were sprinkled ii|H>n the surface of herf gela- 
tin, the whole being subjected to the most efficient processes of 
sterilization, such as no known form of living matter can sur- 
vive, there uppeared in the tube* thus treated, hut not in the 
“ control ” tills-*, similar in all roe peels save for the addition of 
the radium, a growth which any bacteriologist would have pro- 
nounced to la- due to bacteria: this in tube* which had been sub- 
jected to a temperature of 130° C. under high pressure for 
naif nn hour! if anything was out of the question it was that 
this growth was laictriial. However, crystals grow, and this might 
lie a hitherto unknown kind of crystal, due to the artlon of radio- 
activity upon beef gelatin. 

Tile next step was plainly to examine a portion of the growth 
under the tnicronrope. A magnification of nlsait twelve or fifteen 
hundred diameter* wus used, and the growth wns seen to consist 
of exceedingly small mu mini Imdic*. containing a somewhat darker 
structure in the centre. The only known crystal they resembled 
was a form in which calcium carbonate occasionally occurs: hut 
these Is ii lies were many times smaller than any such crystals; 
the structure they contained looked exactly like the nucleus of n 
living cell, such as is not seen in these crystals of carbonate of 
lime; examination with the polariscope showed that these bodies 
had none of the characters which crystals display on such examina- 
tion by special kinds of light. Thus there was’ abundant rtidi-m*- 
to negative the view that they were crystals — evidence that would 
suffice even were there not positive evidence the most astound 
ing in proof of the view that they were something cl*e. 

Mr. Rurke suhmitfr-d his tiila-s to Dr, Sims Woodheud. the Pro- 
fessor of Pathology in the Cniversitv of Cambridge, and one of the 
lending bacteriologist* of the day. professor Woodhcad studied the 
growths, failed to find anv defect of technique in the sterilization 
of the tithes, examined the growths under the microscope, and pro- 
nounced the opinion that these objects were not bacteria, lie it 
was who set Mr. Iturke to prove that they were not crystals. 
Dr. Woodhcad found that these objects were nucleated, unlike any 
known bacterium: It was found that they were soluble in warm 
water, as hcicterin certainly are not ; that they disappeared from 
the microscopic slides when these were exposed to diffused day- 
light. hut returned after a few* days in darkness! This is not the 
way with bacteria; when they dissolve then* is an end of them; 
finy nn- dead. Rut thr*c tilings dissolve in daylight, and reappear 
in the dark. 

Then the last question must be faced. If they arc not crystals 
and not bacteria, are they some new form of living matter produced 
by the action of sterilized radium on sterilized gelatin? It is 
found that when a portion of the growth is removed from the 
original tube, and place — with aseptic precaution* — on fresh 
(sterilized i gelatin, it continue* to grow, though removed from 
the action of the radium. Similarly we saw that these objects re- 
appeared on slide* from which they bad disappeared. Plainly 
the radium initiates n process which can continue without it* as- 
sistance. Hut the most Important fact ia yet to come. 

Mr. Rurke found that these objects, which lie tails radioWs — 
from radium and Greek kin*, life — never grew* lieyond a certain 
limited *izc — about one seventy-thousandth of an im-h in diameter. 
When this limit is reached /A<.« rfiridr. This siilrdivision has brrn 
photographed, and is not o|N-n to dispute. It* importance cannot 
lie overemphasized. No crystal subdivide*. Nothing hut matter 
which is alive, in the strict biological sense, undergoes that con- 
tinuous adjustment of internal to external relations" which is im- 
plied in the aet of siilidivDinn when a certain size i* reached. 
Herbert Spencer, who framed that profound definition of life which 
has jiist l>een quoted, was led to a*k why living rcli* ever divide, 
why their size i* always limited. He answered that the surface 
of a cell must always •fa-nr such a proportion to its tna** thut 
sufficient nutriment inn pa** through it. The larger the cell 
the smaller the ratio of it* Miiperfirhil extent to it* rims* — or. in 
metaphor, the bigger tin- Imdy the smaller it* mouth. Hence the 
cell miiwt divide it* mas*, thus greatly increasing it- surface, and 
enabling growth to continue. It is a typical ease of the adjust- 
ment of inner to outer relations: and, judged by this compre- 
hensive Iml strict definition of life, the objects produced by 1 br- 
act inn of sterilized radium on sterilized houilhm ore alive; they 
arc rttdiuhr*. 

One nt the few supremely iiii|H>rtant discoveries of all time 
(Continu'd nil futtr lOiio,) 






t'ommander l\. K. Peary, who ha* )u*t Sailcil in St-arch of the 
Xorth Pole 


The " Rooarrrtt Peary’s nor Shift, showing the high, poirer- 
fui Bow lo fore e a H'lijf through the Ire. 




I.ooking Aft on the “ Roonrrelt *• orrr the Explorer's snug 
guar lent 


Commander Prant ami the Sailing l/n»/rr of Ih •• " Ho osrrrll " 


VIEWS OF COMMANDER PEARY'S SHIP. THE “ROOSEVELT" IN 
WHICH HE HAS JUST SAILED FOR THE POLE 

The photograph* show rnir* and arc to* on hoard Commander Robert R. Peary'* auxiliary nrhoonerrigyetl r rwrl the “ Room - 
felt," in irhich hi * c r/ndition hr in jnnl nailed for the nrtrth fade, lie u-ill In- aeronifninied an far a* Cape Sabine by hm irifr and 
children, after which th > " Rinau'rrll" will cany the ptdar ex/n diliun daO mihs further north, where Piary trill establish a bane 
of supplies and proceed on ah dye* toward the pule 


100.1 


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^ By KATHERINE CECIL THURSTON 

Author of “The M&iquer&der " 


SYNOPSIS OK PRECEDINO CHAPTERS 

James Mllhanke. an old rollrgc friend of Dent* Asslilln. visits tb« 
lalirr for the ttr*f lino- In thirty year* at hi* anrcstrnl Mate In w.uth 
pin Ireland Up flints A**lilln iiiii< li ■ liaugcd. After dlnnpr A**lilln In 
du.-p« Mllhanke to play rani* with him. and they plnjr until parly 
uiorultiic. Mlllmnkr finally winning. After Mllhanke leave* hi* horn to 

K to III* modi, ciixlaitb. Asshlln* eldest daughter, inept* him III the 
II. and heg* III in not to gamble with her father again. a* It I* 
ihrouich hi* passion for play that Aaahlln In bringing ruin to himself 
and hla family . The next morning at hreakfaat Mllltankp llnda on hi* 
plate a t-herk from A*»hlln In payment of hi* Insae*. That nlieht A«*hlln 
|»roj tone* another gatur of cards. Mllhanke refuses to play, and drop* hla 
itoei’H check Into Hr- lire lie tell* Asahllu that lie consider* him weak 
anil wort hie**, and return* to England the next day. Three year* 
after. Mllbauke receive* a letter from Clodagh telling him that 
A«*hlln ha* been seriously hurt In an accident, and urging him to 
come to I relaud. Mllhanke hasten* to hi* old friend's homo, and 
hurt* Asshlln on his death tied, and In great distress of mind over the 
future of his children, who ho knows will ho lofl pennlle** a* a 
result of hi* dissipation*. Mllbauke promise* to Is- responsible for 
lliolr welfare. A famoii* specialist I* summoned from Dublin to con- 
sult with the local surgeon, and after a ■ arcful examination by the 
two physicians. Mllhanke I* Informed . t lint III* friend'* condition I* 
hopeless. I.ato that night Asshlln dies. Mllhanke asks Clodagh to 
marry him. At Irst she refuses him : but when she learn* that her 
fathers estate will Is- put under obligation* to Mllhanke hr his bene- 
faction*. she consent* to become Ills wile. They are married shortly after 
ut Currlgmore, and, afler it l.as been decided that Clodagh'* sinter Nance 
shall live with tlo-in for a time, alt leave Ireland together for Florence. 
Four year* later, Nance having hern sent off to school, Mllhanke take* 
Clodiigh lo Venice where lie is to meet his business advisor Barnard for 
consultation. A* they enter the hotel on the > selling of their arrival, Clo- 
djgh is closely observed by two men silting ul the en trance. 


CHAPTER XVIII 

AS she |ia**ci) (he two men in the lounge chairs the elder again 

/\ lifted hi* cye-glu**: while the younger, I. 'lining forward, 
stared at her with tliut su|N'rh lack of riiihurrunsmcnt or 
JL -A- reserve lliut the young Englishman can at time* uksuiiic. 

“ By .love!” lie said, very softly, u* the two new arrival* 
disappeared into the hold. 

Hi* coni | miii inn turned to him with n thin, somewhat shaky 
laugh that liehcil his eurefully preserved uppi-arame. 

" Attractive, eh?” he said. 

The other replaced the rigarettr in hi* mouth. 

“ Wluit nationality i* site?” lie asked, after a moment 'a paune. 
“ I’d feel inrlinrd to sav Italian myself, hut the old father's so 
uncompromisingly Saxon.” 

Again the older man laughed — a laugh that expressed unfathom- 
able worldly wisdom. 

” Father!” he said, satirically. " Father* don't shuffle round 
their womenfolk like that. They are huslnind and wife.” 

” Husband and wife!” The other Kinilcd, But the old man 
pursed his lip* 

'* You'll find I'm right.” he said. " She walked three »1 c|m 
ahead of him. to avoid seeing him — and she did it unconaciously. 
I 'roof conclusive!” 

The young man laughed. 

•* Doesn't carry conviction, uncle!” he said. " I’ll bet you a 
fiver you’re wrong. Will you take me on?” 

His coni|MUiioii smiled languidly. 

“ As you like.” he rr*|snided. 

The young man maided; then he looked down laxily at his flannel 
*u it. 

” I »iip|***e it’* lime lo rhange." he «aid. reluHantly. “ Awful 
lane la-ing convent iona I abroad. Scp you at dinner!" 

With another eareh-** nod he lounged off in the direction of 
the hall. 

Exactly n quarter of an hour later Clodagli einergi*d from her 
liedrnoin. looking fresh and cool in a dregs of rn-c colorcd gauze 
that, though cut high in the neck and posses* ing sleeves that 
reached the wrist, was yet very light ami diaphanous in effect. 
She opeii*sl her door, and. niimlful of the lutem— * of the hour, 
moved quickly out into tin* csirridnr. But scarcely had she taken 
a step in the direction of the stair*, when a door exactly opfioslte 
to her own was opioid with equal haste, and the young English- 


man of the terraee appeared liefore her. Seeing her, he halted in- 
voluntarily, and for a second their eye* met. 

The glance was momentary; there w.i« not a word spoken; hut 
irresistibly the color ruslicd into Clodagh '* facr. It took her but 
an instant to regain her eoni|HMurr and to pit** down the empty 
txirridor with an added touch of hauteur; but long after she had 
gained the stair* her heart was heating with a new excitement. 
The glance that the stranger had given her had lieen almost ill 
I Wed in it* alisolute directness; but ill or well bred, there had been 
no mistaking the unqualified admiration it conveyed. The per- 
sonality of the man had escaped her attention; the fact that his 
hair was smooth, his face attractive, and his figure umi-ually 
tall, slight, and graceful had made no impression ii|*>n her. Afl 
she was conscious of — all that »et her pulses throbbing and her 
cheek* Hushing — wa* the suddenly awakened knowledge that, with 
in herself, she |MNM-**cd some subtle and previously unrealized 
power that could compel a man's regard. 

Nile descended the stairs with a new sensation of ela«tieitv and 
elation; and at it* foot found Milbankc awaiting her, in conversa- 
tion with a suave, elderly man. 

A# she came within speaking distance th«j two turned toward* 
her. 

“My dear,” Milhnnkp said, quickly, “allow me to introduce 
Mr. I)arid Barnard! David, this i* my — my wife!" 

Clodagh looked up eurioiisly, atul met the tlorid face, bland 
smile, and nbscrvnnt eyea of Barnard — • man who for nearly a 
quarter of a century had managed to prosper in his profession 
mid at the same time to retain a prominent place in fashionable 
society. A* their glance* met she held out lu-r hand. 

“ How d'yon do, Mr. Barnard?” she said. " I believe I've been 
longing to know you ever since 1 heard you laugh one day two 
yen nr ago.” 

She *|M>ke warmly, impulsively, almost ns Denis A**lilin might 
have npnken. Involuntarily Milhankr glanced at her with a 
aperies of surprise. In that moment she was neither the frank, 
fearless child lie had fiint known nor the self contained, unfathom- 
able girl who had since heroine hi* daily companion. In the 
crowded, cosmopolitan atmiKpItere of Die hotel she seemed sud- 
denly to displav a new individuality. 

Barnard took her outstretched Ini ml and Isiwcd over it im- 
pressively. 

“ It is very charming of you to say that. Mrs. Milhnnke. ' he 
murmured. " But I'm afraid .lames ha* told me Hint you mine 
from Ireland!” 

t 'lodngh luughed. 

“ He'll also tell you that I lived quite forty mile* from the 
Blarney stone!” 

She looked un, her fare brimming with animation. Then sud- 
denly and involuntarily she colored. The young Englishman of 
tin* terrace was coming slowly down the stair*. 

lie descended nonchalantly, and as he reached Dm* hall he de- 
liberately paused in front of the little group. 

” Iloilo. Barney!” he said easily. " ISm-ii playing much bridge 
this afternoon?" 

Barnard looked round with hi* tactfully affable mnile. 

*' Haven't had one rubber." he said. 

" No?” 

“ No.” 

There wa* a pause — a seemingly unnecessary and pointless 
|iaii*r— in which Barn.iid lisiked suavely at the newcomer; the 
newcomer looked at flodagh, and t’bxlagh looked fixedly out over 
Millmnke's head. Then at last, and suddenly, the older man seemed 
to realise that something was expected of him. With a gay gesture 
he tm-taphorin<lly swept the silence aside 

"Mrs. Millwnke." h« said, affably, "will you permit me to pre- 
sent my friend, Mr. Valentine Scrrncuuld?” 

CTIAITKK XIX 

t'liinAoii looked up. coloring afresh, and the young man bowed 
quickly ami eagerly, lie I* longed to a tyj«c. in-w |o her, but fa- 


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HARTERS WEEKLY 


miliar to every social Londoner. The type or young Englishman 
who. gifted with unu-mil height and fine |*»*-ibilitic« of muscular 
development, saunters through life — physically und morally — 
everting Ilia energy and hit* strength in one direction 
only — the eternal, aimless, enervating search after pet etoual 
pleasure. 

To l*c explicit, the llonoruhle Valentine Serrneauld was suffer- 
ing from that most modern of complaints — the laek of suriiiouut- 
alde obstacles, TUr nephew of one of the richest |*eer» in Eng- 
land. he had started lifp heavily hundicap|ied. A sufficiency of 
money had rendered work unnecessary ; good look* ntul a natural- 
ly ingratiating manner had precluded the need for mental equip- 
ment; while his social position had unfairly protected him from 
any share iu the rough-and-tumble existence that moulds and 
hurdens a man's character. At fifteen he had I iron an average 
healthy public- school boy: at flve-and-twenty he was a fashionable 
young aristocrat, whose only business in life was thp aiding 
and abetting of his mule in the absorbing pursuit of killing 
lime. 

lie liowrd now to Clodagh with the extreme impressiveness 
that men of his type bestow upon a new and promising introduc- 
tion. 

"Charmed to meet vou, Mrs. Milhanke!" he said. “Are you a 
resident here— -or a bird of passage like ourselves?" He indicated 
Barnard. 

Clodagh met his intent gaze with a renewed thrill of speculative 
pleasure. 

“My husband ami I live at Florence," she explained. “We are 
only lien* on buxines* — which sound* a desecration." 

Scrracaiild continued to watch her. 

“ Not if you have any share in it,” he replied, in a very low 
voice. 

She laughed and blushed. 

“ I'm afraid you speak from inexperience." she said. “To the 
people who know me I am a very prosaic person." 

She looked involuntarily at Milliatike. 

But Milhutike's eyes were on the groups of hotel guests, already 
moving towards the dining-room. 

" Don’t .vou think we might — might make a move — ?” he hazarded, 

vaguely. 

There was a very slight pause, then Serracuuld responded to 
the suggestion. 

“You are quite right!" he anid. easily. “I expert my uncle I* 
looking for me; he usually gets fidgety about feeding-time. Will 
you r xeu.se me, Mrs. Milhanke? Perhaps later on I shall have 
the cluim-e of correcting that inexperience you accuse me of.” 
lie laughed pleasantly, und with 
a courteous gesture disappeared 
into the crowd that was fast 
filing out of the hall. 

As he disappeared Clodagh 
turned towards the dining-room, 
leaving Milbuiike and Barnard 
to follow: but she had scarcely 
crossed the hall when the latter 
overtook her. 

“ Well, Mr*. Milhanke,” he 
said, genially, “what do you 
think of our young friend? I lx- 
lieve he usually finds favor in 
ladies’ eyes." 

She glanced up. 

“ I think him very charming." 
she said, candidly. “ Who is he? 

Do you know him well?” 

Barnard smiled. 

“ I know him since he was a 
boy at Kton. He is nephew of 
the famous Lord Drerehurst, 
who, according to rumor, spends 
three hundred a year on silk 
socks, mid lathes every morning 
in merited milk." 

t’lodagh made un exrlumution 
of disgust. 

“ What an abominuhle per- 
son!" 

\gain Barnard smiled. 

" Well. I don't quite know," |*s 
said, tolerantly. “ Humor is 
generally a yard or two in front 
of reality. Perhaps Dccrrhnrst 
i* rut lie r n mummiti.-d old rout; 
but then, you know, embalming 
is a elm n process. Mrs. Mil- 
Imuke, Is-fore as well as after 
death. I sound irnes wonder 
whether our friend Valentine 
will put the family money to 
such harmless use. if he ever 
succeeds to the title. He is next 
in the succession but for one 
feeble life.” 

Clodugh ’* eyes widened. 

" Really!” she said, 
should never have connected him 
with *o milch responsibility.” 

Barnard looked down at her. 

“ Hesponsibillty !” he said. 

“ Where have you bevn hiding 


yourself, that you should couple a modern peer with responsibilities? 
I assure you if a duke or an earl is an ull-roimd good fellow 
nowadays nobody will trouble to inquire further. But what bus 
become of your husband?” 

lie nuuned and glanced round the fast emptying hall. 

As lie did so Milhanke hurried up. his manner newly interested, 
his thin fare flushed. 

"Whom do you think I have just seen, Clodagh?” he asked, ex- 
citedly. "Mr. Angelo Tombs — that interesting scientist who joined 
our fairly at Pisa last year!” 

Clodagh looked round. 

“What?” she said, in surprise. “The big. untidy-looking man 
with a face like a goat, who had written u book on something 
terribly unpronounceable?” 

Milhanke nodded gravely. 

“ Yes,” he said. " A most interesting and exhaustive work. I 
shall make a point of congratulating him upon it directly we have 
fini-hed dinner.” 

“ And what alsiut me?” Barnard eyed him quizzically. 

“You! Oh, you must wait, David! You will umh-r-tund that 
a man like Mr. Tombs is not to lie met with every day.” 

They were entering the dining - room as Millmuke spoke, and 
involuntarily Barnard glanced from the precise, formal figure 
of hi* friend to the youthful, attractive form of hi* friend's 
wife. 

“And you. Mrs. Milhanke?” he asked, in an undertone. “Are 
you an equally great enthusiast? Dm** the antique appeal very 
forcibly to you?” 

A* he put the question he was conscious of its irony, but an Irre- 
pressible curiosity forced him to utter it. lie was slill lalioring 
under an intense surprise at Milbanke's choice of a wife, and the 
de-ire to probe the nature of this strange relationship was strong 
within him. 

“ Are you like the man in the Eastern story?” he ndded. “ Would 
you barter new lamps for old?" 

Clodagh was walking in front of him as he put the question, 
and Milt*inke was left momentarily behind. For a second she made 
no reply: then suddenly she turned and east a bright glance over 
her shoulder. 

“ If you had asked me that question this morning. Mr. Barnard." 
she said, “ I don't believe I could have answered it. But now I 
ran. I would not part with one new, bright, comfortable lamp 
for a hundred olil ones — no matter how rare. Am I a great 
vandal ?” 

Her eye* were shining with the excitement of the moment, and 
her face looked beautifully und eagerly alive. 

" Am I a great vandal ?” she 
repeated, softly. 

There was an instant’s pause; 
then Barnard stepped closer to 
licr side. 

“ No, Mrs. Milhanke.” he said. 
" But you arc a very unmis- 
takable child of Eve.” 

The dinner that night was a 
feast to Clodugh. She sat be- 
tween Milhanke and Barnard, 
and though the former was si- 
lently engrossed in the thought 
of hf* coming interview, und. for 
the time l**ing. the latter con- 
fined his talk to impersonal sub- 
ject*. she felt as she had never 
felt before in the spnn of her 
twenty-two years. For the first 
time she was conscious of being 
a woman — privileged by right 
divine to receive the homage mid 
the consideration of men. It was 
a wonderful, a thrilling discov- 
ery ; all the more thrilling and 
all the more wonderful ls-raii*e 
shrouded as yet in a veil of 
mystery. 

Dinner wa* half-way through 
before Barnard relumed to bis 
task of studying her individ- 
ually; then he turned to her with 
hi* most suavely confidential 
manner. 

“ Have you been very gav in 
Florence this *ru*on?” hr asked. 
She looked up qtiirkly. 

“ Oay ?" she re|ieuted. "Oh 
no! I don't think we are ever 
exactly gay.” 

lie raised hi* eyebrow*. 

“ Indeed!" he said. “You 
surprise me! There used to be 
quite nn amusing English crowd 
at Florence." 

Clodagh colored, feeling vague- 
ly conscious of some want in her 
social equipment. 

“ Oh, I don’t mean the other 
English residents,” she corrected, 
hastily. " I meant ourselves — 
James and I.” 

Barnard's fare la-eaine pro- 
foundly interested- 



Unn ty )•« C«m 

“She walked three ntrpA ahead of him to aroid arrinf Aim” 


10S5 


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HARTER’S W EEKLY 


*■ Hut Won't you rare for «o- 
clety?" In* sail], hid ryes trav- 
el I inf; expressively over her 
elaborate (Irriis. 

Again she colored. 

" It isn't that." she said, in 
it low, quirk voice. " James 
doesn't care about parties — or 
people- 

Hu run rd s lips ] mu ted to ex- 
press surprise or sympathy, 
nut she finished her sentence 
hastily. 

" — And of course 1 like what 
he likes." 

Knrnaril la-nt his Wad. 

“Of course," lie -aid. enigma! 
icully. und dropped back into si- 
lence. 

For a lime he remained ap- 
imreiitly ahsorlied in his dinner. 

Then. as t'lodugh l*-gun to won 
der uncomfortably whether she 
had hum itt ingly offended him. 
turned to her again. 

“Mrs. Milhankc." he said. 

“ would you think me very pre- 
sumptuous if I were to iniiki- a 
little pro|M>*al?" 

Chiilngh brightened. 

"Of course not. Way anything 
you like.” 

** You will be here for a 
Week T" 

“ I — I hope so.” .She glanced 
covertly at Millunkr. 

“Oh yes. you will I I shall 
arrange it." 

She Innkid at him quickly. 

“ You?" she said. “ How?" 

" Never mind howl" He 
smiled reassuringly. " You will 
Is- here for a week, an<l in.v prn- 
posal is t lull while Millinnkr is 
settling his business I should he 
allowed to introduce you to some 
Knglish friends of mine who are 
in Venice just now. It may he 
piesiinipluous. but I seem to 
feel ” — lie hesitated for a mo- 
ment — " I aeem to feel that you 
want to make new friends — that 
you want to have a good time, 

Forgive my being so blunt !" 

t’lodugh sat silent. She fell no resentment at his words, hut 
they vuguelv rmlai Trussed her. The new possibility thrilled her, 
yet insensiblv she Wsitutrd la-fore it. 

“ Hut nogilt I to want new friends’" she asked ut lust, in n 
very low and undecided voice. 

Itaniard laid down the glass that lie was lifting to Itis lips, and 
looked at her quickly. Her freshness charmed, while her naivete 
pux/h-d him. 

"Well, Mrs. MillMiiikc." he said, suddenly, “suppose we And 
that out?" 

And leaning forward, he addressed Milhankc. 

"•lames.” he said. "I have • just • la-en making a little sug- 
gestion. While you and 1 are putting our ancient heads 

together, don’t you think .Mr*. .Milhankc ought to study 

her Venice — local color — atmosphere — all that sort of 
thing ?” 

Milhankc turned in his seal. 

" Kb. David?" lie exclaimed. “ What's that von say?" 

" I was suggesting that Mrs.' Milhankc should see a little of 
Venire now that she is here." 

He indicated the long window* of the dining-ioom. through 
which the sound of voices and light music was already lacing borne 
on the purple twilight. 

MillK.uk.'* face Is-i-ame slightly disturbed. 

"Of course — of course!" hr- mi id. Vaguely. "Hut — hut neither 
of us earrs much for conventional sightseeing : ami then, you know, 
mj time here is limited.''' 

" Kxaetly! Kxactly what I was saying. Your time is valuable. 
All the more danger of Mrs, Milhankc'* hanging heavy on her 
hands. Now there are somq charming people staving here at 
present who would lie only too ddighHsl to make her visit 
pleasant." 

Mi Ilia tike's expression cleared. 

" Oh. well — " he began, in a relieved voice. 

"Kxactly! Lady France* Hope i* hen*. Yon remember laidy 
Franeea, who married niv rotisin Xanifny Hope the rc-d-hrnded lit- 
tle laggnr who went min the navy? She would Is- immensely in- 
terested in Mr*. Milhankc. I wish you would let me make them 
known to each other." 

He smiled suavely, thoroughly in his clement ut the pruspcct of 
working a little social scheme. 

Millumkc looked at t'lndngh. 

" What do you think, my dear?" he asked, vaguely, 

t’lodngh looked down at her plate. 

" I don’t quite know." she murtnured. 

Huiuird leaned close to her in u confiding manner, 


"Quite right, Mrs. Mil- 
Imnke!" he said. " Never trim- 
hle to ana lyre your feelings, 
•lust give them a free rein. 
I.ndy Franeea Hope is a most 
eh a rating woman. Always 
bright, always good-natured, al- 
ways in the swim — if you un- 
derstand that very expressive 
phrase.” 

t’lodagli smiled as she IicI[m*I 
hei-s-lf to an in-. During their 
•■outer** I ion the dinner had 
drawn towards it» close, and 
here ami there |>coidr were al- 
ready rising from the table and 
moving towards the hall nr the 
long windows that opened on to 
the canal. Unconsciously her 
eyes turned in the direction of 
these o|K-n windows, through 
which a HcmnI of light streamed 
out uisin the water, bringing into 
prominence the dark gomlohis 
tleil lliltcd perpelually to and 
fro lik'- great hlaik Imt*. 

Swing her glance, Hu r mini 
turned to hrr again. 

“Shall we charter a gondola?" 
lie asked. " It's the thing to do 
here." 

Her eves -park led. 

“Oh. how lovely!" she said: 
then involuntarily her face fell 
and she looked at her husliand. 

'* Hut perhaps — " she began, 
dep n-ent ingly. 

As till- word escaped her. Mil- 
I mi nke. who had l**rn oblivious 
«»f tin- conversation, pushed liuc-k 
hi* chair and rose from the tn 
hie with a faint exclamation of 
excitement. 

“All. there he is!" lie cried, 
his eyes tlxisl upon a distant 
corner of the room. “ There lie 
is! I must not run the risk of 
missing him!" 

Clodagh turned to him 
eagerly. 

" .lames.” she began, " Mr. 
Hurnaid say* — ” 

Hut Milluinkt-’s mind wu» else- 
where. 

“ My dear," lie said, hurriedly. " you must really excuse me. A 
man like Mr. Angelo Tomlw i* a personage of importance.” 

“ Yes: hut. .lames — " 

She paused, disconcerted. MilUmke had left the table. 

For quite a minute slo- sot silent, her cheeks burning and her 
eyes smarting with a sudden, intolerable sense of mortification and 
neglect. To a reasoning and ek|H-rieiieed mind the incident would 
llllV<• enrrieil no weight; at must it would hale olfered grounds for 
a passing amusement. Hut with ('lodugli the cum- was different. 
Circumstance* hud m-ver dniininh-il the <-ultivation of her reason, 
mid experieiii-r was an asset she was not nmwis»i-i| of. To her 
sensitive, youthful susceptibilities the incident could only wear 
one complexion. Her hu-Uind had obviously ami wittingly liu 
milintcd her in presence of hi* friend. 

Slo- sat with lightened lip*, staring unsceirigly at the 
table. 

Then suddenly and softly some one crossed the room behind 
her and paused la-side her chair. Turning with a little start. *he 
saw the |ailc, clean-cut features and searching dark eyca of Val- 
entine Serracnuld. 

" Mr*. MilUmke." he s.i id. at once, in hi* easy, ingratiating 
voice, "if you are not doing anything else this i selling, may I 
jdair mV uncle's gondola .it your disposal? Itnlli he and I would 
Is- considerably hunoied if you and your IiiisIkiikI 

t'lodugh looked up into hi* face with a quick glams- of pleasure 
and relief. 

"Oh, thunk you!" she said. "Thank you so very much! I 
should love to come, only my hnsUiiid i* — is bu*v to-niglit." 

She paused ; and in the pause Il.irnurd leaned close to her again, 
with his must friendly and reassuring manner. 

"After all, Mrs. Milhanke." he said. ” do you think that nerd 
preclude you frum the enjoyment? .lames is |*crfcctly happy; 
L«rd Dei-rehurst's gondola is quite the most comfortable in Venice; 
und I'm sure I'ih slaiil enough to play propriety! Suppose we 
make a party of four?" 

Kernienuhi laughed delightedly. 

" ||ow splendid!" hi' said. “ Mrs. Milliaiikc. may I And my uncle 
und bring him to U- introduced?" 

lie U nt forward qiiicklv. leaning across Millunke's empty chair. 

For one second t'lotlugli -at irresolute: (lien she glanced swift 
ly from one interested, ad miring fare to the other, and again the 
hliaul rushed into her fare with a wave of self conscious pride. 
With a sudden smile *lu- looked up into Si-rrai-aiilil'* rye*. 

“ Vi *." .-he said, softly. " V* -. Itring your unde to be intro- 
duced." 

To In- Con flawed. 



The ttinnrr that night tnta u feat! tv Vlodagh 


1050 

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Trying to put it out. — Philadelphia Inquirer. 


'Taint tainted." — HVj«Ain«/fon ft'i 




Correspondence 


THK FLAG AT HALF-MAST 

Mwoaaaaa, 1. T„ 7m J.1, toos. 

To the Editor of Ha rfirr'a Weekly * 

8lH,~ Thrrr hu* la-on a {[rmt rival of trouble in llw Imlinn Ter- 
ritory over tin* collection of tribal luxe*. The law it mi pel ling per- 
sons not citizens of tlic diUrrrnt tribes to pay certain taxes a* a 
permit to do hnKiiiot* in the various nation* was |is*«il by the 
Indian Legislature and approved by President McKinley. The 
Secretary of the Interior wna authorized to collect these taxes. 
Certain ’merchants sought to enjoin the Secretary of the Interior 
from making collections. The Federal courts decided the tax to be 
legal, and the opposition to the Secretary and Ilia order to collect 
In-came very pronounced. It was proposed to hang the flag at 
half-mast on July 4 to show the bitter feeling existing against 
the order. 

Tin* attention of Judge Raymond, Chief Justice of the l-nitcd 
States Court of Appeal* for Indian Territory, having been called 
to these suggestion* to hang the Hag at half roast on July 4. he 
issued an order to tire United State* Commissioner* to arrest any 
person on the spot who attempted such an outrage. 

I thought you might la* interested in the matter, as it is per- 
haps (he fir**, time in our history when a Federal judge lias issued 
such an order. It certainlv has a patriotic ring about it. and 
shows that the judge intern!* no iu-oill shall come to the Hag iu 
this new country. I am. »ir. 

D. F. Dickey, Court Keporter. 


Order to United State* CommiuutHcra. 

If any citizen attempts In fly the flag of this Union nt. half- 
mast anywhere iu the Indian Territory on .Inly 4 because he wa* 
cum | h- I led under older of the Secretary of the Interior to pay his 
tribal tax, which the Federal court* nave decided to lie legal, he 
should lie arrested on the spot. 

Hem use a citizen may not agree with the action of any branch 
of this government i* no reason why he should insult the flag of 
our mimnon country, to which every citizen of the land owes pro- 
found respect ami perfect loyalty, and furnishes no excuse for 
hanging nt half-mast the stars and stripes representing the power 
and glory of the republic. 

This i* not a matter of party politics. A hasty, ill-advi*cd 
course would cause irreparable damage to the good people of the 
Territory in the future. 

It may lie that un officer of the government can la* abused, but 
you shall not insult the flag of our country. 

If every citizen of the country should la- permitted to bang the 
Hag at half-mast every time he failed to agree with the Chief 
Executive of the nation, the ruling of some cabinet officer, some 
act of tlie Congress of the United States, or some decision of our 
Federal courts, and thus insult the emblem of our sovereignty, the 
man whose |sa t riot ism is alive would at once resent it. riot* would 
ensue — bitter feud* arise — friendly rrlation between the different 
sections of the country he disturbed, and universal unrest be the 
ugly brood of such a vicious practice. 

To adopt such a course would lend to anarchy, and violate the 
peace of this country so much desired by all good citizen*. 

(\ W. Raymond. 

Judge United State* Court. 


BOSTON'S MUSICAL TASTE 

Boalos. 7"t> It, i 0 »f 

To the Editor of It a r/*r‘* llVflfl# ; 

Sin. — I write to you concerning the last symphony concert of 
the Boston season, which was marked by an extraordinary burst 
of enthusiasm at the performance of Strauss's “ Don Juan." Se- 
vere tilings have been said recently alsmt Boston’s musical taste. 
Some of them are too true; hut I think the voc iterant behavior 
of this audience proves very definitely that in one respect our 
musical instinct is worthy of any metropolis. The huge congrega- 
tion in Symphony Hall applauded Richard Straus* wildly. It 
cannof Is- laid to the performance, which was somewhat finical 
and labored, nor to the mere effect of brilliant sonority, for even 
Strauss i« not heard lo advantage in the had acoustic* of Sym- 
phony Hall. Neither was it due to claque effort* on the part of 
openly avowed Strau*s enthusiast*. Tlie immense audience of 
three thousand clup|*-d and shouted as one man. Mr. Gerleke 
bowed his thanks several times, then with difficulty made the 
orchc*tra -land up and Itow. and a* the general uproar continued 
this was gone through with again. It was like an echo of the 
#ceiK> of a year ago, when tlie composer conducted hi* own works. 
It goes to show that our interest in hi* music lot* not slackened in 
the least, a* so many sceptics predicted would happen. We ln«t 
our head* that night with ciitliu*hu*in, like anytliwg but staid 
Bostonian*. As a municipality wc showed ourttlttt loyal ad- 
mirer* of St rau**. 

Tims much for one evening: but a more significant light is 
thrown mom the Boston mind when it i* remembered that during 
tin- lust four or five year*— to he definite, from the fir*t and only 
production of “ Ein llcldenlchen " in Boston in 1001 — the Strati** 
tone |NM'ms have been the only purely orchestral work* to arouse 
unfeigned |H>ptilnr enthusiasm. In every ease they have been 
cheered, after rendering* which were somewhat spiritless, though 
leclinically satisfactory. This fact has caused many sincere inu- 
sician*, professional and amateur, to question the far-sightedness 
of our orchestra's management, in spite of it* generosity. We 
possess u virtuoso orchestra and a public which is avid for the 
works of n great and little known roiiipoaer. We have lift > con- 
cert* in our city a year, and a numls-r of other* in m-ighlioring 
towns. And yet not in one sea-on have more than two of the 
greater toiie-porm* Is-en performed. This year it was uiilv one. 
" Don .luan," a work probably inferior to all the other*, t'luinor 


berame so urgent that it was repented at the last concert, with 
the scene above described, when the " Meistrrsinger ” overture, 
which followed, fell upon almost indifferent curs. Four or five 
season* ago we had during the entire year only the juvenile 
" Italian suite.” " Zarathu»tra " ha* Imtii given only »nw under 
Mr. Cericke's regime, and the same is true of " lleldenleben " and 
“ Don Quixote," probably the finest work* of all. excluding the 
", Symphonic Doroe*tica. a* yet unknown here. And how many 
time* have we heard " Death and Transfiguration," a work which 
from every |»oint of view, musical and moral, ought to be played 
to audience* a* frequently a* five or ten time* a »nuum! Not a 
quarter a* many time* in tlie pu»t decade! Surely the alignia of 
prov ineiali»ni ought not to be placed u|*jii the lfo*ton music loving 
public, hut upon the unfortunute and life- quench ing conservatiniu 
of those who direct the policy of our famous orchestra. 

1 have taken the liberty of writing about our Straus* excite- 
ment. because it i* the conspicuous feature of musical life here, 
a* in all other civilized cities at the present time. We ask for 
this musical tonic, and it i* given to o« in homoeopathic do-.-*. 
Nevertheless, it does something toward redeeming our reputation. 
If we do neglect the opera, and do |»crfnrm the same oratorio at 
l'liri*tmu* continuously for a century, we at least »how that we 
are musically alive when a work of Ntrau** is performed, other 
composer*, too, are making their wav with u*. and it i* per hap* 
not too much to any that the American cult of Delwssy i* centred 
in Bunion. 1 am, sir, 

Kiciiabd Saville. 


EDUCATING THK FILIPINOS 

Port Lrs vck*o*th. Kas . July I t«of. 
To the Editor of Harper a WtcLIy: 

Kin, — Referring to the article iu the Weekly of June 24 headed 
“Are we Educating the Filipino**" while few person* that have 
spent several year* in the island* are prepared to accept Mr. 
Willard Frcncfi's statement that, "outside of Manila, there is 
not, even in Luzon, one native in a thousand who can speak a 
word of Spuni-h,” still thrre is a philological reason way the 
Tagalog (not “ Tagnlo,” which is the Spanish failure to pronounce 
and spell the word, nor "Tagal." which is no word at alii learn*, 
and will continue to learn, English better and faster than he 
learned Spnnish- 

The elements of all Tagulog words are precisely the same in 
sound as those of English word*. Every Tagalog word can lie 
accurately -polled with the vowels and consonant* Used in Eng- 
lish. Not so with the Spanish alphabet. There an- in many of 
the commonest Tagalog words «ound-elrrnrnt* that cannoL be 
accurately represented by the letters found in the Spanish alpha- 
bet. The word carabao, for example, is not pronounced carabao 
at all by the natives, but karaboir ; and it was so Fuelled by -lo**- 
Rizal in all of his writings. So with all other Tagalog words eon 
taining the sound oir, which doe* not exist in Castilian word*. In 
writing Tagalog word*, the nearest resemblance to this sound 
which (lie Spaniard could make with his alphabet was to substi- 
tute ao — broad r» and long o. 

The Spaniard had the **me difficulty in representing the long 
sound of i found in many Tagalog words. Thi* sound does not 
exist in any Castilian word*, and cannot la- accurately represented 
by the letter* of the Spanish alphabet. Tile nearest Spanish 
equivalent i* ay. lienee we find the town in Luzon wbo>*e name 
the native* pronounce Mihi (l*dh *'» long! s|H-llcd Majayjav on 
the Spanish map*. Thi* word also illustrate* the difficulty the 
S|Nuiiurd had in representing the consonant sound of h found in 
many Tagalog word*, but not perfectly represented by the Spanish 
sound of the letter j which had to be sulmtitutcd. 

Generally speaking, then, the Tagalog has little difficulty in 
pronouncing the common English word*, for he finds in them (lie 
same sound-elements a* those of hi* own tongue. 

I am, air, M. F. Steele. 


A NEW HOLIDAY 

Lvas, July 4, tfeS 

To I hr Editor of ffer/ar’i Weekly: 

Sir. — It appear* rather strange to me that not one of the 
forty-five commonwealths in our republic ha* ever considered the 
date of the framing of the Uonstituti'in of the United State* of 
America at Philadelphia as wortli commemoration by the enact- 
ment of a legal holiday. Sonic of the States observe holiday* 
local in significance and not recognized by their nearest neigh- 
bor*. It is plain that September 17, 17H7. was second only in mi 
portnnrr in our history to July 4. 17711. If the Declaration of 
Independence is the corner-stone of n glorious republic, the Fed- 
eral Constitution i* the completed edifice of a magnificent Union. 
Without the Constitution the Declaration la-come* of little value. 
The 17th day of September *lmuld Ik* ntmerved with patriotic 
veneration. 

The great instrument of nationality, for the preservation of 
which hundred* of thousand* of our loyal citizen* gave their lives, 
eeawl to be an experiment after nearly eighty year* of test and 
strain. It ha* meant far more since IHtM than before the filial 
overthrow of the doctrine of State right*, and 'it will mean still 
nem- to ns with each coming year. Intelligent citizen* ought to 
lie perfectly familiar not only with it* spirit, but with every sec- 
tion mid clau-e. It certainlv i« well worth an hour's time on 
every anniversary of it* adoption by the member* of the Constitu- 
tional t 'nitveril ion to *tmly it carefully and weigh just bow near 
our government at Washington i-oiim** to respecting it* imperative 
provisions. I am, sir. 


107, N 


Go< 



HARPER'S W F. E K I- Y 


Making Phosphorus by 
Electricity 

Ijr tin* (treat field of induct rial chemistry 
made hv the high temperatures ob- 

tained in the electric furnace, one of the 
ri-ii'fit am) application* i« the pro- 

duction of phuspburm*. Electricity ban l«t-n 
used for this purpose for several Year* in 
Europe, mid the prow** ha* been so |>cr- 
fii'twl that not only can n cheaper raw 
iiuitrrinl Ikt used, but the product oliiuined 
in cleaner, ami can lie sold at u higher 
price, while at tire name time the entire 
piwew i* subject to a more exact control. 
For over one hundred year* phosphorus bus 
lieen obtained by rousting animal bone*, 
which were then powdered and treated with 
Miliihtiric acid, no that a solution of calcium 
hydrogen phosphate «u> obtained, which was 
then evaporated, and the resulting paste 
wa* heiiletl in a clay retort to a high tem- 
perature. Thus by distillation n mixture 
of phosphorus vujmr and cflrbon monoxide 
was obtained, the former being condensed 
undrr water in the form of crude phos- 
phorus, which then requires rediet illation. 

Many practical difficult ira were experi- 
cneed in working this process, especially the 
breaking of the retorts ami a loss of the 
sulmtunce hy leakage through the walls. The 
electric furnace, on the other ham), enables 
the manufacturer to dispense with sulphuric 
acid, and the Itom-s are mixed with sand and 
(harixail. The silicic acid of the sand com- 
bine* with the lime in the bones to form 
calcium silicate, while the phosphorus is 
distilled «w in the form of vapor and con* 
densed. There is im leakage or diffusion of 
the gn*. a* iron cylinder* lined with fire- 
clay are employed, and temperatures a* 
high ■* 1500* Centigrade are obtained and 

1 ISf«J, 

The current is introduced by cnrfmn 
electrode*. and the apparatus is so arranged 
that the process' is <-ontinunu*. since the 
call iuiii silicate ran l»e removed from the 
Isiltom of t lie* vessel while in a molten con- 
dition. and the raw materials can he intro- 
dnred from the top. Although in use in 
Germany for a very few years, over one- 
third of the production of phosphorus is 
made in this way. and the application of the 
new proves* is extending to other countries. 


The Origin of Radium 

Professor F. Snouv lias made recently 
some interesting contributions to our knowl- 
edge of radium, ulauit whose pmholile origin 
thrre has lw«-n so much speculation. Itadium 
is now believed to In* derived from some 
parent element which i* di*eniiip<*«iiig at a 
very slow rate, and Professor Soddy not 
only siip|Hirts this view, hut slates that 
from the disintegration of rndiuni must fol- 
low other ami I tel ter • known elements. On 
the assumption that there i* such a parent 
dement and the quantity of radlmti is 
minute, this ixnent element must exist in 
large amount*, and it nm*t have a large 
atomic weight in order to give radium on 
it» disintegration, a process that i* known 
to Is- very slow, 

The only two clement* answering these 
requirement* are uranium and thorium, ami 
as the former is practically' always found 
in (sp|ii|uiny with radium it ninsl In* the sub- 
stance sought. Professor Soddy lias been 
aide to demonstrate this fact experimentally 
by obtaining from urnniiini, which original- 
ly was free front radium, an umuist.ikahle 
cmaiiiil ing power. The original uranium, il 
was proved, did not posses* the power of 
emitting an emanation, and as the emana- 
tion thus obtained seemed to Is* in all re- 
aper! n identieal with that of radium, it 
seemed a proper inference that the uranium 
in the course of its decomposition was pro- 
ducing radium. 

Profs* nor Soddy believes that radium, 
actinium, nod polonium are Intermediate 
products in the disintegration of radium, 
and that the ultimate prodm-t must Is- an 
element of lighter atomic weight and should 
be a known substance. The logical candi- 
date* for such a position are bismuth mid 
lend, and inasmuch as the latter occurs ill 


ADVERTISING SECTION 


the uranium-radium minerals the preponder- 
ance of opinion is in its favor. This seem* 
in a fair way soon to la- nettled, as |M»lonnnn 
not only i.* easily obtained, but also change* 
very* rapidly, ami the question of deciding 
definitely on this final piotlncl is apparently 
only one of cost and experiment. 


Too Much Cheese 

DURING one of his campaigns “Private" 
John Allen stopped at a cross-roads store. 
While he wa* exchanging news with tin* 
proprietor an old darky from one of the 
plantations came in. When his purchase 
of " middlin' an' meal " had been wrapped 
up he started out. At (he door he paused. 
"(W enny rhm*, how!" he nski-d. 

” Why. yes.” said the clerk. |» out ing to a 
freshl.v opened ran of uxle-grense on the 
counter-. hox just opened.” 

Tin* darky Insrkcsl at it hungrily. “ How 
much f*’ he asked. 

“ Give it to him fur ten rents, and throw 
in the crackers." said Mr. Allen. 

“All right," said the clerk, filling a bag 
with cracker*. " Here yon nre," 

The diirkv laid a greasy dime on the 
counter, picked up the box and the hag. and 
going out. neated himself in the shade of a 
cot Inn- hale, Whin he hud finished the 
erackrra he ran hi* finger around the box 
and gave it a good long lick, (n a few mo- 
ment* lie put on hi* hat and started for hia 
mule As he passed the "tore Mr, Allen 
hailed him. 

“ Well, .Jerry, what did you think of that 
lunch V 

The old darky scratched hip head, then 
he said. “ I tell you dr* triif. Mars John, 
deni crackers wo/, all right, hut dnt nuz d»- 
ransoinest cheese I uver et 1" 


Aovtra to Mot**** — M»« WiMint'i Soonuao St sec 
*>miuV 1 always awl (« ir rtililim trethimr. It th* 

chilil. *illcm the ftitn*. aSayt *11 Min. cun* wind rotir. and 
a the lest renmly kit Jorrtimi — (.4 J*.) 


tt i. * 

LA* I 


■s'* fUm.ll 
<<M by all li 


“THE ORIGIN At, 

Rut MU Oasatim Mux no-t the Civil War 
ra.1. " TN K.i||W Ilrarul it at.tl ll.r Van.lael 
iKl-chtat (ffoiet*. A foil! tinVnuwn lu-jn.lt .— 


THK REST WORM LOZENGES for CHILDREN an- 
BROWN o VERMIFUGE COMFITS, is omU a tma.— |d<A- 1 


SnreRM wd ^W c ^ri!l Am! Pim^Obrr mu CB» 

v»r BROWN'S Cami’h.watwl Sufitsixuu* DENTIFRICE 
for ttm TEETH. *1 emts a jar.-l.tS.l 

Pears’ 

My grandmother 
used Pears’ Soap ; 
perhaps yours did, 
too. We owe them 
gratitude for that. 

Use Pears’ for 
the children; they 
soon acquire the 
habit. 

Established in 1789 - 

1050 



Liqueur 


| Pots ehartreiR 


LIQUEUR. 


PERES CHARTREUX 

—GREEN AND YELLOW- 

THIR FAMOUS CORDIAL. NOW MADS AT TARRA. 
QOS A. STAIN. WAS FOR CENTURIES DISTILLED 
BV THK CARTHUSIAN MONKS (TIvRKS CHAH- 
TRF.l’Xl AT THE MONASTERY UF LA GRANDE 
CHARTREUSE. FRANCE AND KNOWN THROUGH- 
OUT THK WORLD AS CHARTREUSE. THE ABOVE 
ClT REPRESENTS THK BUTTLE AND LABEL 
EMPLOY Kl) t.N THE PUTTING UP OP THK ARTI- 
CLE SINCE THK MONKS' EXFUIAION PROM 
PRANCE, AND IT IS NOW KNOWN AS I.IQCKIIK 
1'f.KKS CIIAKTIIKI X (THK MONKS. HOW- 
EVER . STILL RETAIN THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT 
TO USE THE OLD BOTTLE. AND LABEL AS WELL I. 
DISTILLED HY THK SAME ORDER Of MONKS 
Wllo HAVE SECURELY GUARDED THK SECRET 
OP ITS MANUFACTURE FOR HUNDREDS OP 
YEARS AND WHO ALONE POSSESS A KNOWL- 
EDGE OP THE ELEMENTS OP THIS DELICIOUS 
NECTAR. 

As f.re .Lttt Win* MmcbaaN, Germ, INrtl. Ctfrx. 

Iiaijer & Co. «s Eruadway. New Y«tk, N. V . 

Kills A|jeiil» fu* Lulled State*. 


Fishing in 
Wisconsin 

is I he heal *-|>art the Summer wcusua 
tiTrm. Al FAdd. Chain «' Lakes, Htsl- 
Irrnul, Cohan*. High Bridge. Mwi-nSn, 
Nekixwh*. Waupaca itfid a hundred other 
place* I he man who likes (o fish enn 
■pend a vacation Im will never forget. 
A> lM» Stkng pot. are ...rbot ky .U 

Wisconsin Central 
Railway 

CHICAGO -J ST PAUL. 

flu.tra.p.1 Lf.U.» aU< fa W,*™*,la 

w.N iKMlmw rw«. Addr.u 

JA3. C. POND 

Pvflwwn Slorinr. Gtnelal Pl.WAfif AtMl 

Caf» HarW Cara MILWAUKEE 

Pm HuIMm (-haw Can WIS. 


Service - System - Safety 


SIX MONTHS FREE 

THE MININC HERALD, l «•«"« 

mining ami financial paprr. giving valuable informa- 
tion on mining and imI inamlno, princi)*! rom- 
panies, be>( divklend-nnying xtock*. and showing how 
immense profits may Iw made on absolutely safe in 
vest menu. Write for It Unlay. A. L. WISNKR & 
CO., 3 a Broadway, New York. 



/ /O roi.HCH a or brains 
-MADE AT KKYWMTA- 




I. — Introducing Mr. Raffles Holmes 


I T was a blistering night in August. All tiny long tin 1 mercury 
in the thermometer had been flirting with the figures nt the 
top of tlu* t ills*, on. I thi promised shower at night whieh a 
mendacious Weather Bureau haul hwn prophesying as « slight 
mitigation *»f our sufferings was conspicuous wholly by its 
Rlmriin 1 . I haul but one comfort in the sweltering hours of the day. 
uflrriHNin and evening, and that was that my family were away 
in the mountains, and there was no law against my sitting around 
all day clad only in mv pajamas, and otherwise coneealed from 
possible intruding eye* by tbr wreaths of smoke that I extracted 
from the nineteen or twenty cigars wliieh. when tiiere is no nro- 
testing cy to suggest otherwise, forms my daily allowance. 1 liad 
tried every method known to the resourceful Hat-dweller *»f mtslern 
times to get eool and to stay so. but, alas! it was impossible. Even 
the radiators, wliieh all winter long bad never once given forth a 
spark of heat, now hissed to the loneh of my moistened linger. 
Enough moling drinks to lloat an «ms-.iii grey hound had |msm-i| into 
my inner man. with no other result than to make me perspire more 
irofilselv than ever, and in mi fur as seiiKiition* went, to make me 
eel hotter than before. Finally, n» a last renourrr along about mid- 
night. its gridiron tlnor having hud a chance to I«sm- some of its 
stored-up warmth. I elimlieil out ii|H>n the lire esca|M- at the rear 
of the Kichmere, hitched my hammock from one of the railings 
thereof to the leader running from the roof to the ami. ami swung 
invself therein some eighty feet above the eonereted pavement of 
our baek yard — so called, perhaps, because of its dimensions which 
wen- just about that square. It was a little improvement, though 
nothing to lirag of. What fitful zephyrs there might Is-, caused 
no dmiht by the rapid pussage to and fro on the roof aliove and 
the fence to|>s Ih-Iow of vagrom felines on t'upid's contention* bat- 
tle* 1 * 1 - 11 1 , to the the still air. soughed softly through 

the meshes of mv hammock mid gave some measure of relief, 
grateful enough, for wliieh I reused the perfervid language I had 
I wen using practically since sunrise, mid dozed off. And then 
there entered upon the scene that marvellous mail, Ruffles Holmes, 
of whose exploits it is the purpose of these impels to tell. 

I had dozed perhaps for a full hour when the tirst strange sounds 
grated upon my enr. Somebody had opened a window in the kitrhrn 
of the flrst-tlonr apartment helow. and with a dark lantern wa* in- 
-|M-rting tiie iron platform of the fire-escape without. A moment 
Inter this somebody crawled out of the window, and with move- 
ments 1 hut in themselves were a sufficient indication of the ques- 
tionable character of liis proceedings made for the bidder leading to 
the floor above, upon which many a time and oft had I list climlied 
to home and safety when an inconsiderate janitor had locked me 
out. Every step that he took was stealthy — that much 1 could see 
by the dim starlight. Mis lanli-rii In- lind turned dark again, 
evidently lest he should attract attention in the a|mrtiiients Isdow 
a- lie pnsMil their w indows in his upward flight. 

" llu ! ha!” thought I to myself. •’It’s never too hot for Mr. 
Sneak to get in his line work. I wonder whose stuff he is 
after ?” 

Turning over tint on mv stomach so that I might the more readily 
observe the man’s movements, and breathing pianissimo lest he in 
turn should observe mine. I watched him as he climbed. I'p he 
mine ns silently as the midnight mouse upon a soft carpet up 
pa.-t the .lorkins apartment* on *he second lloor: up stealthily 
by the Tinkletnns abode on the third: up past the fire-escape 
Italian garden of dainty little Mr*. Persimmon <>n the fourth; up 
| tost tl»e windows of the disagreeable (larrawavs kitchen la-low* 
mine, ami then, with the easy grace of a feline, zip! he silently 
landed within reach of mv hand on my own little iron veranda, 
and craning his neck to one side ins-red in through the open win- 
dow ami listened inlenllv for two full minute*. 

" Humph! ' whispered my inner consciousness to itself. " He is 
the coolest tiling I ve -i-i-n since hi -t Christmas left town. I won- 
der what lie i< up to* There's nothing in my apartment worth 


stealing now that my wife and children are away, unless it Is- my 
•flip valet. Nogi, who might make a very excellent cab-driver if I 
could only tlnd word* to lonvey to hi» mind the idea that lie is 
di*< li.ngi-d." 

And then the visitor, apparently having corrertly assured him 
self that there wan no one within, stepped aero-* the window- 
sill and vanished into the darkness of my kitchen. A moment 
later I too entered the window in pursuit, not so close a one. how- 
ever, ns to acquaint him with my proximity. I wanted to sec 
what the chap was up to; ami also tiring totally unarmed ami 
ignorant as to whether or not he curried dangerous weapons I 
determined to go slow for a little while. Moreover, the situation 
wa* not wholly devoid of novelty, and it seemed to me that here nt 
last was abundant opportunity for a new sensation. As he had 
entered, so did he walk cautiously along the narrow bowling-alley 
that serve* for a hallway connecting my drawing room and library 
with the dining-rooni until lie came to the library, into which lie 
disappeared. This was not reassuring to me. la-eause. to tell the 
truth. I value my Imoka more than I do my plate, and if I were to 
be roldted I should much have preferred his taking my plated |date 
from the dining-room than any one of my aditions-de-luxe sets of the 
works of Marie Corelli, I [.ill Caine, and other slundurd authors 
from the library shelves, three in the library he quietly drew the 
shades at the windows thereof to lutr possible intruding eyes from 
without, turned on the electric lights, and proceeded to go through 
my papers as calmly and coolly as though they were his own. In 
a short time, apparently, lie found what he wanted in the shape 
of a royalty statement recently received by me from my pub- 
lishers. and, lighting one of my cigars from a bundle of brevus in 
front of him. took off his emit and sat down to |ieiuse the state- 
ment of my returns. Simple n* it was this act aroused the first 
feeling of resentment in my heart, for the relations Is-tween an 
author nnd his publishers are among the most sacred confidence* 
of life, and the peeping Tom who peers through a keyhole at the 
courtship of a young man engaged in wooing hi* /fairer* is no worse 
an intruder than in- who would tear asidr the veil of secrecy which 
screens the official returns of a ” is-st seller ’ from the public eye. 
Feeling, therefore, that I had permitted matters to proceed as far 
us they should with propriety, I instantly entered ihc room nnd 
confronted my uninvited guest, bracing myself, of course, for the 
defensive onslaught wliieh I naturally o.x|H-ctcd to sustain. But 
nothing of the sort occurred, for the intruder, with a composure 
that was nothing short of marvellous under the circumstance*, 
instead of rising hurriedly like one caught in some disreputable 
art, merely leaned further Isick in the chair, took the cigar from 
his mouth, and greeted me with: 

" llowdv do. sir. What ran I do for you this beastly hot night?” 

The cold rim of a revolver-barrel placed at my temple could 
not more effectually have put me out of business than this non- 
chalant reception. Consequently I ga*|*-d out something almut its 
Ix-ing the sultriest 47th of August in eighteen year*, and plumpml 
bark into a chair opposite him. “ I wouldn't mind a Rcmsrn 
cooler myself.” he went on. " hut the fact is your butler is off 
for to-night, and I'm hanged if I can lind a lemon in the house. 
Maybe you'll join me in a *moke?" lie added, shoving my own 
bundle of hrevas across the table. " Help yourself.” 

” I guess I know where the lemons are,” said 1. 14 But. how did 
you know inv butler wa* out?" 

" 1 telephoned him to go to Philadelphia this afternoon to see 
his brother Yoku. who is ill there.” said mv visitor. ” Yon see. I 
didn't want him around tonight when | called. | knew I could 
manage you alone in ease you turned up. as. you see, you have, hui 
two of you. and one a -lap. I wa* afraid might involve n« all in 
ugly complications. Between you and me. Jenkins, these Orientals 
are* pretty lively lighter*, nnd your man Nogi particularly ha* got 
jiu-jitsu down to a pretty tine point, so | had to do something to 


It MW 


Digitized by Google 


HARPER'S WEEKLY 


Fifty Years of Progress in 
America 

(Cnnlirtwd front /«?</«• 10,11.) 

Iwen slow. but positive. |T»» |o the date of 
the Florid* disaster California was pro- 
ducing about half as many l>oxr*. Owing to 
the incmising appreciation of Hredli*** 
orange* tlint Slate was in a position to make 
a rujiiil increase of its orange crop, and since 
that date California oranges have dominatei] 
the thief markets of the Cnitcd States. 

The Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
injiton has for several years been working 
l«> produce a hardy orange-tree. m> that, al- 
though a severe freeze should destroy the 
fruit of a single season, the tree* would not 
l*e harmed. It is at last successful, by 
crossing the hnrdy trifolita of Jnnan with 
Florida oranges and lemons. This means 
orange and lemon trees that will stand se- 
vere freezing, and the distribution of such 
tree* has already la-gun. 


The Man Behind the Panama 
Canal 

(Continued from paye 10\y) 
rommUsion is in a position to advise after 
it* llrst misting in September, a strong 
foundation for the actual work will have 
ls*en secured. 

The next link in the chain is the chief of 
construction — the man who must be capable 
of carrying out the plans drnwn by the com- 
mission. John F. Stevens, who succeeds John 
F\ Wallace at that onerous |aost , brings to 
the great task an experience of more than 
thirty year* in the service of such large rail- 
road* as the Itock Island system, of which 
he wa* vice-president and general manager, 
and the (Jrent Northern Railroad, where 
lie was rhief engineer and general manager. 
Mr. Stevens was not unknown to the gov- 
ernment, us he had l**cn selected to super- 
vi«c the construction of the Philippine rail- 
ways. The poliry which prompted the selec- 
tion of a railroad man to manage the actual 
construction work of the canal 1 is based on 
the fact that a great part of the work will 
I"' directly connected with railroad manipu- 
lation. Besides the Panama ltail wav there 
will lie hundred* of miles of sidings and 
spur*, us each steam excavator requires a 
Hprei.il spur connecting it with the place 
selected for the reception of the earth taken 
from the canal. 

In one essential we can lie certain there 
will be no rendition of the old Panama 
scandal. Of the five hundred millions or 
more expended by the de la-tscp* company 
an enormous percentage was wasted or 
stolen. Ibis is not possible under present 
condition*. The first task of the government 
was to base the purchasing and exm*nding 
departments upon plans patterned after the 
system followed by the great railways. The 
money appropriated for the building of the 
Panama Canal will lie devoted to that pur- 
pose to the very last cent. 

It ha* ls*cn claimed that time is being 
wasted. Tlie American people are anxious 
to see result*, It i* charged that red taja* 
is clogging the wheels of progress. Irre- 
*non-»ih|e writer* in the public pres* say 
that no definite policy is being followed. 

'I he fact of tlie mutter is, the actual enn- 
st met ion work has been pushed ahead too 
fa-t. Not enough tiim* for the proper sani- 
tation of the canal route hn* been allowed, 
and suifieimt time has not been devoted to 
necessary experimental work. Tlie adminis- 
tration knows this, and in future there will 
Is* even more deliberation. Public clamor 
will Is ignored when it is irrca|ton*iblc and 
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1 <n;i 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


Com/lmmrJ from pogt JOflO. 

get rid of him. Our 
arrangement i* * mat- 
ter for two, not three, 
anyhow.” 

“ So," wi id I. cold- 
ly. “ You and I have 
an arrangement, have 
wet I wasn't aware 
of it." 

“ Not yet." lie an- 
swered. “ lint, there's* 
a elm lire that We nuiy 
have. If I run only 
satisfy myself that 
vou are the man I'm 
looking for, there is* 
no earthly remain that 
I can sec why we 
should not (iimr to 
term*. (So on out and 
get I tie lemon* and 
tin* gin and *oda, uml 
let!* talk thin tiling 
over man to man like 
n couple of good fcl 
low* at the e I nh, I 
mean you no harm, 
and you certainly 
don't wi*h to do any 
kind of injury to a 
chap who, even though 
a p ii e a r a n e e * arc 
against him, really 
ineuiiN to do you a 
good turn." 

" Apjieurunre* err- 
tainly are again*! 
you, *ir," Mild I, a 
trifle warmly, for the 
man'* compontire wa* 
irritating. “A dinari- 
pearaiu-e would lie 
more likely to do you 
credit at this mo- 
ment." 

“ Tu*h. Jenkins ! " hr 
a n m w e r e d. '* Why 
wu*te breath wiving 
aid f - evident thing*? 

Here you are on the 
verge of a Idg trail* 
action, and you delay 
proceed iiig* by ma- 
king statement* of 
fuel*, mixed in with 
a cheap wit which. I 
must imife**. I find 
surprising. and *o 
obvious a* to Im- visi- 
ble even to the blind. 

You don't talk like an 
author whose stufT is 
worth ten rent* a 
word — more like a penny-a-liner, in fart, with whom words are of 
such small value that no one's the lo*cr if lie throw* away u whole 
dictionary. (Jo out and mix a collide of your l*-*t. Itemsrn cooler*, 
and by the time you get hark I'll have got to the gi*l of this 
loyalty statement of your*, which is all I've come for. Your *il- 
ver ami Ixiok* and love-letter* und iiinmisi-ript* are safe from me. 
I wouldn't have 'em as a gift." 

" Wliat concern have you with my royalties?" I demandi-d. 

" A vital one." said be. " Mix the «*oolera. uml when yon g«-t 
tank I'll tell you. (Jo on. There's a g«<od chap. It 'll Im- day- 
light before long, and I want to rinse up this job it I can U-furc 
sunrise." 

What there wa* in the man'* manner to persuade me In com- 
pliance with hi* wishes I am sure I cannot *ay definitely, 'There 
was a cold, study glitter in hi* eye. for one tiling, that, had I ls-i-n 
a timid man. I might have found compelling on thi* special ncca 
sioii. but it was tbi* Unit tunic me stay ami fight him. With it, 
however, was a *1 rengthf nine** of pur|ionr. a certain pleasant mas- 
terfulness, that, on the other hand, hade me feel that I could trust 
him. and it was to tbi* a*|M-ct of his nature that I yielded. There 
was something frankly appealing in Ilia long. thin, ascetic-looking 
face, and I found it irresistible. 

“ All right," *aid I. with a smile and a frown to express the wn- 
llicting quality of my emotion*. " So Is* it. I'll get the cooler*, 
Iml you must remember, my friend, that there are cooler* and 
nailers, just us there are jugs und jugs. The kind of jug that re- 
main* for you will depend ii|*>n the story you have to tell when I 
get buck, so you'd la-tter sec I tint it's a good <»ne." 

“ I'm not afraid, .lcnkin*. old chap." he said, with a hearty laugh 
as I rose up. " If thi* royalty statement can prove to me that 
vou are the literary partner I need in my Inisim-s. I can prove lo 
you that I'm a pood man to tie up to — so go along with you." 

With tlii* lie lighted a fresh cigar and tniru-d to a |ierii*ul of my 
statement, which. I am glad to *uv. wa* a g***l one. owing to the 
great success of my hook. ll’i'W I mum/* / Harr ,\«-|-rr .1 / « t — 
the seventh best seller at Rochester, Watertown, and Miami in 


June and July. 1004 
— while I went out 
into the dining-room 
and mixed the cool- 
ers. A* you may im- 
agine, I wa* not long 
at it, for mv curi- 
osity over my visitor 
lent wings to my cork- 
screw. and in five 
minute* I wa* Imck, 
with the tempting 
iH'vcragcs in the tall 
gl»»*e*. the lemon curl 
giving it the verte- 
brate appearance that 
all stiff drink* should 
have, and the ire 
tinkling refreshingly 
upon the sultry air. 

" There." said I. 
placing his glass be- 
fore him. " Drink 
hearty and then to 
business. Who are 
you ?” 

" There i* my eard." 
he replied, swallowing 
a goodly half of the 
cooler and smacking 
hi* lip* appreciative- 
ly. and tossing a visit* 
ing-rord aero** to me 
on the other side of 
the table. I picked up 
the eard and read a* 
follow*: " Mr. Ruffle* 
Holmes. l»nd<>ri and 
New York." 

" Raffle* Holme*?" 
I cried in amazement. 

" The same, Mr. 
Jenkin*.” said lie. ** I 
am the son of Sher- 
lock Holmes, the fn- 
inou* detective, uml 
grandson of A. J. 
Rallies, the distin- 
guished — er — ah — 
cricketer , sir." 

I gazed at him. 
dumb with astonish- 
ment. 

“ You've heard of 
my father. Sherlock 
Holmes!" asked my 
visitor. 

I confessed that the 
name of the gentle- 
man was not unfa- 
miliar to me. 

" And Mr. Raffle*, 
my grandfather!" he 
|MT*i*ted. 

“If there ever wa* a story of that fascinating man that I 
liaxe not read, Mr. Holmes," said I. “ I beg you will let me have it." 

“Well, then." said he. with that quick, nervous manner which 
proved him a true son of Sherlock llolmcs. "did it never occur to 
you as an extraordinary ha ppening. as you read of my father'* won- 
derful |iowi-r* a* a detective, and of Raffle*'* equally wonderful 
prowess u* a — er- well, let u» not mi nee words — a* a thief. Mr. 
Jenkin*, the two men operating in I'.iiglund at the sains time, that 
no story ever appi-amt in which Sherlock Holmes’s genius wa* 
pit ti*l again*! the subtly planned misdeed* of Mr. Ruffles? Is it 
not surprising that with two such men a* they were, working out 
tlo-ir destinies in almost idi-itthnl groove* of daily action, they 
should never have cns-si d each other'* |uith* a* far as the public is 
the wiser, and in the very nature of the mnllicling interest* of their 

respective lines of action a* fuenirn. pursuing, the other 

pm -oed. they should to tin- public's knowledge never have clashed?" 

“ Now that you spi-ak of it," said I. " it wa* rather extraordinary 
that nothing of tin- sort hup|*'tird. (Hie would think that the -of- 
ferer* from the depredation* of Raffles would immediately have 
gone to llolini-s for assistance in twinging the other to justice. 
Truly, a* you intimate, it wa* strange Hint they never did.” 

" Kurdon me, Jenkin*." put in my visitor. " I never intimated 
anything of tlir sort. Wliat I intimated wa* that no story of any 
such i on II icl ever mimic b» light. A* a matter of fact, Sherlock 
Holmes W.-IS put Upon a Rallies c.l*c in IKHJ. and while meow at- 
tended upon every step of it. and my grandfather was run to 
earth by him a* cii-ilv a* wa* ever any other criminal in Holmes's 
grip, a little naked god called Cupid stepped in. saved Raffles from 
jail, and wrote the word failure aero** llolmc*'* docket of the 
ruse. /. sir. tun tlx milp hnufiUlc rt milt of llorriiigton'a n 

tain i r* to ShirtxrL llxtnx'. ' 

“You *|H-ak enigmatically, after the occasional fashion of your 
illustrious father," said I "The Donington ease is unfamiliar 
to me.'* 

" Naturally *n." *aid my rind r»'v. " because. save to my father, 
my grandfather, and myself, the detail* are unknown to anybody. 



10P.2 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


Not wo my mother knew of thr incident, 
wild «■» for l)r. Wnlmm nut! Itunny. thr 
aerifoea throujth wh«»e induntry the adven- 
ture* of thoM* two great mm were n- 
atiectively niur.it <-il to an wh*n rlicd world, 
they didn't even know there had ever lawn t» 
Dnrringlon ea*e. hreawie Sherlock Holme* 
never told Wilxin anti Raffle* never told 
Itunny. Hut they both told me. anti now 
that I am satisfied that there ia a demand 
for your Imuk*. I am willing to tell it to 
you with the Miidcr«tiinding thut we abate 
and aha re alike in the pro lit* if perchance 
you think well enough of it to write it up." 

“ l So on!" I Mid. ''I'll whack up with 
you «*|uurc and hone-t.” 

“ Which ia more than either Watwm or 
Itunny ever «li«l with my father or my grand- 
father. el at* | alioillil not U- in the Intaiueaa 
w hich now occupies my time and at tent ion." 
an id Ruffle* llolnira with a cold snap to It in 
eye* which I took na an admonition to hew 
■trietly to the line of honor, or to auhjeet 
tnyaelf to terrible wmaequencr*. '* With that 
understanding. Jenkina. I'll tell you the 
atory of the l)nrrington Ruby Senl. in w hich 
•otnc crime, a good ileal of romance, and my 
ancestry are involved." 

To be Continual. 


The Terms of Peace 

(Continued from page toft.) 

Far East for at least a generation or two”— 
a pence, that ia to mV, which will remove 
the meiuiee of recurring war, and leave 
.fupun free to develop her resource* and con- 
solidate her interest* in Chinn and Korea 
in undistrnctcd assurance. One of the con- 
dition* of *uch n peace must obviously be 
the prevention of the precise Hilda t ion that 
made the war inevitable. The essence of that 
situation was. it will l* 1 remembered, the 
presence of Russia in Munchuriu. It was 
the perception that Russia, once permanent- 
ly cnc*ni|**d in Manchuria, would la- irre- 
sistibly driven to occupy Korea as well, that 
rendered the present conflict unavoidable. If, 
therefore, the scope and nature of a lasting 
peacr may to some extent l*e regarded a* 
predetermined by the cause* that brought 
on the war, the retirement of Russia from 
Manchuria must clearly lie among the first 
of the Japanese demands. This i*. indeed, mi 
obvious that Japan long ago announced her 
intention, in the event of u Japunese vic- 
tory. of restoring the proviuev to China. 

A Protectorate over Manchuria 

That in itself, however, is not enough. 
Means must lie liken that will prevent the 
province from Incoming, a* in exclusively 
Chinese hand* it would almost ecrtuinly be- 
come. n mere piij»er harrier again*! a |k*.- 
si hie Russian advance at some future and 
more convenient time. To this effect it was 
suggested not long ago l»y a Japanese pub- 
licist in the Yorf/i .1 mrriran Review that 
t treat Mritain. the I'niti-d State*, and Jupun 
should join in requiring from China u guar- 
antee that the leatored territory should 
neither la- leaped nor reded to a foreign 
power; hut the device scarcely seems ade- 
quate. It ap|M<urs more proliable that in 
return for reestablishing Chinese sovereignty 
over the province that is in In in a tla- imperial 
mausoleum of the reigning house in China, 
Japan will stipulate that it* administra- 
tion shall lie pin red under Jnpanrae control, 
ami that Japan shull. in fart, govern Man- 
ehiuia mill'll u* Knglaml govern* Egypt or 
the Malay State*, paying all surplus revenue 
into tin* Treasury at Peking, ami being, in 
everything hut the name, the real ruler* 
and organizers of the province. As a 
further condition of the restoration of Chi- 
nese sovereignty, it ha* Keen suggested that 
the Chinese Empire should also Is* invited 
to. throw often a nuiidier of her province*, 
fort*, ami town* to the commerce of the 
world. These, however, are matter* rather 
for negotiation between China and Japan 
than between Japan and Ru*«ia. The def- 
inite evacuation of Manchuria by Russian 
troops must, if repcati-d Japanese declara- 
tions go for anything, he the first article 
of |M-aee. And with that question i* In- 
volved another — thr ownership and admin- 
istration of tin Eu*t China brnm-li of the 



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Pkitmtelfhi.i AVy« ej of these evt rails fmm the diary which Adam kept in the Garden of Ellen, and in which 
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THE TRAINING OF NATIONAL GUARDSMEN IN PRACTICAL 
ENGINEERING WORK IN THE FIELD 

At the remit Stale cuaim/imcnt of the Ticruty-aerond Knginrrn ttl 1‘eeknkitl. Xnr York, nermlg-firc men from the engineer 
cof/ta of the regular army, under Major Ibitrirk and l.i> utenanl Marltunonah, i ten ditoihd for duty i rith the Xalionoi 
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10T.I 


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They are profusely illustrated with portraits, scenes from the Revolution, maps, facsimiles 
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A|i r Aff^l* On receipt of Si.oo we will send you NAPOLEON and the FRENCH REVOLUTION, 
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i - MIDSUMMER FICTION NUMBER ■■ — ■ 

Harper's Magazine 



9 Complete Short Stones 

ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS MARY E. WILKINS 
RICHARD LE G ALLIEN NE GEORGE HIBBARD 

JAMES BRANCH CABELL ALICE BROWN, Etc. 


THE SLAVE-TRADE OF TO 

By HENRY W. NEVINSON 

In October, 1904. an expedition under Mr. Ncvinson was sent by HARPER'S MAGAZINE to Africa to exp 
slave-trade of to-day. In this number is printed the first of his papers, written from Loando, in which he vividly 
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Prof. SIMON NEWCOMB, ETC. N. C. WYETH, LUCIUS HITCHCOCK 


Travel, Literature, Science, Language, Discovery 


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vou xux New York, Saturday, July 39. 1905 «o. 


Coptrtgkt, 1905, tv llAHr-KM A H*nTNUV. All right rtttrvrJ 



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TRYING TO PATCH IT UP 





HARPER'S WEEKLY 


HARPER'S WEEKLY 

VoL XUX. No. 3536 

EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


THIRTY-SIX PAGES 

New York City, July 29, 1905 

Terms: 10 Cents a Copy — $4 oo a Year, in Advance 

Pu'fasf tree to all SuriNtribm itl the United State', Canada, Mexico, 
Hawaii, Porto Ricu, the Philippine lUaiuii, Guam, aiul TutuiLa, Samoa 

Knitrtd at tk* Xew Yark i\»t a JStt at treat Jtiao ma/ltr 


HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 
NbW YORK CITY: FRANKLIN SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET. W 


COMMENT 

SlLDOV has ail official appointment been discussed more 
widely and with more interest by politicians tbnn that of 
Mr. Eunc Root to lie Secretary of State. During the week 
ending July 15 , almost every political iicw#p<i|icr of any im- 
iwrtonrc in the United State# had something to Bay upon the 
subject. The di?cu#*ion was noteworthy for two reasons: 
Hr>t. the unanimity of the testimony to the preeminent fitnesa 
of the appointee for the place; and, secondly, the bearing 
which the appointment is presumed to have on the selection 
of the next Uepiiblieati nominee for the Presidency, A-; 
Secretary of War. an office which, since our acquirement of 
Porto Rico, the Philippines, and the Panama Canal strip, 
practically embraces not only the control of tin* regular army 
and of our system of fortifications, but also the functions dis- 
eharged in Great Britain by a Secretary of the Colonies, Mr. 
Root demonstrated the possession of statesmanship of a high 
order. and of qualities that would In* specially useful in tin* 
direction of nur foreign affairs. On one occasion lie came 
forward, it will be recalled, a# the official expounder and de- 
fender of what ha# been termed the R«m«skw;i.t corollary to the 
M on n ok doctrine, the assertion, namely, that it is our duty, 
while safeguarding Latin- American commonwealth# against 
European aggression, to sa-o to it that they fulfil their inter- 
national obligations. All that can be urged on behalf of that 
far-reaching innovation was unquestionably said by Mr. Root. 


We take for granted thnl while he i# Secretary of State there 
will be no departure from that policy, the first outcome of 
which is our assumption of the collection and distribution of 
the revenues of Santo Domingo, unless, indeed, a departure is 
compelled by the Senate's rejection of the as yet uiirntificd 
treaty with the Dominican republic. There is some ground 
for thinking that Mr. Root, notwithstanding the fact that ho 
is sometime# taxcil with a lack of geniality, will be able to 
exercise more influence upon individual .Senators than his 
prede«*ssor w«» able to attain; it is well known that the late 
Secretary had the mortification of seeing tin- Senate not only- 
reject the first ll.vv-Pu m-i:iotk treaty, but fail to act on 
many reciprocity treaties and other convention* on which Mr. 
Hay had set hi# heart. Mr. Rttur. on the other hand, ill the 
fu«v 1 »f concert «-d and vehement opposition, wo# able to secure 
the assent of ( "-digress to his bill creating a general Bluff mid 
reorganizing the army system. Wo nqteut that not even by 
newspujNT editors who regard the new Secretary without po- 
liiieal or personal sympathy, is there any dispute as to his fit- 
iii-s# to conduct our foreign relations in a way worthy of a post 
a-'oeiated with many of the most illustrious names in the 
history of the republic. 

With regard, on the other hand, to the effect of Mr. R«*»t’s 
eppointmeiit to the premiership of the pn-s-nl Adruini-tni- 
ti.. u on tlie. selection of a Ib-publicmi eandi'ttile for the Presi- 


dency in 11KW there i* much difference of opinion. It is 
generally taken for granted, indeed, that Mr. K«)T could not 
have been prevailed upon to ac«>cpt the office utile## he believed, 
or ho|H'd. that it would prove the vestibule to the White lluuse; 
and in some quarters it has been suggi-rted that he may liavc 
asked for ami received from Mr. Roohkyklt a definite assur- 
ance that hi# candidacy for the nominal ion should la* pro- 
moted by all the influence that legitimately might be exerted 
by the President. The hypotlnwi# that any conversation on 
the subject occurred is scarcely consistent with what is known 
of the characters of the two men. It is improbable that Mr. 
Rooskvki.t Would stoop to bribe anybody to ai*eept n post which 
DymKL Webster gladly resigned a wut in the Unite<| State* 
Senate to take. Beside*, lie #eema to have been estopped from 
offering any such inducement by the frauknes# with which he 
is understood to have nvowi-d hi# preference for Judge Taft. 
A 4*om-s|M*mlent of the Philadelphia 1 ‘ublic Ledger was at (Ik- 
White House one morning some weeks ago, and there found 
Secretary Shaw waiting to see the President. “Well, how is 
the competition for the next Republican nomination for the 
Presidency going on?*' tin* correspondent asked. “We're all 
berm bowled out bv the President." replied the Secretary of 
:1 m? Treasury, “lie ha# served not!**© on us that he i# for 
Tut. There is no u#o in discussing the matter any further. 
What is more, the President has liegun the work for Tut." 


It may ul#o bo rememben-d that, about the time when this 
statement was attributed to Secretary Shaw, there were signs 
of a u#e of the Administration’s influence in Ohio with a view 
to securing the delegation from that State for Secretary Tut 
three year# hence. Perhaps it would la* easier for Judge Taft 
to get the delegation from Ohio than it would be for Mr. Root 
to get the delegation from Xew York. There i# reason to be- 
lieve that last year the President would hove liked to see the 
Republican convention of hi# native State nominate Mr. 
Root for Governor, but the delegates proved intractable, 
evincing a preference even for Mr. Hiimjins, though the latter 
was disen-dited in many eye* by figuring as the personal favor- 
ite of Governor Ooki.l. A good many thing' may hapjH-n. how- 
ever. between now and June. 11 NW. Governor Hiuoixs is *np* 
pn-w-d to have quarrelled with ex-Govenior Opki.i,. and should 
tlie former gain control of tlie Republican machine. Presiilent 
Kihmkvklt may have mueh more influence at Albany three 
years hence than he had 11 year ago. Iksiiks. even wire-pullers, 
though they keenly appreciate a “ mixer,” like to have a big 
man for a candidate, amebody whom the voters have all In-ard 
of and admire. In the present perturbed condition of tlie 
world, Mr. lb « <T, a# American Secretary of State, may have an 
op|Mirt unity of making hi# name a household word. If the 
great occasion comes, we may Ik* certain that 1 m* will not let it 
slip. It i# true that then* is no precedent in our history for 
the attainment of the Presidency by a man who had never 
previously held on elective office. In atirring time#, however. 
Itcw precedent# may Ik* made. 

As we pointed out lurt week, no nttempt to minimi* or 
localize the eotfon-i'C|M>rt scandal in tin- Department of Agri- 
culture will meet with even tacit acquiescence on the part «>f 
President Rooskvki.t. The mess-age ant to Secretary Wilson 
from Oyster Bay wa# os much to the purpose and almost a# 
brief a# Git ant’s 41 Let no guilty man csch|k*." Far from being 
contented with the peremptory dismissal of tlie associate 
statistician who sought to make money by furnishing Wall 
Street speculators with an adv.inci* rc|*nrt of the government 
statistic# relating to the eotlon crop, tin* Pn*sidel»t wrote to 
his Attorney-General: “I most earnestly hope that every 
effort, will be made to bring HhLMks t«« justice.” Mr. Ib#»si:- 
vki.t added: “The man is. in my judgment, a far greater 
scoundrel tli.-m if he had stolen money from the government, 
ns he used the government to derive outsiders and to maki* 
money for himself mid others.” The convict ion. planted when 
tile Post-office Depart Ilieut was shaken up. .Wtiw to be getting 
more deeply rooted every day. tho conviction, namely, that 
there really seem# to be no room for grafters under this 
Administration. Scarcely was ,\|r. BoNapartf. thoroughly 
warm in the chair of Sts-rctnrv of the Navy when he proceeded 
to reinstate Civil- Kii»im#*r# Wii.Kt it and IIauuis, who lately 
hod been removed from their ns-ignincnta at the ("barlestoti 
Naval Station because tin- contractor# there cfunplained that 
tin! two olfa-er# annoyed them bv an nverrigorous inspection 


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of (heir work- Tu n memorandum submitted to the President 
am! approved by him, Secretary Bonaparte |>ointed out that it 
would scarcely be conducive to the honesty and efficiency of 
ibe work done for the government if supervising engineers 
conld be removed on no other ground than tiic vigilant and 
conscientious discharge of their duty in holding contractors 
up to the specification* of their contracts. This approved 
mt-moruitdum should be interesting reading for contractors all 
over the IVited States, and also for the politicians on whom 
tliey rely for a pull. 

The document and its reception by tho Chief Mag:*- 
tnite throw a shaft of light upon the story which has 
Inrn going (lie rounds of the press — the alleged account of 
a recent interview between President Roosevelt and Senator 
Knot, of Pennsylvania, who. it will be remembered, was made 
Attorney-General largely through the kind offices of the late 
Senator Qf.iT and of Senator Pf.xhose. neither of whom is 
^opposed to have been an indexible enemy of political jobs. 
According to the anecdote, the President, in a moment of 
gccd-natured confidential expansion, asked the Senator what 
was thought in Pennsylvania and Maryland of the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Box.ip.vnTF. to be Secretary of the Navy. The 
Senator inquired whether the President would permit him to 
reply by recalling an incident that had once occurred in Pitts- 
burg. where a client of hia, one Patrick Collin*, won accus- 
tomed to sleep over his barroom, a convenient location be- 
cause the bartender could consult him at a pinch. Ono night, 
or rather in tin? small hours of the morning, the bartender 
woke him up with. “ Is Tim Fl XX loan good for two drinks?” 
41 Has he thim V was the reply. “ He has,” was the rejoinder, 
“lie is,"' said Pvt. and went to sleep again. That may l»u the 
resigned way in which politicians regard the disposition made 
of the Navy Department. Precisely Imw Secretary Boxapabtk 
relishes the anecdote is unknown. 

The boom for the municipal ownership of public utilities, 
which was supposed to have been launched successfully by the 
election of Mr. Dl'XSK to be Mayor of Chicago, seems to have 
struck a snag. Mayor Di’XXK hu found out that he cannot 
k«l» the promise made before election day that if his fellow 
citizens would vote for him lie would see to it that the strn-t- 
milway* were boogbt by the municipality. He can’t buy tlicni, 
Uvauae the money for the purpose is not to bo got. That Chi- 
cago had reached the limit of her Arrowing power* was well 
known to thr voters, hut tliey hud hewn told that tho necessary 
fund* could be scrum! by the issuance of certificate* under 
the so-called Mo:ukr law, passed by the Illinois L-gislature 
in order to provido a loophole of esea|«e fn»m the dilemma. 
X'jw it turns out that the Mi kllfu law has a string to it that 
Mr. Ih xxr. had overlooked or neglected to mention. Before 
any certificates can bo issued the specific project for which it 
i* jirepord to issue them must be submitted to a popular vote 
ami apprised by a three-fifths majority. Mayor Pi nxk seems 
to feel no confidence in his ability to secure the necessary 
thrfi-fifths. He lias fallen back on nil alternative method of 
Ni-uring dwup fares. He proposes to force the existing cor- 
P- Tut imw to lower their fares or go out of business by effeet- 
it*g tbc incorporation of an opposition eoinpany, to which lie 
would grunt a twenty-year franchise authorizing it to con- 
struct and operate w>un» 240 miles of competitive street-rail-* 
*ay. All that he needs, he says, for the formation of a com- 
pany that slreuld be managed exclusively in the public interest 
ia tlie >li - 11 1 very of five philanthropists who wou!d raise the 
‘•*pi^l required and consent that no bonds should l»e issued, 
that the dividend on the stock should lx* limited to six pc" 
'vnL.and that all tire shares, instead of being subjects for sale 
ami purehiifo on tin; Stock Kxchange, should Iw dejmsited in n 
trust iximpauy under rigorous condition* that would make it 
impowible for outsiders to take the control of the company 
•way frnm the philanthropist*. At last accounts the five in- 
tliHwioable altruists hud not been found. 

This is not the only reverse experienced by the American ad- 
vocjtc* of inuniripid ownership. Tliey got little encouragement 
from thp British expert who was invited lu re to expound the 
•urantagiss of the municipal-ownership system, as exemplified 
in Glo*gow. After a careful inspection of the condition*, po- 
litic*!, fiscal, and ctxuioimciil, prevailing in Uhieago ami other 
”(«•* in the United State*, tire British visitor expressed grave 


doubt concerning tho expediency of our adopting the municipal- 
ownerehip plan. We hear much less than we did a year ago 
about, the application of the municipal-ownership principle to 
the city of Now York. There is still sonic talk about a com- 
bination between the Republican machine managed by ex- 
Gorernor Odku, and the newspaper* owned by Mr. W. K. 
Hf.vrst in the coming municipal campaign, but it. now seems 
improbable that the opponents of Tammany Ilall can secure 
the conjuration of the Citizens’ Union, for which reason, and 
because his administration of the mayoralty has, as a whole, 
given much satisfaction, thp reelection of Mr. McClellaX 
is generally looked upon as assured. 

One American newspaper -describes a* “ deplorable ” tire fact 
that United State* Senator Mitchell, of Oregon, should have 
been convicted of a crime tho penalty for which i* imprison- 
ment in a penitentiary. Another newspaper more justly re- 
marks that what, is deplorable is not the conviction, but the 
crime. If tire Senator was guilty, his conviction is a praise- 
worthy and promising incident. It will clear the air in 
Oregon. The spectacle of a mini wearing a striped suit aud 
performing a convict’s work iu prison who occupied but yes- 
terday a seat in tho Senate-house at Washington should, and 
doubtless will, bnvo upon tire public mind in Oregon, and, 
for that matter, on the whole Pacific elope, the hygienic and 
invigorating effect which, according to Aristotle, the typical 
Greek tragedy was intended to produce. Tire Stngyrilo de- 
clared it to Ire the office of that species of artistic ooinposi- 
tion to purge the passions by inspiring at one® fear and pity. 
The purgation was to he accomplished by the spectacle of the 
Nemesis which follows wickedness even to high places, hum- 
bles the mighty, and brings low the proud. Here was a man 
who luid twice jierforraod one of tire most difficult feat* 
achievable by humnn beings. Twice had he lived down an 
ugly past. Early in life he left an Eastern State under a 
cloud, and making hi* way under a borrowed name to a re- 
mote Western community, grew up with it. As a lawyer and 
as a politician, he came to Ire one whom hi* fellow citizen* 
were glad to honor. An admires! ami trusted leader of the 
Republican party in Oregon, he rose from one p<«*t to another 
until ho was sent to represent hi* commonwealth in the Sen- 
ate of the United Suite*. Now, the Pacific slope communi- 
ties arc exceptionally sensitive concerning the reputation of 
those deputed to *peak for tl» m at Washington. When, there- 
fore, the fact* were divulged regarding the unpleasant circum- 
stance* under which their Senator had originally left tire 
East, the first fouling provoked ill Oregon was one of revolt 
and indignation. Not only did Senator Mitchell fail of im- 
mediate reelect ion, but it looked for a time as if hi* public 
career were* ended. Unquestionably tire career of ninety-nina 
men out of a hundred would have cudcd then and there. 

Strange to say, for Senator Mitchell there was reserved a 
resurrection. Instead of hiding himself from tire averted 
face* of hi* whilom friend* ami neighbor* he went straight 
home to Oregon when hi* term had expired, and there ap- 
penhtl from the dug-up story of hi* long-buried past to tlreir 
vivid recollection* of the useful and amiable life which he had 
lived among them. The appeal was not made in vain. Men 
have warm heart* in the Far West, and not content with a 
pretended condonation of a piece of personal history which 
might seem ultramontane and ancient, they attested tire reality 
of tlreir forgiveness by sending him to occupy once more the 
scat in the United States Senate of which his uutnrid endow- 
ment* qualified him to Ire an ornament. That the triumphant 
survivor of such unique vicissitudes, who twice hud einergisl 
victorious from a straggle with his own past, should vet ulti- 
mately huve succumbed to a sordid and mean temptation i*, 
in truth, tragical iu the poignant aud classical sense of the 
word. Call no man fortunate till he i* dead is *uid to have 
Item tho admonition ndd reused to a sovereign whose name is 
a synonym for opulence by one of tire wi«c men of Greece. 
Let no limn while he i* still living rake for grunted (hut he 
can play successfully the august rede of self-relmbilitution ti— 

signed. 1o Jeun Vuljeau in Leg Mint whirs, 

X'Yo refer el*ewlu-re to the definite reception „„d acceptam-e 
of tire po*t of Russia’s chief plenipotentiary’ in the forth- 
coming conference with Japan’s representative* at P.ris- 
mouth by the statesman who was christened Swum* Witte 


10TJ 


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but who, having been made a count booh* yearn ago, it* en- 
titled to use the nobiliary particle. We refer to him else- 
where at a length more commensurate with the importance 
of the part which lie ha* played in the pant, and iem» likely^ 
to play once more in the contemporary history of hia country. 
Wo mention here that the prospect of hia prolonged absence 
from his native land at a critical conjuncture is viewed with 
very different feelings by different coteries and parties in the 
Russian community. As for the grand dukes, they are doubt- 
less undecided whether to regret or applaud his departure. 
The members of the grand-ducal cabal recognize, of course, 
that the delegation of the conduct of negotiations to Count 
Wittk is looked upon by Japan and by the neutral powers ns 
a good augury for the prompt conclusion of a peaop. Now 
they do not want peace: for three rcusoua. Ill the first place, 
the termination of the war upon any terms to which Japan 
will Ire likely to assent would put an ineffaceable stigma on 
the policy of aggression and defiance in the Far Fast, for 
which, in the popular miud, they are field personally responsi- 
ble. In the second place, a termination of the war would put 
an end to the opportunities of embezzlement, of which such 
shameful use has been made during the last seventeen months. 
Finally, tlie conclusion of a lienee would necessarily lie fol- 
lowed ipiiekly by tire return to European Russia of the vast 
army under Linikvitch, which is known to be honeycombed 
vwith disaffection. 


is not forgotten that the conspiracy of December, 
1825, which nearly cost Nicholas I. hia newly ascended 
throne, was organized mainly among regiments which, 
during their protracted service in central and western 
Europe, had become infected with liberal ideas. rTKe rank 
and file under I,imkvitcu may not have become liberalized 
politically, but they are known to have been goaded almost to 
fury by the hardships and privations to which they have been 
exposed by peculation in high places, from the wholesale steal- 
ing of the overcoats donated by a patriotic Moscow merchant 
to the incessant and contemptible adulteration of the quinine 
intended for the field hospitals. If ever, since the Roman Em- 
pire was put up at auction by the Pnetorian Guards, a despot- 
ism was threatened with subversion at the bands of ils own 
mercenaries, that is tlie position occupied by the Russian 
autocracy to-day. This the grand dukes know, ami they would 
infinitely prefer to see LlXJEVlTCIl’s soldiers exterminated by 
the Jaimitosc than to see them brought hack to St. Petersburg 
and Moscow in their present frame of mind. At the same 
time they are glad to see M. UK Witte sent out of the country, 
for while he was in power embezzlement was impracticable. / 
R fCHKLlEL' himself wua not more grimly intolerant of cor- 
ruption on the part of princes, nor was even Tt'BOOT, with his 
bourgeois notions of honesty and economy, more detested by 
the great, nobles who hail been wont to pillage the French 
treasury. 


system more suited to the national temperament and history 
than would be representative institutions, though they dc*ire 
to see it purged of the abuses by which it has been overlaid 
during the last two reigns. These men have lost in Count 
WlTTE their exemplar, their pilot, ami their champion. 

Thq President received this year from William# College the 
degree of Doctor of Letters. lie had not had it before, and 
lie said he prized it particularly coming from Williams. Such 
a degree is a |iersoiinl tribute. It might have fitted Dr. Rouse- 
\i:lt a shade belter if it had been Doctor of Dictation. Some 
critics consider that Letters leave off where dictation begins, 
but ns yet there is no rule about that. It depends. 

Mr. Jerome said in hi# Ottawa, Kansas, speech, that “there 
should be two seta of statutes, one for the moral yearning# 
of rural communities.’’ He has been criticised for so saying, 
and express#-* surprise that his remark should have been taken 
seriously. No wonder it was taken seriously: it is so lamen- 
tably sensible. Maybe it applies more to New York State than 
to Kansas, but here, at least, a Legislature that would act 
on it would give enormous relief to the governments of vast 
city population*. Ret ter, however, than two set* of statutes 
are laws, like the local option law in Vermont, which give 
moral yearnings a chance to express themselves in the proviso 
measure and locality in which they exist. 

Tlie chief value of the Equitable revelations is educational 
rather than disciplinary. That the offi«-ers of the company, 
including the directors, should have been brought to a real- 
izing wow of what they were doing i# not less useful than 
that the public should have been informed. As a result of 
the report of the Frick committee and the publication of 
the IIrxdrickh testimony every officer of every insurance com- 
pany in the country has had notice that the standard of ad- 
ministration for insurance companies ha# been raised, and 
that policy-holder* and public expect every responsible insur- 
ance officer to make his conduet square with it. That general 
result is of great importance; of more imiiortaiicc, indeed, 
than any particular or individual result whatever. 


Ho whether H. db Witte remains in Europe, or is deputed 
to arrange a peace at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he is 
equally persona non grata to tlie grand-ducal eoterie. It must 
also be acknowledged that his absence is unlikely to be much 
deplored by those advanced Liberals who desire to see repre- 
sentative institutions established in the Czar’s dominions. 
They do not want m sec the autocratic principle INN lee moil, as 
('..lint Witte strove to redeem it, by an upright, intelligent, 
thrifty, and benignant administration. They ‘any, what is true 
enough, that great and good ministers of a despot an- rare; 
that when they emerge they find it hard to keep tlieir heads 
above water; and that seldom, if ever, do they have successors. 
They bold it to have been a hlosing for France, as things 
turned out, that l»u* XV L bud not sufficient strength of 
mind to keep in office a man like Trmurr, who. by wisdom, 
justice, and energy, might have saved the absolutist monarchy. 
It is certain that throughout hi* public life Count Wittk 
has set his face inflexibly against the introduction of consti- 
tutional government into Russia. One can understand, there- 
fore. why Russian Liberals, while rendering full justice to his 
economical achievement# and intentions, shed no tear# over 
Ins temporary removal from hi# native land. Tlie men to 
whom his absence i# a serious and iierhapa fatal calamity arc 
those Conservatives who comprise a large and very influential 
part of the Russian landowner*, who hare great influence at 
tlie imperial Court, and who honestly believe an autocratic 


Mr. James Alexander’s illness is sure to provoke much sym- 
pathy. Whatever Sir. Alexander's sins of omission tuny have 
been, and whatever he may have done that was wrong, it will 
be widely believed that he never at any time consciously de- 
viated from what ho believed to be right. It was be who 
brought on the inquiry that ha# hurt himself a* well a* many 
other#. We do not find it hard to believe that lie would have 
done what he did even if he had foreseen the consequence*. 
Without doubt a# the chief mid most responsible officer of the 
society lie felt hi# responsibility to tire public, and he probably 
determined at last to end a condition of affair# that he could 
not Control. Hi# case is by no mean# one of clear self-sacri- 
fice, but hi# stubborn recalcitrancy had a creditable amount 
of conscientious obstinacy mixed iu with it. He had a good 
job, and wa# by no mean# averse to profiting by its impor- 
tunities. but a looter he never meant to be. nor ever was. 


The hot weather makes it a suitable time to think about 
the Panama C’aual work and its great natural difficulties. 
1# it any fun to work hard when it is as hot a# it has lately 
been hereabout* ? No; it i# no fun. On the isthmus it is 
usually hot, and it is not affirmatively In Mil thy down there yet. 
The newspaper* printed last week a letter from one Mowwm. 
a clerk of the canal commission, who nays that Ire and hi# 
wife are living ut u good new- government hotel three wile* 
from Panama, and that the Liard is good and the cliuiat" 
more comfortable than that of Washington at thi* season. 
Ho like# the work ami the place, and i# not afraid of yel- 
low fever. We hope to see more such reports. It is highly 
important that the folks who ure going to do the work at 
T’anama should find life endurable while they do it. There 
were at last accounts about 12.000 men at work on the canal, 
quite a# many as can be taken wire of at present- Mr. SlIOXT# 
said before be started for tlie isthmus that what he wa* most 
busy about now was to provide good underlying condition# 
fur work, to perfect the sanitary arrangements, get beltpr 
drinking water, provide more and better bousing and lodging- 
and provide to gel the laborers to and from their work, 
mid for recreations siml amusement# for them. It i* 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


ohviow importance that an army of men, separated from their 
families ami working in a hot climate, shall find wholesome 
rtitortainnu-ut in tlicir leisure. Those men must have some 
fun— ft decent minimum of fun — or they won’t keep well or 
work well. Mr. Shunts took back with him a physical di- 
rector to organize n general system of garni** and ainuw- 
n,i'nta. That U well. Later a few hippodrome troupes may Ik* 
lured to Paiiumu, or maybe Coney Island will move down there 
for the winter. There must be high wages for good men. 
wholesome food, the least detrimental drinks that will satisfy 
the workers, decent lodging*, and due amusement. Given all 
these, the canal will be built some time, but it will never be 
built if tin* work is not made reasonably attractive. So far 
as yet appears the best chance to get the work finished within 
a reasonable time is to cut it up into suitable lengths and let 
it not to contractors. 


The prospective British-Mexiean railroad from Tehuantepec 
to LVtttxaranlcm*, in Mexico, will constitute u new transcon- 
tinental line. 100 miles long. 1200 miles north of Panama, and 
“W miles Muith of New Orleans. About ten milliona has al- 
ready been spent mi the road, and $80,000,000 is being spent 
•in the ports, and the projectors of it believe that their 
etiterjirta*. when completed, will make a considerable difference 
in the world of trade. 

One of the difficulties that some of the larger of the Eastern 
collcgci have is to make birds of different feather flock to- 
gether irrespective of their plumage. Thus the dean of Yale 
report* to President Hadley that one of the worst evils in 
Vale is the segregation of rich students in expensive dormi- 
tories. Evidently this evil results from n pnqicnsity of the 
’imic sort as that which inclines rich people in New York to 
huddle together on Fifth Avenue, or as near it as they can 
get. Dean Fmier *uys the worst of it at Yale is that it 
brings together, especially in sophomore year, “ those who 
aim to form the society sets whose chief purpose in college is 
p polarity and social recognition.” To room in the expensive 
<h>miituric* is thought, says tlae dean, u to help one’s chances 
of Mcial advancement, and this is undoubtedly true.” We 
have the samp experience here*. The Fifth Avenue people 
have a conceded social advantage of location. “ If the social 
honors of college are to have any value," adds Mr. Fihhkk, 
“alt men should have an equal chance to gain them.” Maybe 
thry should, but certainly they dou’t. We fancy that iti the 
lag Eastern college such things go partly by inheritance and 
association, and are bound so to go, just as they do in great 
measure in even so untrammelled and cosmopolitan a city as 
New York. Hereditary “pull" goes a good way socially in 
the older colleges nowadays. Dean FisiiElt can find a 
remedy for that he will have demonstrated that he is a smart 
»ian, not a Smart-Set man. but the other kind of «mnrt. 
Sicicty in tin* big colleges is painfully like society elsewhere*. 
There arc differences, hut they are not so much marked as 
the likenesses. 


It is entirely natural that the rich hoys should live in the 
»ore expensive dormitories. The buildings are very* eom- 
(ortahle. One of those at Harvard advertises in a college pil- 
fer suites of une to four room* with bath — “ large, light rooms, 
tiled bathrooms, |>o)i*hcd-nak floors, telephone ” — all the u*u«l 
thing* that folk* who ran afford them want nowaday* in 
their dwellings. A youth who can afford these comforts and 
I'mMlithtnent* will have them if it is convenient. And tlie 
dueller* in these dormitories will he influenced by propinquity 
and play more or less with one another. That comes nat- 
urally. To *i**k out companion* and acquaintances elsewhere 
wi.uM oil fo r ,|N-cial enterprise and effort. At such i*oll«*g»*s 
as Talc and Harvard the classes are now so large that no 
student can well get to know all hi* classmate*. He must 
nro-oarilv attach himself to some group, and he usually com- 
bine* **th the one that comes handiest — the group of class- 
mate* who live iilwiut ns he lives and •w&it al»out what he 
*■ 111 .'. The updiot of it is that the ricfier lads tend to flock 
together. uimI men of different training, habit*. social expe- 
nciii** and purpose* rub together somewhat less than they did 
in the earlier day* when number* were smaller. It is a pity. 
iut Imw i* it to be helped f The only way that, is auggestod 
j* to try to fellow the plan that works at OxfonI and Cam- 
Ir| * k. where the various college* which make up the uni- 


versities split the nutftH of students up into arbitrary groups 
not too large for aisiua in twice to 1 m* general among tlicir 
members. In our college* men who might m>t otherwise get to- 
gether meet in athletics if they liap|H*n to Ik* athletes, or in 
any special outside work they may pursue. College athletics 
are* much maligned. Credit them with this, that they do mix 
up different sorts of men. A like result, issues in the larger 
outside world from must of the serious occupations which 
men follow. Men usually play with men of tlicir own kind 
or set. They work with any one with whom their work brings 
them in contact. Credit it to work, which is a pond deal re- 
viled, that it throws different sorts of men together to their 
mutual profir. 

A subscription agent named CtlAtiLRa II. Aliu: told a broker 
that milcsis he paid $500 for a notice in a book to Is* called 
America'* Smart Set. about to be issued by the Town Topic* 
Company, things would 1m* printed in Town Topic* about, him 
which he would very much regret to see in print. Aiii.k car- 
ried a letter from the managing editor of Town Topic * en- 
dorsing him as n subscription agent. Tin* broker, disapproving 
of Aiilk’s proposition, paid him in marked bills in the pres- 
ence of a concealed witness, and Alll.t: wa* promptly locked 
up in the Tombs. TWn Topic* has disavow**! Ahlk'h threats 
and methods with impassioned heartiness. In Aiilr'h sub- 
scription book appear the names of many of the l*e*t -known 
people in the country a* subscribers of sums ranging from 
$100 to $1000. Most of them were down for $.VH>. Whether 
they subscribed on the strength of inducements *uch as were, 
held out to the broker, or merely out of the largem*** of their 
hearts, and to encourage letters, is not known, hut continues 
to be a fruitful subject of conjecture. What people will do 
to get their names in print i* only k**s surprising than what 
they will do to keep their names out of print. 


It seems that the Scandinavian discrepancy has penetrated 
our Northwest. Our Norwegian fellow citizens want Wash- 
ington to bestir itself in tx-liulf of Norway, and our Swedes 
are for having the President show extra consideration for 
Sweden. In Minnesota Senator Kmtk Nelson, Republican, 
is a Norwegian, mid Governor John Johnson, Democrat, is 
a Swede. They are looked upon as leader* by tire Norwegians 
and Swede*, respectively, but it seems that Wing discreet men 
they are charv of letting European and American polities 
get entangled, and ki*ep away from the meeting* where Scandi- 
navian issues are* discussed. Happily, it still looks as if Nor- 
way and Swollen would part without blows, hut even no, the 
split promises to have i*s effect, in the Northwi*st in pro- 
moting political separation between the two races. 


A thou difference between negroes ami whites prevailed for 
several hours on July 14 on the North River side of New 
York. The proceedings were very active indeed, participa- 
tion of black* and whites being, so far a* one can judg“. 
equally energetic and effectual. That no one was killed seems 
to have been due chiefly to the vigorous intrusion of plenty 
of policemen, but partly (it may be) to the successful activi- 
ties of the Society for tile Dissemination of Safety Razors 
among the Africans. The casualties n**or4i*d‘'*w«Te due to 
colilaet with bricks, (Kittles, feet, fists, policemen’* clubs, and 
such blunt instruments. John Wkktly, colored, was lueknl 
up for defending him-clf with a razor, and William Rl«a;s. 
colored, for brandishing. a carving-knife, but the reports show 
a creditable alnr-mw of 0<*nd]y weapons. Outside com- 
mentator* in uoiieing this occurrence will please notice that, 
regrettable a- it was, it presented many feature-* of a fuir 
fight. iIm* pleasure* of which, so fur n* there were any, were* 
^equitably distributed without much regard to inlor. In dealing 
with these hot -weather developments of temper New York has a 
great, advantage in lniiig able to concentrate a large force of 
|M>liccnich on a given district in mi extremely short, time. 

In tin* issue of July s. *i»caking of tlie F resident’s action in 
the Santa Fe Railroad cas« the Weekly said, “ It developisl 
that those otlier roads were giving unlawful rebates to the 
Johnson Harvester Company .” It wu* the Inteniational 

Horvi'ster (’oinjMHiy, not the Johnston, whose ease was cited 
by the President, nnd that the Weekly had in mind. We 
regre t a slip which made us do injustice to the Johnston Com- 
pany, which had no connection with the ease mentioneil 


107.% 

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1 1 A R I 1 ! •: R * S W F. E K L Y 


Russia’s Chief Plenipotentiary 

lleMnnH many men of literary talent- which, in the rases of 
TrHUt'fcXEtv and Dostoyevnkit, amounted to genius, and one 
general of exceptional capacity, Skoiif.i.eff, contemporary Ku*.*ia 
has* produced three men who not only have made a profound irn- 
pri-*H>n on their fellow eountrymen, tmt ocrupy conspicuous 
place* in the eye* of tin 1 world. We refer, of course. to Tourrol, 
l*oiiir.mi.\osTSKFr. and Wittk. To a portrayal of these three per- 
sonalities Senator Hkvekiiigk ha* devoted a chapter uf li in reimt 
I* -ok. Thr ItuMvi'Ui tdrrtNcc, to which event* have given a peculiar 
timeliness and value. It in the last-named of tire three, or, to give 
him the title conferred upon him a few years ago, Count Wittk, 
who is now brought into the frirepround hy hi* selection for tli« 
thankless utid almost impracticable tn*k of endinp Upon term* 
endurable hy hi* nation'* dipnity and pride a war which he 
r.p[Ki*rd from the beginning, and which has brought Ru*»i« noth- 
ing but disgrace. 

Srwm's Witte, and, for that matter, INnitF.ikoNosrs) i v also, 
are product* of that (luidity of social condition* which was eon- 
ti-mplnhd by Pktkr the Great. and to which the Russian com- 
munity has for penerationa tendril to approximate. Tin- ideal, 
. tji,u of a democracy surmounted bv an autoiTgl, ha*, it is true, 
# Hot even yet been reached, for Mini* powerful historical families 
still exist ; but there is ulready a close approach to it. In the 
conception of tire greatc«L of the Rouaxoffk. a conception car- 
ried not in practice by most of his successors, the favor of the 
C/At, aecured hy faithful and efficient service, was to Is- the 
sole pa.»*porl to MH'ial distinction. No Russian of our time has 
personified more Impressively the working of this principle than 
tie who has been chosen to act as the chief plenipotentiary of 
Kk'Holak II. in the peace conference with Japuit’s representatives 
that is presently to lie held at Portsmouth. Whether the ex- 
Minister of Finance and present President of the Commit Ice of 
Ministers is descended from those brothers De Witt, who, in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, played «*• meiuorahle ami so 
tragical a part, in the history of the Netherlands, we know not; 
hut if such lineage be his. he is, of course, entitled by inheritance 
to the nobiliary particle. What we do know is that early in tire 
nineteenth century there came to Russia from Holland an emi- 
grant of that name, one of whose descendants, some decades later, 
we find m-l tied at Tillis in Transcaucasia, where, Is-ginning us a 
s1orekec|>er, he gradually acquired sufficient capital to do a sort 
of banking business. There, rather more than fifty years ago, 
his wm Sebum.' a was horn. Having received a fair education, the 
I my obtained a subordinate clerkship in one of the depart mint 
of the Odessa Kailwav, whence he rose, step by step, until lie 
came to be known in hi* vocation ns one of tin* moat cnm|* tciit 
railroad men in Russia, lie first attracted the attention of the 
government, and of the Czar AiFvwnns II. himself, by relieving 
the congestion which threatened to disable the Russian army in 
the l(i»t war with Turkey. Invited after the war to assume prac- 
tical control of an important railway system, he evinced so 
linn la sugacily in the matter of railway tariffs that he was 
transferred to the government service, bring placed at the head 
of the railroad department of the Ministry of Finance. In llii* 
new position he exhibited so much ability that iu the course of 
a few months he was ap|Miinteil by the Crar Minister of Ways 
and Communications, and only a year later was promoted to one 
of the very highest— if not essentially the very highest— oflir-c* in 
the empire, that of Minister of Finance. What he accomplished 
in this post constitutes one of the mo«t important chapters in the 
ctoHoiiii--.il history of modern Russia. He found tin- country suf- 
fering from an almost incessant dread of a deficit in the im- 
perial exchequer, clue partly to gross financial mismanagement 
and partly to official blindness to mw sources of revenue; while 
at the same time the productive energies of tho people were 
choked by the constantly increasing pressure of the rural popula- 
tion on the contracted field for agricultural employment. He 
relieved the glut of the labor-market caused by the exec** of 
supply over demand hy encouraging the establishment of native 
manufactures on a great scale. and thus providing an outlet 
for the activities of the surplus of the (M-asanL population, lie 
reformed the national finance*, first. |»y putting an end to cm- 
is/rlt-iiietit and wastefulness, and hy introducing a rigorous- sys- 
tem of accounting and auditing; and. secondly, by multiplying 
the empire's fiscal resource*. He caused the stale to become the 
owner of the larger part of the railways in Kuropean Russia, mid 
saw to it that they were managed at a profit instead of at a loss. 
The Trans-Siberian Railway is his work. It was he. also, who 
brought about the government monopoly of the manufacture ami 
sale of vodka, the national alcoholic beverage, a monopoly where- 
by not only ha- an Immense income liven procured for the Treasury, 
ho t the quality of the commodity has been signally improved, 
while Inebriety baa been greatly lessened by the official regula- 
tions with regard to the quantity porrhusahle by an individual 
and the place of consumption. The old vodka-shop, which was 
a breeding-place of iWillltinn. vire, and Insanity, bus almost dis- 
appeared. A* the Rus-utn instinct of ppTgnrlnn*ncs* had to ta? 


sal isfinl. the tisi-housc ha* gradually taken the place of the van- 
ished public house. It was the desire of M. UK WlTTE to make 
the importation und sale of ten also a government, inonopoly, hut 
this plan had not been carried out at the time of liis removal 
from the Ministry of Finance, a removal due to the rancorous 
enmity of the gr.wid-dur.il coterie, to the mendicr* of which his 
Imsiiiesslikc methods, sturdy independence of character, and abso- 
lute incorruptibility had given great offence. 

To have doubled the national revenue from indirect taxation 
would have sufficed in almo-l any country to make the reputa- 
tion of a Secretary of tlw Treasury; hut this feat did not by any 
mean* exhaust the li*l of the service* rendered by M. ns Wittk 
in the rupucitv of Finance Minister. He it was who e*talili*hed 
the gold standard in Russia and who made the paper currency 
redeemable at par by amassing an immense quantity of gold in 
the ini|M>rial lank. It is no fault, of liis thut during the last 
seventeen months Rii**ia ha* been a borrower on the stock ex- 
change* of the world, ami that her own reserves of gold are aus- 
l-erted of having lorn dcplrled to a considerable extent. So fur 
a* he could exercise his influence, after he was “ kicked up- 
stair* ” from the Ministry of Finance to tint presidency of the 
(omiuiUe* of Minister*, lie exerted it against the encroachments 
of the Ynlu Lumber Company on Korean territory, and against 
the delay in the evacuation of Manchuria, foreseeing that these 
proceeding* would provoke .Tapnn to war, and recognizing that 
for a contest ut the rustvrn end of Asia Russia wm* unprepared, 
the railway around the southern end of Lake Maiknt not having 
Is-en constructed. The fact that bis Cassnndruliko prophecies 
have beet) fulfilled to the letter has not tended, of course, to en- 
dear him to the grand duke*, but they ure not above making use 
of a man in whom, considered us a financier and practical political 
economist, nil intelligent Russians have unlimited confidence. To 
M. n»: Wittk himself, however, it must seem like the irony of 
fortune that lie should now 1 m- culled up-m to minimize the re- 
sults of a disaster that he did his utmost to avert. 

In view of tho weak and vaeillntiog character of tho present 
Autocrat of All the Russia*, it may be taken for granted that the 
|*o*t of the Czar's chief plenipotentiary in the peace negotiations 
would not have been bestowed on M. I»K WlTTE without the as- 
sent of the Km pres* Dowager and of the grand dukes. They are 
reported to have acqiiic*ml in the ap|*ointnient with alacrity, 
and even with cheerfulness. A sinister motive has been imputed 
lo them. It l» suggest rd that tin* enemies of M. DE WlTTE in 
high places may have foreseen that the negotiations will prove 
abortive, or else that the terms the acceptance of which the chief 
pbni|M*t« ut jury may feel hinew-lf constrained to advise will lie 
Hiieli as would subject Russia not only to profound humiliation, 
but also to territorial dismcnilM-riiicnt and a heavy pecuniary in- 
demnity. In either event, they may reckon upon his forfeiting 
bis existing hold upon tire public esteem und confidence. Why. it 
may lie asked, should they dei-ui it of so much importance- that 
the prestige of M. |»E \Vrrrt: should !*• impaired, if not destroyed! 
It i». we answer, because the ex-11 ini* ter of Finance is the idol 
of those horn— t Conservative* who desire to save the autocracy 
by purifying, invigorating, and endearing it. and who constitute 
the only political party which the grand dukes have reason to 
fear, because, conceivably, if imt pri-lmhly. they might control 
the army. Rightly or wrongly, the memls-r* of the grand-ducal 
coterie view' the demonstration* of mi culled l.ilicral*. and even tike 
plot* of Nihilistic revolutionist*, without collective apprehension. 
They know, of course, that one of their nuiiilier may full a victim 
to dynamite, a bullet, or a dagger— like the Grand-Duke SEKniit's— 
loit they assume, and up to today history has justified the as- 
sumption, that the natacratic system would survive. They have 
read attentively the annul* of the French Revolution, and they 
have made up llu-ir minds that, if I /n in XV I. had |****vwcd firm- 
uews cnmigh t<> <li .i 1 with the first revolt against hi* authority 
ns General Rowfanti:, acting for the convention, dealt with the 
uprising of the Paris section*, the asrirs regime would never have 
succumlxil. Tlvey regard, therefore, any compromise on the pint 
of the reigning autocrat with the national aspirations for self- 
government — such u concession, for example, us AuUUXPU Il- 
ia known to have made in the last day* of hi* life at the sug- 
gestion of I /IK is Mei t koff — a* an act of criminal wraknea*. a 
l«a*c ls-traval of the interest* of the dynasty, finder stick cir- 
eunislaiKti they would deem them selves at perfect liberty t« 
ilepnsr, or even u**a«»inntc. the ruling sovereign, as was done in 
the «-a*p of Petes 111., of Pai'I. I., and nl*o. it is ntsjieoted, of 
Ho' Kmpcror previously nanuil. Nor. s» cxjx-riciire hn* shown, 
would such a palace coop rfVf.it present any insuperable dilfi- 
rultic*. The Nihilists have next to no icpn-i-ntative* among the 
generals and higher officers of the army, and the resolute Liberals 
but few. Kxrept in December. 1S25. when the insurrectionists 
profes-ed to act in the name of the oldest *mi of Aif.xanueb ^ 
lias always proved impo**iblc to array any «»n*hlerublb number 
of regiments against the almnlntist r/.;iwr*'. It Is quite otherwise 
with the convimi-d ConM-rvutive*, who believe in a paternal gov- 
eminent, hut who want the Russian autocracy to deserve that 
honorable name, and who ineludu almost all of the surviving hi*- 


into 


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H A RPER’S WEE K L Y 


tiiriiul families and great landowners. The military hierarchy 
if> full «il the representatives of this party, and if they saw lit 
In uphnlil such a inaa us M. i«: WiTrt in the posit ion of Prime 
Mini-trr there is no pow«*r or influence in liunniu that would lx* 
a lilt* lo overthrow him. so long as lie kept ostensibly the good-will 
of Du- reigning sovereign. Now these Conservative* are quite 
right in regarding M. r»E Witte as the lYnnor of Russia, a mini 
|»th caper and qualified to save the absolutist r dpi air, because, 
nhile inflexibly opposed to representative institutions, he has 
I invrd his ability to rescue the autocracy from iMirkrtiplry, and 
((habilitate it. materially and morally, in the eye* of the Rus- 
sian people. 

With nun like Rii'iiKiJRr and Ttooot. however, there ean be 
w> Mealing: no polite connivance ut. rmlirxzleinent and fraud on 
I hr part ul the black sheep of the reigning family. That, probably 
neagh. is the reason why certain manlier* of the grand-dural 
■nterie hate M. ire Witte more than they hate a Nihilist, and 
pladly would see him removed from Russia at thin critical con- 
juncture. 


Enjoyable Relations 

There it in the Kiithut'|«ani*lind a very ancient prayer which 
one notes not for any excessive fervor, lull for its altruistic motive. 
“May He protect us both." it begins, and continues, “May He 
in joy u* both." One may search the collect* of the Church in 
nin for a parallel, a sense of care for the joy beyond the human. 
To U- sure, the Calvinist ic catechism open* up grandly with the 
■ hide duty of man. which is to glorify God and enjoy Him for- 
eier: but that, after all. in still for the benefit of the creature, 
though it might he tacitly intended to make for the fuller joy 
of the Creator. Again, one of the -track questions for self-ex- 
antiaalMin of the Calvinistir-bTrd conscience is whether the soul 

• ;iW accept eternal iliimnntinn for the glory of God. but this 
i* ut ls-»t a sorry enjoyment to extend, and there is apt to lac a 
linking a«-tise that o(H'*s willingness is likewise one's means of 
»»«a|a!. Still, the extent to whieh one la willing to suffer 
that unnthrr may rejoice U the ultimate test of sincerity of 
alfotlon. 

Hut the real point of the ancient prayer seemed to lx- the 
iVurc to hold a human relation at so high a level that the 
t'inateir himolf might enjoy it. May our wisdom prow bright 
Pgrther," the little prayer continues. Uotce, in hi* attempt* at 
I (kstriof in the **ci.iid half of Thr Spirit of Modrm /'Aifosopfci/, 

Hot* out to us that in as far ii“ we suffer only from limitation 
ami imperfcctiiKi. our Creator must suffer with us. and in us, 
*“ that the interests of (iod und man would, in the last analysis, 
tie identical. Indeed, we ean only think of His untroubled |ier- 
iirth® while wc struggle if we accept tom such uplifted and 
tar oghted virw in which the threads of sorrow and mistake 
rnwoten in the tapestry of life are but the necessary contrasts 
and tha.lnw* which complete the beauty of the whole. Hut even 

* the thought of adding to the «uin of light and perfection in 
creation is a powerful stimulus toward finenrss of conduct and 
«f thought. 

Many jcenple are restrained from unworthy deeds and ungentle 


apreeli by CORsidcration for another's feeling: it is the imme- 
diate and visible pain they shrink from witnessing. Hut a less 
usual cure is for the whole stretch of a relationship, the kreping 
it across the gulf of years, aye. for it lifetime, mayhap, a matter 
of such beauty that ” He may enjoy u* both." 

I.ife, after all. is enm|uut not of thing*, nor ycL of activities, 
tasks, and pleasures, hut, above all else, of the intricate relation* 
in which we stand to other men: many and various, major and 
minor as these may is-, there yet remains not only an uspect of 
conduct suitable to each, but a definite choice us to the plane 
of exaltation upon which relationship shall lie held. Kxultatioii 
is a level many fear, and. like all heights, it has its dangers: 
the vision mny easily swim and the thoughts grnw heady, but 
when we contemplate the sordidness and commonplacenr** which 
paint in dull drab the recurrent days of average life, we grow 
to feel that even a full from a diny height may I* better than 
the weary dragging of the feet across u dusty plain. 

Probubly the first condition of a noble telution is effort. No 
one has ever yet drifted into nobility. No one. »ud as it nuiy 
seem, has ever achieved a fine and lasting friendship, a complete 
marriage, a close and helpful tsind of ]iurrnt and child, without 
a conscious struggle. For a line relation shoots out beyond the 
necessary and the obvious duties, and decorate* itself with works 
of supererogation. These are the tasks that a man in love in- 
stinctively performs. That i« a state of divine enthusiasm where 
the set limits of duty seem a hopch-vdy meagre expression of 
the surplus emotion. Hut being in love, like all enthusiasm*, 
ia of the spirit, und the wind of the spirit blowctli where it 
li-teth, and cannot lie counted upon to abide. The gift of such 
visitation of emotion is a chance and casual miner to poor mor- 
tality, though doubtless if this were paradise each human being 
would pciennially lie in some such fervent frame of mind toward 
every other being. Hut under earthly condition* it sets the nerves 
to irritated tingling, and hv it* very unwonted ness sets the brain 
to inventing rhyme*. To follow Era* for his loaves and fishes 
ia not feasible us a permanent pursuit, und the true task ia tu 
turn the spontaneous glow of feeling into u steady current of 
ready sympathy unit acceptable service. 

Effort, then, is the first condition of adrqmite human relation*. 
Perhaps the power of unselfish enjoyment ia the second. Nothing 
so smooths the roughness out of the path of lift* as the gift of 
ready humor untouched hy malice. Half the melodrama* and 
turbulent tragedies of existence are done away with by the whole- 
some habit of greeting life's incongruities with laughter. 

•• Not even their pains must make them sorrowful,” writes an 
old Italian poet of true lover*, and the maxim holds even more 
steadfastly true of the less enthuslustie relations in life, those 
slower feelings, standing off from the momentary impulse, while 
they steadfastly build and laboriously remmt the temple of 
their harmony. 

The third truth upon which ail satisfactory relationship to 
mankind is lu.m.l is the settled conviction that it is not what is 
given us that adds tu the joy of I icing and the sacrednc** of life, 
hut what we give. It is infinitely better to have felt without 
return than to have uccrptrd without feeling. It i* just this 
fact of the independence of the perfect relation, its power of 
creating and completing its own existence, which make* steadily, 
more and more as we rralize it, for fulru-s* of enjoyment. 


The Disaster on the 


U. S. Gunboat “ Bennington ” 


W HILE tbs t'nited 
States gunboat 
/f» in i* 17 P/ii was 

rsfing at anchor in the 
hubir of Sae Diego. Cali- 
(•cniu. on Die morning of 
J »l.r 21. om- of her boiler* 
cr Hided. killing and 
maiming * munt» r of her 
" e * The full force of 
the tx|iki«Min manifi-sted 
itslf at a point just for- 
«<m 1 of thr .|iip'» funnel. 
<i»l many of thr «ailwr«. 
injurid ami dru.l. were 
blown into the water. 
TW were armil lurlsir 
'»»lt m the neighbor 

h*s»i, and these and him!) 
*«oU from the shore went 
til Ihr rcMw. saving many 
*1". wrtc Striving In keep 
•bat. TIiii upper deck 
H tho flraatngfiM was 
•haitrrrd and part of it 
roned away. 

Tlir firnitinfloa, which 



tuin-screw vessel, with 
three- uuisted-sehooner rig 
and one funnel. Tin* 
HtnniuttloM distinguished 
herself in lN',13 l»y n nota- 
ble voyage which she mad.* 
to Europe, in the course 
nf which she called at 
thirty-one port* and trav- 
elled over twenty - four 
thousand mile*, in t *11 

months. Ij«t November 
she went to Colon and as- 
sist.*! in preventing n„. 
tlircwti lied revolution. ||er 
1 if liter* are Commander 
laieicri Young, in com 
lira nil; Meut count A. 

F. Yales, Knsign* (’ |« 

Wade and N. K. Pern. 
Midshipmen la.. s„b„ 
urul I. II. I airy, |\,.t 
-istniit Surgeon A. R, 
IVek. Paymaster C. Mnr- 
ris. dr., und Pay Clrrk 
H. 0. Met ius, 


JDT7 


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The Riddle of the Ages 

The problem discussed by the author in the following article is that greatest of all scientific 
questions -the origin and first cause of life on our planet. If the conclusions of the author, 
now published for the first time, prove to be correct, all former theories— the teachings of 
scientists like Huxley, Darwin, Tyndall, and Haeckel— will have to be modified to conform to 
the new theory of the origin of life and of life>forms on the earth here indicated by the author 

By Dr. Charles W. Littlefield 


I T is ray privilege to present what is demonstrated to be a 
solution of the advent of lift-forms tin thin planet of inorganic 
matter. 1 do not ask the reader at tin* time either to ac- 
cept or indorse what I shall say. I *IimI 1 await with com- 
pliuvnry tin* decision um to the correctness of ray conclusions, 
believing they will lie fully justified hv careful investigation. 

My reasons for stating that life is produced by tlu* experiments 
outlined in the following article are: 

Whatever the nature and source of the life principle, we can 
only know it as it manifests itself through matter. 

These muni festal ion* arc observed, llrst. in the building of or- 
ganized form* out of unorganized chemical compounds; second, 
in the producing of spontaneous movements in these organized 
forms. 

These two classes of vital phenomena rvrvcr every manifestation 
of life force, and wherever these are observed there the life prin- 
ciple is at work. 

If we think of reproduction we are only reja-ating the first 
process — that is. the building of organized forms out of unor- 
ganized chemical compounds. 

The pa rents are only the agents for ussi-mbling the clu-micnl 
com | mui mis in suitable environment where the life principle ran 
build the organism. 

If we think of nutritive assimilation, then the first process is 
only tiring repeated in an organism already formed. 

Under the second division of life's manifestations, simultaneous 
movements, we have, first, the power to change the attitude or 
physical position hv an impulse arising within the organism it- 
self, This impulse may la- excited by external* stimuli, or by in- 
ternal desire. Anti second, the receiving and transferring of 
nutritive material to various jiarts of the organism, either for 
its own nutrition or for the building of progeny. 

Ill my experiments I take unorganized chemical coiiijaiund* — 
that is, mineral compounds anti water, which is a 1st* an inorganic 
coiii|MHind, and build up life-forms without the aid »f similar 
antecedent life-forms, which could not lmp|M-n without the pres- 
ence and operation of the life principle. 

These life-forms roiild not have grown to any size, however 
small, without manifesting in their production the fundamental 
principles of life’s vital processes, namely, nutritive assimila- 
tion and s|Huitaneous movement. Their existence alone is primu 
facie evidence of the presence of life. Moreover, I have fmpicntly 
«rcn them change their physical position by spontaneous move- 
ments. 

For more than two hundred years the scientific world had 
Wen rent with discussion upon the origin of life when, in 1K74, 
llenry itnstian. an Kngli*h physician, made some experiments 
which caused him to advocate " spontaneous generation." in a 
work entitled Evolution and the ttnyin of l.ifr. Thi* called into 
the field a phalanx of observers, and the highest authorities on 
biological science engaged thcmsclvrs anew upon the subject. 
This finally resulted in Huxley's categorical announcement of 
“ The Law of Biogenesis "' — that is. life can only come from ante- 
cedent life, and spontaneous generation is impossible. 

In view of this consensus of opinion among scientific men, in 


which the world share* largely, I may he permitted to point out 
what seem* to lie some very grave errors in the supposed relation 
between the experiments on which this opinion is hosed and the 
proof the experimenters sought to establish. 

These experiments consisted in scaling strong decoctions of hay 
or other organic matter in air-tight jars, and afterwards ladling 
the contents for several hours to insure the destruction of all 
germs. 

When, under these condition*, lib-forms did not occur, the ex- 
perimenters concluded ” that life can only come from antecedent 
life." and therefore spontaneous generation is impossible. 

The only thing the**- ex|M-riuieiits demonstrated is: that life 
doc* not la*giii in boiled hay or other organic matter sealed in air- 
tight jars. That they demonstrated the impossibility of *|smDi- 
neous generation I cannot eonemlr. 

If these and u thousand similar or dissimilar experiment a 
failed to produce life-forms, the failure would not demonstrate 
the imp«Maibility of a biogenesis. An experiment of any kind ran 
only demonstrate one <*f two tilings; it is either a solution to the 
problem or it is not. When it i* not. it does not demonstrate the 
Sni|a».sibility of finding a solution. 

What would have Is-cn gained had life-forms generated in these 
compound* of organic matter? Did these men not know that hay 
and other organic matter are the products of life's vital processes, 
and therefore could nol la- the cause of life itself? Did they not 
know that nature could not have bottled up hay-tea in her first 
effort* to produce organic life? 

What relation can such experiments sustain to nature's first 
vital processes? None. I cite them for two reasons. First, as 
a premise for the present belief in the impossibility of ahiogene- 
sis; and. second, tnat we may note the difference between these 
experiments and the ones u|hui which I predicate my la-lief in its 
possibility. 

The problem that I am trying to solve is, How life first liegan 
on this planet of inorganic matter. The various changes that 
organic cotii|>ouiid* undergo after life's svnthetie processes build 
them up is ijuite another problem. And should animate form* do 
velop during the dissolution of these compound* spontaneous g«*n- 
eration would not he proven. Thi* would la* i-nroogenesis. or 
aaprogeiiMia. or life from dead matter— i. from matter that 
was once alive — and not ahiogenesi*. i»r life from not living mat- 
ter. and therefore could have nothing to do with the original advent 
of lib- on this earth. 

Another reason for thi* general disbelief in the possibility of 
spontaneous generation, to which I may briclly refer, is Charles 
Darwin’s theory of the origin of specie*, namely, "that all form* 
of life, lmth in the animal and vegetable kingdom*, have developed 
hy a continuous differentiation of organ* anil nmdifieation of 
parts from one low form of life consisting of a minute cell." 

This theory, however, dm-* not in the least explain the original 
up|a*arance of the cell itself; neither docs it explain the nature of 
the cause that produced it. 

This whole theory of the *|ow evolution of organic forms, 
whether true or false, depend* mt the original hungry lift* -cell. 
And why the theory should be cited as evidence against sponta- 



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neou* generation of tin* cell itself is a* dillicult to comprehend 
as the tbeorv. There are many well-known biological fact*, how- 
ever. that disprove the theory, which do not conic within the 
province of this paper. 

The teaching of Huxley, Darwin, Tyndall, and Haeckel i» the 
formulated creed of the preaent-day biological faith. This creed 
may be epitomized a* follows: 

I. All forms of life come from one original cell. 2. The origin 
of this cell is unknown. 3. Life can only come from antecedent 
life. 4. Therefore, spontaneous gem-ration is impossible. 

Is-aving this side of the question, we |m»* on to the consideration 
of what I believe to lie the method by which nature first produced 
organic form*. 

And here let me say that 1 do not claim to huve discovered any 
new principle in nature, or to Have produeed any new thing that 
doe* not already exist. It ia my belief, founded upon extensive 
investigation, that all visihle things have their counterpart in 
the microscopic world. And that the principle of ** ereution ” 
that I -hull present is already recognized under another name; 
and the organic forms that I have developed by experiments are 
known to exist in nature both ns microorganisms and as larger 
specimen* of similar specie*. 

What I shall attempt to show is — lu»w these things originated; 
why one specie* differs from another; and to point out the place 
of beginning of organic life. 

“The Principle of Creation,*’ under which I shall attempt this, 
may lx* stated as follows: “ In the grouping of mineral compound* 
ana the environment lie* the first cause of all physical phenomena 
in the organic kingdoms of nature."' 

To this I do not think there can be found a single exception 
in the whole realm of creation. In its interpretation it amount* 
to a declaration that all things are determined by the number, 
kind, and quality of elements that constitute the environment of 
origin; and grants to man not only the possibility of determining 
the origin of life-forms on this earth, hut also unlimited oppor- 
tunity of self-improvement, both mental and physical, by modifica- 
tion of original environment surrounding either — the beginning of 
an individual, uterogestation. adolescence, period of growth, or 
tissue-cell development in the adult organism. 

Therefore within the scope and application of this principle 
of ereution will be found a solution to every problem in biology, 
from the origin and differentiation of species to every modifica- 
tion of form and configuration of outline that murks individual* 
with characteristic personalities, both mental ami physical. 

In order to elucidate and reduce this principle of creation to a 
working basis. I may be ]H>rmitted to refer to certain facts in 
physiological chemistry. 

Fourteen chemical elements enter into the composition of all 
organized beiugs, without exception. These are: carbon, hydrogen, 
oxvgen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sndiutn, 
calcium, magnesium, iron, tiuorine, and silicic acid. 

Itv the various groupings and modification of relation and pro- 
■Mirtion of these few elements every species of plan! and animal 
i* formed. And this fact comprises both the law of ahiogenesia 
or thr origin of specie*, and the law of biogenesis or tile propa- 
gation of »|>eeies. 

All of these elements, with the exception of oxygen, leave the 
animal organism in the exact form in which it entered the veg- 
etable kingdom. Passing from mineral and gas through plant to 
animal arid return, is the ceaseless cycle of the elements thut con- 
stitute the organic kingdoms of nature. 

Tlir expression of energy that mould* the elements into living 
form*, and endows organisms with the functions of nutrition, 
growth, and reproduction is the life principle, or vital magnetism. 

If a drop of auv volatile liquid lie placed on the slide of a 
mirrosisijM-. and any substance placed in it that will llmt and not 


dissolve, such substance will be found to tuke on the phenomena 
of rnuguetixation — that is, of attraction and repulsion among its 
partirlc* during the proeea* of evaporation. Itv repeating this 
process u number of time* with the same particle* of matter they 
will become completely saturated with thi* magnetic force. 

This process of evaporation, or the conversion of a liquid 
into a gas, i* universal both on sea and land, and instead of bring 
merely incidental in nature, it will be found to he vital to organic 
life, since it is nature's method of saturating matter with vital 
magnetism. And it is evidence that this inlluei.ee permeate* 
every form of matter, both elementary and compound, and that 
some elements and compounds hold a larger quantity of it than 
others, and for thi* reason there i* n constant difference of po- 
tential, and to this is due the dynamical state of matter, and 
therefore the cause of constant change. 

To this inherent property of mutter, the absorption of unequal 
quantities of this magnetic force, is due the different manifesta- 
tion* of vital energy in the organic world. 

Experiments will demonstrate that thi* magnetism, a* it exists 
in water, is latent vital energy, and that the process of rva[H>ra 
tion liberate* It, and it saturate* the mineral compound* that 
characterize the plant or animal form that is being developed, 
and become* the life principle or vital force of that plant or 
animal. 

A* it ia the grouping of the mineral compound* that determines 
specie* in the organic kingdom* of nature, both in their origin 
and reproduction, so it is these same compound* that determine 
the expression of vital energy in the different species of plant and 
animal. 

In order to make myself perfectly clear on this point, I beg 
leave to introduce a table and some remark* from Professor 
Bunge's Text-battle of 1‘hgmulogical (’Aepiufry (Chapter VII.; sub- 
ject. "Inorganic Foodstuff* "| . The analysis i* that of one hun- 
dred part* of the ash of the rahhit, dug. and cat. 

AXALYH1M OP AMU. 


A" mm I’ .tii-h. M< sin. ! I.iiii.-. |Miigue»m. lion. | llnwphoras. L'lilurliiw. 


Babbit . 

1 10. N 

0.0 

35.0 1 


| 0.23 

41.0 

4.0 

Dog . . 

1 8.5 1 

8.2 

35.8 

1.0 

i 0.34 

1 311.8 

7.3 

Cat .... 

1 10.1 

h.:j 

34.1 

1.5 

| 0.24 

40.2 

7.1 


It will be noted that an excess of 2.3 of potash in the rabbit. 
2.2 of soda in the dog. 0.8 of lime in the dog, 0.0 of magne*ia in 
the rabbit. 0.11 of iron in the dog, 2.1 of phosphorus in the rab- 
bit. and 2.4 of chlorine in the dog, determines, so fur a* these ele- 
ments are concerned, the difference in these animals. 

A* between the dog and the cat there i* a difference of 1.0 of 
potash in execs* in the taut, 0.1 of mmIu in the ml. 1.7 of lime in 
the dog. 0.1 of magnesia in the dog, 0.10 of iron in the cat, 0.4 
of phosphorus in the cat. uud 0.2 of chlorine in the dog. 

Between the rabbit ami the eat there i* an excess of 0.7 of 
potash in the rahhit, 1.7 of soda in thr- cat, 0.0 of lime in the rah 
hit, 0.7 of magnesia in the rabbit. 0.1 of iron in the eat, 1.7 of 
phosphorus in the rahhit, and 2.2 of chlorine in the eat. 

These he compare* with the milk of the same animal*, and then 
any*. " The inorganic foodstuff* are appropriated by the mammary 
glands from the blood- plasma in the exact proportion required 
by the young animal for its development into an organism like 
that of the parent.” 

Thi* i* equivalent to Maying that the inorganic elements arc the 
media through which form i* transmitted, and thi* is determined 
by the proportion in which they are furnished in the food of thp 
progeny. 

If they are so necessary to the development of form after birth, 
i* it not reasonable to believe that they determine form in the 




t'hemicutly deerlopi tt 
/'/iMfuyrMfiA* through thi 


t’nnh-irairr Shi tl form* 
nirnaro/N nhniriny ri null* 


"f 


the 


Thi tlelof/u*likr OryuniiM resulting from o nr Hxpcrimcnt 
author’ll rfforta to produce tiring organism* from inorganic matter 

1079 

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HARPER’S WEEKLY 




brginnini; of cell devel- 
<»(itii«*nl ? In tha twelve 
Tissue Remedies ( page 14: 
subject, “ (irncral The- 
ory " > we lind this lan- 
guage : ** The idea upon 
which the bfoehemlc meth- 
od is based is the physio- 
logical fact that both the 
structure and vitality of 
the organs of the body are 
dependent Upon certain 
necessary quantities and 
apportionment of its in- 
organic constituent*, which 
are those that remain 
after combustion of the 
tissues — its ashes, nil's!* 
are in n very real sense 
the material basis of the 
organs and tissues of the 
body, and are nb->olutely 
essential to their integrity 
of structure and func- 
tional activity.” 

May we not therefore 
justly conclude that since 
these elements are re- 
sponsible for the trans- 
mitting of form, the in- 
tegrity of structure and 
functional activity of or- 
gan tod being*, that they 
also performed some im- 
portant rftlc in originating 
them? And may we not 
find in the various group- 
ing* of these elements and 
compound* a solution to 
the problem of the advent 
of life-forms on this planet 
of inorganic matter* 

A retrospective view of 
nature’s operations and 
an imitation of her meth- 
ods seem to me the only 

solution. I could not believe that seuling up liny-tea or other 
organic matter in uir-light jars was a fair representation of na- 
ture’* method of originating life-forms. And it does not teem 
reasonable that nature, so bountiful in her pieparations for the 
perpetiiutioii of life, would have confined herself to a single cell 
for its beginning. 

So 1 asked. What lias nature been doing T and I answered the 
question hy a review of her operation* from the time when the 
surface of the earth was a barren rocky waste to the time when 
man appeared 

upon the scene 
ns the crowning 
clfnrt of creative 
energy. 

In the early 
day* before life- 
forms appeared 
the sun shone 
U|M>n tlu« ocean, 

and evaporation 
sent up u mist 
that watered the 
earth. Again and 
again the sun 
sliuiH*, the mist 
arose, and the 
rain fell upon 

the risks, and 

t lie rock* were 
dissolved. From 
these solutions 
crystalline forms 
builL up. repre- 
senting in min- 
crul composition 
and outline every 
form of vegeta- 
tion that was 

destined to grow 
upon the earth. 

Ilv the process 
nf evaporation 


Photograph of the Fish Form developed by I hr Author’s Experiments to 
obtain Life front Inorganic Hatter 


singly, nor sparingly, but 
by millions, each cell 
capable of developing Into 
a distinct specie* of life- 
form a* would la- deter- 
mined by its minerul com- 
position. 

In order to demonstrate 
experimentally this princi- 
ple of abingencsi* only a 
few simple apparatus are 
needed. A good micro 
scope, varying in magni 
fying power from two hun- 
dred and fifty to right hun- 
dred. a numls-r of ordinary 
glass tumblers of about 
six ounces capacity, plenty 
of pure laoilesd water, and 
the twelve mineral com- 

f ounds essential to vrgeta- 
le and animal tissues. 
These are: the fluoride, 
phosphate, and sulphate of 
lime; the phosphate of 
iron; the phosphate, the 
chloride, and sulphate of 
potash; the chloride phos- 
phate and sulphate of 
*<>du ; the phosphate of 
magnesia and silicic acid. 

Make a three-per-cent, 
solution, hy weight, of 
yalt. and All as many 

f lasses as may be desired. 

use twelve. Triturate to- 
gether twelve different 
combination* of the re- 
maining eleven cell • salts, 
and place ahoul ten grains 
|ii each glass of salt solu- 
tion. VJ’e now have twelve 
miniature ocean* that will 
fairly represent the condi- 
tion of the sea before life 


n i t r o g e 
fixed, and 
mineral crys- 
talline forms 
saturated with 
vital magnetism, 
and in the**' crys- 
tal forms na 
lure** synthetic 
processes built 
up her llr*t cell* 
of bioplasm, not 


Photograph o} the It'plih Form irhirh resulted from thr Author’s Chemical Ft peri m 
to pro time Life-forms 


appeared upon the earth. 

Tour into each glass one dram of bisulphide of curlmii. and 
leave the glasses uncovered in a temperature of 7.’> to SO degree* 
Fahrenheit, and replace from time to time by fresh water, 
previously boiled, the amount lost by evaporation, ami we are 
ready to liegin the work of creation, and if we did not wish to 
study the phenomena we could leave the solutions untouched, as 
they will work out every form <>f life from mollusk to iiiammnl. 

In order to study the process of cell origin and organic develop- 
ment we may use a couple dozen round gins* discs about two inches 

i n diameter, 
to Is- had at any 
novelty store, a* 
little mirror*, 
from which we 
can easily remove 
the mercury by 
immersing them 
in nitric arid. 

Ilv means of a 
small glass rod 
or wood tooth- 
pick place drops 
from these solu- 
tion* at differ- 
ent places on 
the glass plates, 
and place them 
in n good light, 
where active 
evaporation will 
go on. If no 
crvstalline vege- 
table forms build 
up, add more of 
the soda salts to 
tlie sol ot ion from 
which the drops 
have Item taken. 
If the foliage is 
too abundant, 
add b-«* of the 
phosphate and 
more of the sul- 
phate of soda, 
and repeat the 
experiment. The 
amount of foli- 
age may always 
tie determined ny 
the phosphate of 
soda, and the sire 
of trunk and 
limbs hy tho 
sulphate. When 


iceo 



Cran'di working Hold at the Sakhalin Mines, where they toil 
Eleven Hours a Day 


How Hussion Convicts work out Life Sentences at the Vladi- 
mir Coal-mines, Island of Sakai in 



SCENES ON THE RUSSIAN CONVICT ISLAND OF SAKHALIN, 
RECENTLY CAPTURED BY THE JAPANESE 


«|| Air iiriiii it nrrumlivn vl lA.. i. tu ml I. limn An, ii.Mii/ Ar, air, ad y Iona list in, i„|r.rfilnl ltr»l far ra..«ii/rnll..in A. 

in hit Mr„.,r.lr„li.,r,.. nnil. Ihr ,,n.,7» „/ , nr .rill Ml. .1 /».,.iMr /nr A,r r.r.ij/. In lAr 11 i«Ai„ ./Ion in, /inner In I l*r 
price of i*arr at a hir/h figure. Sakhalin is a ra/uablr possession on accr, H nt of its coal and gold *»in«A. ia JicA «rr iimip irur*.r«I 
u ndi r Russian domination by Iht danyoous and desperate class of criminals condemned to imprisonment there 


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HARPER'S WEEKLY 


crystalline- forms resembling well-proportioned vegetation are ole 
tained, set the plate where a regular temperature of 7ft to KO de- 
grees and a moist atmosphere surround the disc, and leave it un- 
disturbed for twenty-eight days. 

At the end of this time a number of microscopic plants and ani- 
mal cell* will be found growing on the plate. If. however, 
the plate ia watched during this time, numerous small moist 
spots or droplets will be found scattered over its surface, from 
which small crystals develop, some of which grow into plant life 
and some develop animal cells. 

That the plant and animal forms do not come fmm germs pre- 
viously existing in the air will be evident to any one who will 
carry out the experiments. It does not require one versed in 
the science of physiological chemistry to demonstrate in the 
laboratory this theory of the origin of living firms. Nature 
knows nothing of weights and measure*, as used by man. and no 
one. however well versed in synthetic chemistry, ran possibly 
measure the infinitesimal proportions of mineral compounds (but 
enter into the original Crlls of organic life. 

When the proper material is usscmhlt-d in favorable environ- 
ment plant and animal forms arr produced. The projs>rt ion of 
minrrnl compound* is determined in nature hv crystalline forma 
tions. which ure antitypes of vrgrti’ 1 ‘ growths, and a single 
crystal representing u blade of grass or fern leaf, requiring n 
magnifying power of two hundred diameters to see ii. will furnish 
the requisite amount of mineral cell salts for hundreds of hin- 
plasmic cells, each of which is capable of developing into a living 
form. Crystallization is nature's chemist, and in his mystic 
laboratory, hidden away from the most powerful lens, he. makes 
his mineral combinations that determine species in the organic- 
kingdoms of nature. And a cell once created in a given environ- 
ment and by a certain assemblage of minrral compounds, itself 
becomes the embodiment of such environment, and the agent for 
the assemblage of similar groups of inorganic material, so it 
must of necessity propagate its kind, and this necessity is fixed 
upon that organism into which the cell is destined to develop, for 
the cell is the origin and unit of the organism. In this is Hux- 
ley’s ** Iscw of Biogcnesia " fulfilled. 

You will find, therefore, in these demonstrations, and in all 
nature, of which these are but miniature reproductions, proof of 
the principle of creation enunciated in the beginning of this essay: 


" In 1l»p grouping of mineral compounds and the environment lie* 
the first cause of all physical phenomena in the organic kingdom* 
of nature." 

The microphotographs presented herewith were taken from 
specimens of crystalline, vegetable, and animal forms grown 
during the winter months. Every precaution possible, consistent 
with the principle involved, was taken to prevent contamina- 
tion from without! The water used to make the solutions was 
thoroughly boiled to insure the destruction of any organic mat- 
ter that it might contain, and the mineral compounds placed in 
it while near the boiling-puint. 

These photographs do not do justice to the organisms repre- 
sented. The microM-u|»e is limited in its objective area, therefore 
we do not get an entire organism in a single photograph, lmt only 
the largest view obtainable at a single exposure. 

There has been no attempt to change or modify them in any 
way; they are just as the camera produced them. Most of them 
are magnified eight hundred time*. If they are what they seem 
to Is-, we have three of the five geologic age* of animal life repre- 
sented — the age of molliisks, the age of tislir-s. and the age of rep- 
tiles. The s|»ccinicns represented developed from cells which 
originated in crystals, as shown in the photograph.*, and each one 
from a dilTcrcnt solution and «i|s>n a separate plate. What seem* 
at present as conclusive evidence that tin’s*’ form* are produced 
from mil living matter is. -when the proper grouping is made 
and a drop of the solution is placed upon the plates the 
forms appear ; when the grouping is nut made the forms do 
not develop. 

It is quite impossible to present in writing the conviction of 
a truth fixed in the mind by years of careful observation of re- 
lated phenomena. To sec a photograph of a plant or animal, or 
even to observe it through the microscope, doc* not fix that con- 
viction upon the mind that is essential to the cordial reception of 
a new truth. Therefore. I remarked in the lieginning of this essay 
that I do not ask the reader at this time either to accept or in 
dorse what is here presented as the principle of a biogenesis. I 
liclicvc it to lie a solution of the riddle of the age* — the liegin 
ning of life-forms on this planet of inorganic matter — yet I may 
he mistaken, and I hope that others who have the time will take 
up the experiments, and either confirm or disprove wluit is here 
presented. 


A 


Union of Nations 

By B}6rnst|erne Bjornson 


BELIEVE that Norway will obtain her desire — a King from 
the Swedish royal house of the Bernadettes. 

When the union was rwtublished, in 1814, it was intend. *1 
to Is* a personal union. Iiut the weakness uf Norway led 
to its becoming, in practice, something more. Tile elements 
of a complete and actual union do not exist in Norway and 
Sweden, which lack many of those characteristics which, in spite 
of all inequalities, aided Italy as well as Germany to become 


united kingdom*. This fact soon liecame manifest, especially in 
the far more rapid political progress of the democratic Nor- 
wegian people. Yet. under these conditions. Norway was con- 
stantly forced to *uhmit to interferenee un the part of a joint 
King and the Swedish aristocracy. 

As far lank ns the eighties the Norwegian Liberals, being in 
the majority, formulated their programme, which eventually was 
adopted by all, “ Either absolute equality within the union or — 



It /tiruMt jrr iil lljuium/n, tht nut <>! \ -•nr*</tir n Author, in his Study 
AU rv"0 


I !>*-_* 


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out of it!” — or, in other word*, either n purely personal union 
or a dissolution. The first possibility was blindly opposed by 
the Swedish leaders, whose conduct will now he characterized bv 
everybody as senseless, and thus the second has become a reality — 
the union is now dissolved. All Norwegians, man and woman, old 
and young. without exception, agree upon this as the most satis- 
factory solution. 

According to the br*t sources of information, it appears that 
the majority of the people of Sweden are also content with the 
final dissolution of the union. Hut a temporary agitation npainst 
the method of dissolution has arisen. This is caused by two mis- 
understand inp», whirh, in a measure, do honor to the Swedish 


people. The first arise* from the exeeedinply hiph position which 
the King occupies in the Swedish people’s patriotic repards. an 
historical inheritance which he does not enjoy amonp the Nor- 
wegian people. When the Norwegian people felt compelled to 
resent the notions of their Kinp, and now, when they are obliged 
to hreak with him. since he stands alone without a Norwegian 
ministry to support him, and has refused to come to Norway, the 
Swedish people pant to avenge the supposed insult to their 
monarch. 

The second misunderstanding is due to the form which the dis- 
solution has tnken. This is not perhaps the best form, but it is 
(Contimurrl on po*tr 1100.} 



Iiik; 


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5Ss-«>"'ik5r 


t *5*oto»3t, 


0«D Crr* «,•»-■ 

W »W tnf 
^ •ZfO.OM 


The I'nfue of Plant Product a 


The Rich Cotton Products 


The Increase tn Vegetable Production 


Fifty Years of Progress in America. 

III. — The Extraordinary Increase in Cotton. Plant, and Vegetable Production 


By F. W. 

N OT cirrals and seed prop* alone furnish the food of men. 

Even the addition of the nutritious and appetizing fruits 
tint are grown in aucb amazing variety doc* not complete 
the (till of fare. The succulent and healthful plant*, them* 
selves are no less an important addition to the life of 
mankind, and the power of the willing friends of men. the millions 
of farm animals that in their turn round out the rich supply of 
food and clothing which by the magic of agriculture originates 
in the soils of valley, field, ami farm. Not as Nebuchadnezzar of 
old do American* eat grass at first hand, but as beef, mutton, and 
pork, as milk, butter, and cheese, and in many minor forms they 
consume great fields of pasturage, and great crops of hay and 
other forage, which, in their total money value, outrank all other 
groups of plant production. Almost half a billion dollars stands 
credited to that single division of our national plant production, 
which, in it« aggregate, foot* up over thirteen hundred millions 
I $1.313.000,000 1 . standing next to the great cereal and other seed 
crops alicady studied, whose aggregate is but the trifle of two hun- 
dred and sixty-five millions larger 181,578,000,000). 

To the West and South timothy is almost o stranger, while to 
the great dairy farms of the North Atlantic States and to the in- 
tensely diversified farming of the North Central States, and to the 
great city markets, for their multitude of freight and carriage 
horse* timothy i* the standurd. und, almost exclusively, the uni- 
form forage crop. Of wild grasses there are in the Ignited States 
more than two hundred varieties, each recognized in its own local- 
ity as being excellent forage for farm animals. Thirteen million 
tors of grain-hay (largely corn-hay) is produced by sowing grain 
thickly on purpose to cut and feed preen, or to cut and cure as 
dry hay liefore it comes to or just as it is beginning to " head.” In 
New York city more than 1000 tons of hay are used per day. 
Clover and timothy were early immigrants, coining to this country 
nliout 1757 and 1771. respectively, but until after the Revolutionary 
war they were little known. The now famous alfalfa became a 
resident of New York State about 1820. but did not much displace 
the ordinary forage crops. Chilean alfalfa, introduced in Cali- 


Hewes 

fomia in 18.54, spread steadily in use throughout the irrigated 
region* of the West anil Southwest, a* su|M>rior to any other forage 
for those region*. A Turkestan alfalfa is now promising to become 
valuable in drought regions that cannot lie irrigated. 

Early explorer* of the Mississippi Valley reported the growth of 
cotton a* a wild plant seventy years liefore the first permanent 
settlement in America. ** A Declaration of the State of Virginia," 
published when that fir*t permanent settlement. Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, was only a dozen yeuia old. just ns the Pi’grirus were land 
itig at Plymouth, says. ~ t otton-wmdl and sugar canes may be 
had there in abundance with an infinity of othermore.” Yet a 
hundred year* later cotton was only an ornamental garden plant 
in the Southern and Middle colonics. During the early part of 
the second half of the eighteenth century < I730-I300J a few plant- 
er* were growing it for profit, and small quantities were exported 
to Knglund. Furthermore, during the Revolutionary war. nlmost 
the entire amount consumed in Philadelphia manufacture was 
grown within convenient transportation distance of that city. 
Shortly after the clow of the war. 178fi. Jefferson wrote de War- 
ville that "the four southernmost State* < Virginia, the Carolina*, 
and Georgia I make a great deal of cotton — their poor are almost 
entirely clothed with it in winter and summer. ’’ The following 
year a small horse power factory was built on Jamrs Island, near 
Charleston, South Carolina, and in 17'-»0 one near Stntesburg. South 
Carolina. In 1810. at a militia review in Virginia, out of 1800 
persons present, less than forty wore anything but ” homespun." 
and twenty million yards of cotton goods were produced in ** the 
four southernmost Suites." 

The distribution of the crop is graphically mapped with the 
five circle* measuring the leading cotton State*, and the six lurge 
dot* recording the movement «f the crop centre show how strong- 
ly localized it* habitat ha* been, especially since 1800 and 1870. 
whose two dots are so close together as to look almost like one. 
The northward movement from 1870 to 1880 waa checked by the 
development of cotton-growing in Texas, whose crop has nearly 
trebled since 1880. It is altogether probable that the movement 



°baccoStct* s 










HARPER’S WEEKLY 


will, by the powerful 

Text* pull, continue it* south- 
westerly course, unles* the pres- 
i'itt effort* of tire Department 
of Agriculture are crowned 
with eery large minim to pro- 
duce n commercially pruetie*- 
hie upland oca-island or long* 
tihre cotton. Suclr a success 
will extend the cotton urea of 
the Static eastward of Texas, 
and give the movement of the 
centre a balancing pull in a 
northeastern direction. 

Fifty years ago none but an 
American dreamer of American 
dreams could have foretold the 
incredible progress of electrical 
expansion. Almost a* truly 
none but a man of amazing im- 
agination could have foretold 
the enormous increase in the 
use of table vegetables in the 
same period. The first century 
of colonial life was potatoleni 
Then when that important veg- 
etable final") - ciine into use it 
was in the Northern colonies 
that it took its strongest hold, 
and the situation has never been 
reversed. North of Mason and 
Dixon’s line the present con- 
sumption i* 4 Vi bushels per 
year for each person, including 
the millions of lobics. In the 
South it is but 1 1-3 bushels. 

To-day miscellaneous vegetables 
outrank the potato product by 
sixteen million dollars, and 
most of those miscellaneous 
vegetables are also consumed in 
the North, although many of 
them are grown in the South. 

The farm gardens, “market gardens.” and “truck garden*" of 
to-day are the producers of a multitude of “ miscellaneous vegeta- 
bles " almost unknown fifty years ago, In the census of 1890 
the large increase in garden products was recognized, and a ays- 
tcniutie count of their bulk and value was made. II I* possible, 
therefore, to make a ten-year comparison of the Increase of such 
products, and this records the remarkable increase* of from 190 
per cent, to 400 per cent, in the five several divisions of the coun- 
try. The North Atlantic State* had u well -developed industry In 
" garden products ” before 1890, which account* for its rela- 
tively low increase. However, 190 per cent, in ten years, while 
the population increased only a trille over 28 per cent., 1# amazing. 

Could our great-granddaddie*, who thought tomatoes poisonous, 
and our great-grandmothers, who grew them us ornamental plant* 
in window-pots, under the attractive nine of " love apples.” come 
buck and realize that over thirty million bushels of the pretty 
poisonous vegetables are eaten as a common and healthful food, 
they would surely realize that time works wonderful change*. 
Another interesting statement is that the lettuce crop of the South 
hits so increased that in the spring of this year North Carolina 
sent twenty car-loads of that vegetable North in a single day. 

Thirty- five years ago celery was a rarity even on hotel tables, 
and was used by few families, even of wealth. To-day it is a 
cxuiituon edible, occupying thousands of acres in Michigan. Ohio, 
and New York. One firm has celery farms in Michigan. Florida, 
and California, and because of the" variety of seasons it is en- 
gaged in shipping celery by the car-load the whole year round. 
Twenty-two million bunches of radishes and twelve million hunches 
of asparagus are the figures for the crop* of these vegetables. 

Not properly a " vegetable." although growing under the earth 
like a ]>otato-, not properly a nut. for while it blossoms in the 
air, the blossom stalk buries itself in the Boil as M«nn ns the 


blossoms fall, and grows it* 
shell like a pod of *' peas " un- 
der ground — yet for it* need 
of a home the |*eanut i* ac- 
cepted ns a member of the 
vegetable fa mil) 1 . Before the 
civil war a small part of east- 
ern Virginia grew almost tin- 
whole crop. Soldier* from va- 
rious other part* of the South, 
visiting that region during the 
war, carried peanuts home, and 
from the duo* of the war to 
1870 the inereaM- of the na- 
tional crop was from 200 per 
cent, to .100 per cent, a year, 
and from being a Urge" im- 
porter this country became the 
producer for it* greatly in- 
creased home market. Nor did 
the advance stop at 1870, hut 
strode rapidly on, and from 
I SOU to 19(8) 'the increase was 
233 per tent. (3.(100,0110 bushels 

to 1 > 00 . 000 ). 

An example illustrating the 
emphatic increase in the grow- 
ing of vegetable food* is found 
in the record of eleven counties 
tributary to Norfolk, Virginia, 
and Nt-vvbern, North Carolina, 
na shipping points. Their in- 
crease of garden- product acre- 
age from 1890 to 1900 was 31.1 
per cent. The four counties 
tributary to Charleston. South 
Carolina, show 293 per cent. 
Kight counties of Georgia show 
838 per cent. Alabama, Louisi- 
ana. Arkansas, and Texas have 
similar records. Florida, as an 
entire State, reports 208 per 
cent., due largely to the increase 
in southern counties following the orange frerzr of 1895, changing 
the crop from oranges to vegetable*, making the whole State a 
vegetable producer. In the year 1901-2, Texas organized one hun- 
dred and forty liortirultiirnl societies and eleven fruit and truck 
growers’ associations on the line of railrond from Houston. Texas, 
to Shreveport. I^oiiisiann. On the railroad between Austin and 
Galveston. Texas, the acreage was doubled in a single year, and 
extra express trains were nut in service to handle the product. 
A* that State bus ten million acres suitable to just such pro 
duction there appears to to no present limit to that sort of ex 
pansion, except the capacity of Northern markets to consume the 
product. Boulder County, near Denver. Colorado, prows one thou- 
»md two hundred and fifty-eight acres of green peas. Within 
fifteen years California, from growing a 'cant supply of vegeta- 
bles. ha* come to ship long train-loads of asparagus, cauliflower, 
cabbages, celery, sprouts, and onions, from certain regions, espe- 
cially adapted to their cultivation. Ka stern production i* only 
hintrd at by the records of 19,712 acre* of tomatoes in Harford 
County. Maryland. J8.W4 acres of sweet corn in Oneida County. 
New York, and 1202 acres of asparagus in Monmouth County. 
New Jersey. The watermelon record is held by Scott County. 
Missouri (’4103 acres!. 

The advent of the ranning industry — an evolution of the past 
forty years — makes distant gardening safe from a severe loss in 
some litr-jlities through the deplorable incident of the season 
"stealing a march" on the product. In fact, it gives large arras 
profitable crops to he marketed wholly in cans. About 1840 corn 
canning wno toguu nrar Portland. Main*. Years passed, how 
ever, before the industry became of commercial importance even 
in n amall way. Ten years after the civil war canned vegeta- 
bles were a luxury, or used for emergency foods in hospital*, on 
(Con tin mil on poyf 1 10». J 




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Leodtjs Hmj,-; Forage States 

1900 


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o, I the Holt i» thr Cn In 0/ I 


Attdrrm n and Smith 0.1 the Home Onto. 


INCIDENTS OF THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL GOLF TOURNAMENT 
ON THE VAN CORTLANDT PARK COURSE. NEW YORK CITY 


The r, 

irlth o 
rJlirJ. 
Qtjilri 


rnl jirnfi uicino 4 golf tournament at I'nii Cortland! l*o rk which alhtictrd moat of thr boding pntfraxinnala of Ihn 
*ron In hi for mo«»y pnzra rouging fro m SI‘,0 t„ \>t>. n „„„ h„ houir Vackie, of thr fox 1 /ilU tiolf Club, f*°. 
-,rr of .WK for m-rcnty-Uvo hole, defeated Willi, And, mom. of Apatrtimi*. Sv One ntroke, A leek Smith, of Samoa a, vaa 
"I' *•- H; wd A "Ml*, of Hotly,, ood , , lr .,i i-fcri* t'rod.y, of Anofalc, tied for fourth plow teiffc JM, and David 
Of .\orlfc Jermy, made SI), taking »ixth alter thr fir Xicholla fourth portion 


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The Last Honors to John Paul Jones 


By Hester Dorsey Richardson 


K 


NKAPOLIS u the final 
resting-place of our first 
great nival commander 
niu a dual interrat ami 
ignificuncc. 


The chord ol popular approral 
»hich responded *n promptly to 
the President's derision was the 


^owk recognition bv the Amer- 
nan mind of the lltiM-s* of the 
national naval environment for 
the national naval hero. 

But John Paul Jones was a 
Kevnlutionaty hrro also, hence 
the hi<torir background of An- 
tunulis, whose Tery atmosphere 
pulsate. with Re vc hit innary in- 
terest. Imd* a second claim to 
lltarni. 

In the funeral oration deliv- 
ered o« the occasion of the inter- 
ment of Chevalier John Paul 
J«nw in Pari*. July *0, 1 702. 

M Mrrron said, " May the ashes 
of the grrst man too »«Kjn lost 
to iamioetality enjoy here an un- 
disturbed repose," For mare 
tlan a century this hospitable 
wish has been (ulfillrd, but now 
Amrrira claims her own. that his 
greatness may DO* he lost to itn- 
■MTtality, nor his ashes repose 
in a foreign land. 

In the new rhnpcl. of mag- 
sifiemt proportions and beauti- 
ful drtign, which is in the course 
uf rrrxtion at Annapolis. John 
Paul Jones will lie interred— 
the first of our illustrious dead 
to rest in what is destined to 
heron* the Westminster Abbey 
of the American navy. 

The crypt, which occupies the 
entire htsefiirnt, will he of ex- 
T*i*ite marble, noil in the cen- 
tre the sarcophagus will he 
placed for his interment. The 
fail that the crypt is below 
ground has caused regret in some 
•I filters since the announcement 
that nor first naval hero will he 
interred there. In response to 
Ihi*. oi* high in command at 
Annapolis has suggested that a 
central opening t* left in the 

floor of the chapel, surrounded lay a bronze rail, leaving to view 
the marble sarcophagus bearing in distinct lettering the name 
Ma Paul Jones. 

A« the declared object an depositing the remains there was in 
furl to incite the growing youth of our land to noble deed* of 
paumti'm, this would be l**t fulfilled by keeping in sight that 
which perpetuates bis 
fame. A young cadet 
describing to bis 
mother the Naval Mon 
sment. which stands at 
the entrance to the old 
quarter*, said: “It it 
•he fir-t thing we *ee 
in IW morning. and at 
it n«o out of the dark 
He** in winter or «hines 
in the win in summer, 

I tell you it is ,,:.t , ni . 

"wrUlitj ! and set-. 

J"ur heart burning and 

makes your breath 



Admiral John Paul Jonrn. fr*\ 


i very particular inquiry on th« 


(raeratiec mvm the tew. * 
loving remrmbranea for the dr- 
parted heroes. 

At his obaequira in Pw«. 1,oh " 
Paul Jonc* was called “one of 
1 1 vc fir-t champions of the liberty 
of America," and it is as such 
that the nation i« aliout to honor 
him. It i» unthinkable that due 
honor could have been done him 
Imd his final resting - place been 

ehr»*en away from the United 
State* Naval Academy, as he was 
essentially one in spirit with the 
purpose* which have brought the 
American navy to its high stand 
aril. The finding of his hody at 
i he opportune moment brings an 
added interest to the new S’nval 
Academy which, a* o whole, is a 
miignihecnt monument to the one 
who lir*t raised the American 
Bag at home and abroad, for it 
was not until that flag was sa- 
luted by a foreign power that we 
were recognized as un inde- 
pethh-r.t people. 

When reporting the event to 
the Marine Committee in Feb- 
ruary, 1 77S, John Paul Jones, 
then commander of tile Hanger, 
writes from (Ju I heron Bav: “ I 
am happy in having it in my 
power to congratulate you on my 
linving seen the American ling 
for the first time recognised in 
the ful 1.-st ami com pie test man- 
ner bv the Hag nf France. 1 was 
off their bay on the 13th in- 
stant. and sent my boat in the 
next day to know if the admiral 
4 la* Mott Piquet t would return 
any salute, lie answered that he 
would return to me. as the senior 
American Continental ollicer in 
Kurope. the same salute which 
he was authorized bv his court 
to return to an admiral of Hol- 
land or any other republic, which 
was four lev. than the salute 
given. I hesitated lit this, for I 
had demanded gun for gun. 
Therefore, I anchored in the en- 
trance of the bay at a distance 
from the French Beet, but after 
1 4th. finding that he really hud 


ft'* '» I he beautiful 
'•‘He nitride monu- 
mmt rtorf ti, tho* 
•k» Ml U Trip.. (i |„ 
•h» thrilling iUvs in 
'he far off Mislitcrra- 
i*»n sh'iTrs, where IV- 
'““f and other* were 
nuking themwlri-s f». 

II bear* the 
*•*,« ni Soman, i'nld- 
'*»ll. IVntiir. tVud* 
;■**. Uortey, , nd 

,,M * About it, bat, 
f"'** * larder uf 

row*. «W« upfiung 


s s. 

JTATlJC/gl^. M'faito.A. 

•>*.' fr-tjUmm* Af.-Ww, I,.,.... 


Facsimile of Paul Jones's Appointment by i'ongrtsa, oi 
a Captain in the United Staten ,\«i 


told the truth, 1 wns induced to accept his offer, the more so as 
it was. in fact, nil acknowledgment of American independence.*’ 
Three years before r lii~. when lieutenant of the Alfred, John 
Paul Jon.- rni-rd with his own l i.md» the first American Hug 
ever displayed; this was in ITT’* and therefore prior to the 
Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and when 
the flag is said to have 
represented u pine-tree 
with a rattlesnake 
coiled at its root about 
to strike. Two years 
later the same Con- 
gress which commis- 
sioned hi in captain of 
the Itangrr, June 14. 
1777. adopted the stars 
and stri|s-s us our na- 
tional emblem. and 
again lie wa* first to 
unfurl his country's 
flag on his outbound 
ship. 

There is, then, a 
poetic suggest ivenesa 

in the fart that the 
ranking Hag -hip of 
the American navy will 
convey in state the bier 
of our 111 st standard 
hearer on the voyage 
to bis home port, and 
that “Old (I lory," with 
many new stars in her 
firmament, will wave 
gloriously, if mourn- 
fully. overhead, 

While he will he the 
only Revolutionary 


I n C (f N G 

TW DIM CATES .fUstl STATICS 4W.4-/, 

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■ fey *a4 fsritrsMif *11 mOunt d Tkmplbme« *■«». tn&iMj dnr«c 

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(AorTtv. -as • ac.-. .4 rgu-i~y rw-i M tawAiwi »«• i «k » 

Tmm Jyss lUI iBesias** aitmnm Cu|rafa«rtksU«w4 *•»«. m ol Co., > 

la Hat ». :fcJt m CsenMOf ■ Cksl to. lb* T.«* U« f ml \\m * tbc I'M 

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iSss Is <vMis»> .» r«tr C*J HM-HI tamt (espfb 

- .< lULn (UfC. 

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ttetober 10, ITUS, aa 


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-ArZ 


te in,m " 1 i" O. K.v.l 

-A rail pi,i v ground*. there are nth- 
«T|Wu»t.d Hot* <11 cndurinii 

mi.tl’1,;. j„ ,.d,titi<OT to tl,; 

,r 'P° ,i WonuiMrnl, there i* one 
to Commander Herndon. the gal 
'"nt "fln-er who lost hie life while 
attempting to «ve th(me under 
hU r,re. Thi* in a granite shaft 
whiih stands firing the chipcl 
door across Ihp closely ciopped 
“wnrd. War by » the monument 
to the midshipmen who lost their 
live* off \ pm Cnw. — of whom 
Mn,ie* of heroic deed* are Mill 
recited. 

Many meniorinl tablet* in 
hronzr which hung in the old 
eli.ifiel will !*• placed in the new. 

Among them- i* the one to Lieu- 
tenant .lohn («. Tvlhnt and hi* 
companions, who were drowned 
in 1870. after making a voyage 
of 1000 mile* in an open boat to 
seek aid for their wrecked ship- 
mate*. 

There i* another naval hero 
who lie* in the Naval Cemetery 
aero** College Circle. Thi* i* 

Lieutenant l.m kwumi, of the ill- 
fated (Italy expedition. 

The Nival A m demy grounds, 
aside from their natural beauty, 
air full of hiMorie interest, for 
while the Naval School i* com- 
paratively yonng. the building* 
occupied by the *ii|M-rintcndcnt 
and «ccretarjr of the academy— 
the library and I’vccum — consti- 
tuted the “Old Government 
House,” occupied by Governor Hubert Hdcn, who. when the Revo- 
lutionary spirit became rife in Maryland. wm» politely escorted to 
an outgoing ship and encouraged to emlmrk for Knglund; thus 
ended the propiietary governor* in Maryland! 

Itut in th-- trend of progress these old building* are being de- 
molished. and the Academy i» at the present time in that moat 
uninteresting of all stages — the transition from old to new. 

Within a year nil the magnificent granite building* will be com- 
pleted. and "the I'nited State* Naval School will enter upon a 
larger and more advanced life than has ever been possible since 
t In- date of it* opening, October 10, 184& 

Stindinc ut the water-front in the Academy ground* the famous 
Windmill Point is shown t<> be within its boundaries. It was hen*, 
on October l!t. 1774. that the brig Peggy Wnnirl was burned, with 
her cargo of the “ detestable weed.” The incident, which was the 
first Revolutionary act in Maryland, was of national significance — 
and as it is on the anniversary of thi* day that the final interment 
of John Paul -lone* is expected to take place, it will not lie ami** 
to let the American people know this hit of history which bus 
escaped the general hi-dorian. 




05-!-^-' 


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Itrrord of the fir* I Salute to 1 
War-nhip. It'ri/fcn Ay /'< 11 


I a**ing the sentry on guard 
y 1 •»* 'he entrance-gate of the Naval 

• | Ac » demy and turning tti the left 

on Hanover Sliret. the first lie 
yond the gale, one comes to the 
P'.'PJ.i/ St.inut Souse, noted in 
tlu- annul, of Maryland. Here 
it wa, that the young and in- 
trepid Dr. Chart*-. Alexander 
Warfield led the patriot citizens 
>»r Annapolis to demand of An 
thnny Stewart that he burn bis 
ship and the tea on which he 
had *0 rashly paid the duly— or 
hntig before hi* own door! 

These young sons of Maryland, 
whose motto was •• LiU-rty. or 
death in pursuit of it.” carried 
the day and accompanied Stew- 
art to Windmill Point, where he 

f iTsoniilly applied the torch to 
i* brig, with all sail* set and 
colors flying. This open defiance 
of the King and Parliament wa« 
done in broad daylight and with- 
#£ - out disguise. 

Itoth the Daughters and Soa» 
sO of the Ametinin Revolution cel- 

ebrate thi* as a red-letter day in 
Maryland history. 

There are other points of Rev- 
olutionary interest in Annapolis 
which give tailor to the ” Ancient 
City " ns mi historic background 
for John Paul Jones's resting- 
place. It was in the old Senate 
t'li amber in Anna pedis that 
Washington resigned his com- 
Creneh .D/uiinrf hi/ on .1 merioan mission a» commander-in-chief 
1 / ./one a aboard /Ac " Ranger ” of the American army, Ih-crmber 

2.4. 1784. It wiis there, nearly a 
month Inter, that the ratification of the pence treaty by the United 
States Congress took plare. January M. 17*4. 

Here the convention of six States .it from September II to It 
in the year 17HW, which led to the Federal Constitution of 1787. 
All these are claim* to national interest, and should make the 
old Senate Chamlier at Annap<di» not •wcntiil in interest to Indc 
pendener Hall in Philadelphia, for while war wa* dcrlan-d in the 
latter, victorinua pence wu» proclaimed in the former. 

If -fohu Paul Jones could awaken in his new environment hr 
would no doubt gn/r with delight ut the drills and mituruvrc*. the 
parade* and ship training, which make up in part the programme 
at the Naval Academy today. |lut lie would have to wend his 
wav through the Ancient City to the old State House to find con- 
temporary interest. 

Tnere the hero of Cowpen*. Ceneral John Huger Howard, would 
meet hi* view, and the four M uvland signer* of the Declaration 
of Independence. Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, William Paea, 
Thomii* Stone, and Notmu-I Chase, are all perpetuated on canvas. 
He would see the familiar face of hi* friend l-afayettc. and Colonel 
((‘on tin u ued on ;»i»j« HUH.) 


. 

termnl .„ C »« K I Cry,, I 


IC’Wl Of 1 


Digitized by Google 


i } 



' > "a*£- By KATHERINE CECIL THURSTON 

Author of "The M&tquor&dar" 


HYNol'HIH OK I'ltKCKDIXa C1IAPTKH8 

•>*•»» Milbankr, an old •■allege friend >f la-nls AhhIiIIu. viaita !bp 
un»r for Hi* mat time In Hilrijr year* at hla am-ntral estate In south- 
*rn Itfla' il II* Unit* Aaslilln mill !i changed. Aftrr dinner Ar-UHii In- 
dwra Milbankr in play rants with him. and they play until i-arly 
■lornlng, Milbankr lit ally sinning. Aft*r MUbank* leave* hla boat to 

C lo hl« r»»m. I'Mairli, Atabllii's eldest daughter. meri* him Iti the 
II- anit begs bllQ not to salable with her father turn 111. as It I* 
Ibiotieh bis Mulun for |>Iay that Anablln I* bringing ruin to himself 
aad his family . The next morning at breakfast Mllbanke find* on his 
piste a ilink tmcn Aaahlln lu payment of lila lunara. Tliat night Aaablln 
|im|«o-' niii.ilo-r yaitre of cards Milbankr refuae* lo play, anil drop* hla 
kcal a ilink Inin the lln* II* tell* Aaahlln that he ronalders him weak 
and woriklew. and returns to England the next day Three year* 
afi*r. Mllbank* receive* a letter from t'lodagh tilling him that 
Asthlln has lireti seriously hurt In an accident. and urging him to 
i»«u? to Ireland. Mllbank* hasten* to hla old friend's home, and 
ncd« Aathlln on hl« deathbed. and In great distress of mind over the 
funire »f bla children, who he knowa will br left penniless n» n 
result of hi* dissipation*. Mllbank* premises to be responsible for 
ta*lr ■ elfare a famous specialist la summoned from Dublin to ron 
•alt with ihe local atug*>m, and after a rareful examination by the 
two phyilrlana. Mllbatikr la Infornieil that hla frlerd's rnndltlon Is 
bejele** Late that night Aaahlln dlea. Mlllwnke aaka Clodagb to 
notry him. At first she refu-e* him : hut when she learns that her 
fa'txra rattle will be pot under obligations to Mllbanke by hla bene 
firlkuns. *1111 coiHi'Mt' lo heroine liia wile. They are married shortly idler 
»t Cirri glam*, noil, afler It lm* lre*i» derided that Ctodagh’s a later Name 
*ii:ill lire with il,. -in f-ir a lime, nil leave Ireland together f>>r Florence. 
I'.ior tfi-ir* Uicr, N«ncu Imvlng been sent off t« school. Mllbanke take* 
CVd'ifli I" Venice where he U to meet |ii* business adviser Barnard for 
cornu UliiHi. A» they enter the hotel on the evening of tliclr nrrltal, Clo 

ilr*li •* cl observed by two men •ittiiig »l the entrance. One of tlu»-e 

men i* Vuleiithie tk-mteanld, a nejdirw of Lord Derraliiiret. lie ia pre 
teiitnl to Clmkigh Hut riming tiy ilornard. who knew him at Eton, arid 
daring dinn- > Barnard suggests to ('liiihig)i that sho aninso her-clf while 
In Venice and inert new friend*. Sernieatild offer* Lord Deerclilirsl's 
giH.doU lor an evening's excursion upon the cuuala, und Clodagli accept*. 


CHAPTER XX 

SRKACAl'LD smiled his acknowledgment of the granted per- 
mission. nmi departed in wnroh of his unele. while Barnard 
looked nt Clodagh with amused interest, 

“ If voti can waive your prejudice* Against the inilk 
hatha, Mr*. Millmnke." he *aid. “ you'll find old l)«swrhnr*t 
'juite a delightful |H-r«in. Rut, of rourse, when one is very voting 
prejudice* are adhesive things." 

He lini'lied hi* coffee meditatively, shading a gill nee at t'ludagh 
limn the corner o| his eye. 

('loclagh remu ineil silent for u moment, tl-ntntively lingering her 
cup 

" Ihi I arein **i Very young?" she aakeii nl last. without raising 
hrr eyes. 

At 1h* words he turned and looked at her fully. 

“Ihi you know. Mr*. Millumke.” he said, seriously. " I am lit- 
erally d*-t uuied hy a desire to a*k you your »gc? When I vi w 
yn« come down slnira to-night I felt — paid-m the rudenee* — like 
laughing in .lame*'* ;iice when he introdueed you na hi*, wife, 
toil »ear rely Innkrtl eighteen. But just this moment, when you 
•pike nf your life ut Klorenee. 1 suddenly felt out in my culeula 
Hon*. ^ mir fare, of euunw, teemed just ns luaiinutinglv young, 
hul from your expresaiou I could have believvd you to he twenty- 
mu f . Aral now ng.iin — plea*r do be lenient lo mv import inmev — 
nnw again, a* you spoke to Srrrmcniild. you |o<>kt-<l like a child 
•urriing the fir»t page in the hook of life. Are you an enigma ?" 

Huring the fl»«t portion of hia apcrrli CUniagh had looked 
worils she Uughmi with a touch of constraint. 

No. “hr answered. “I nm nothing half *n Interesting— and 
r i i , j ,v ' , * r * eighteen. Rut hadn't I better got mv 

etok before Mr Nerracauld conn hnek?" 

1 . ••‘dher slight »v ernharrassesi laugh she ruse nr id. with 

I waiting for Hurnard’a escort, walked out of the room. 

cn minute* later she de*ccndetl the stall-., wrapp'd in a light 
»venin* closlc Her rheeka were still duaheil with excitement and 
Irla . W l ’ ,m l ^“ r * c w Rh anticipation. Yesterday — only y«« 
lif. ’iTu*"' hn<l n n,, “ re ' ,crn ,n ,hp seeluded, unimportant 

ft the villa nt Florence; now. tonight, three men— each one 


of whom must, in hi* time, have known sti relatively interesting 
and Iwautifiil women — awaited her pleasure! 

A* she Stepped across ilie hull Serracstlld darted forward to 
meet her. 

" Tliis is very gracious of you!” he murmured. "I hear it i* 
vour first evening in Venice." 

Site glanced up nt him as they moved slowly forward across 
the hall. 

"My very llr*t evening." she said, *oflly. “And I *o want to 
enjoy it." 

He paused deliberately and looknl nt her. 

"May I take that as |K'rnii«»iou to make it enjoyable — if 

Her lashes drooped in instinctive native coquet rv. 

" Arc you going to introdiuv your uncle to me!” she said, in u 
lowered voice. 

He liaikeil at her. mystified and attracted. 

If 1 knew you better. Mis. Milhankc — ” lie la-gun. 

Hut without replying Clodagh moved away from him across tin* 
hall and out on to the terrace There, transfixed by a new im- 
pression. she paused involuntarily. 

Venice i* heautifiil in the morning and exquUilc in tiie twilight, 
hut il is at night that the mystery of Venice — the most subtle of 
its many charms — enwraps and envelom it like a magic web. 
There is nothing in Kuro)>c to rival tin- literal, tangible romance of 
Venice nt night. The faint, idle, infinitely suggestive lup of water 
against a thnuoand unseen step* the secret darkness, revealed 
rather than dispersed by the furtive uneven light* sl.nl forth from 
window* or open door*; the throb of inu*ic that aiems woven into 
the picture — an inseparable, integral part of the enchanted life. 
All — collectively ami wparati l_v — is a wonder und a joy. 

To Clodagh. with her inherent appreciation nf thing* mystic 
and beautiful, the scene was a narcotic. In an ecstasy she stood 
drinking it in; then, suddenly touched with the warm tlrsiro of 
shoring her impressions, she turned to the companion who hud 
followed her. 

“ Isn't it — wonderful?" she said, below her hrealli. 

Serrncauld looktd at her tor a moment in pur/led doubt; then 
he siuilrel indulgently 

"Vest" he said, vaguely. *' Yes! It is rather great- the sing- 
ing ami the gondola*, and — and all that sort of thing — " 

Her large, clear «■»••» rested mi his face, then slowly reliirnrsl 
lo their scrutiny of the ctiiul. A momentary sense of disappoint 
n lent had a**uHed her — she was conscious of a momentary jar 
But as she stood, silent and uncertain, a fresh burst of low, throb- 
bing music broke Across the durknes*. und at lire same moment 
she become conscious of n large gondola gliding up to the hotel 

•d «•(>*- 

With the excitement of anticipation the cloud pa**cd from her 
face. 

"Conte!" she cried. "Come! I sre- Mr Harnnrd.'' 

It was at the head of lire tlight of stone alcpa lending to ihc 
water Hint Lord I>rereliur»t was introduced to her; and in tlic 
■remidarkiress it struck her that he made a distinctly interesting 
figure, with III* black hair worn a shade lower ou the forehead 
limn modern fashion permit*; lu* pule. «ri*lnorntie. unemotional 
foes*: hi* rold penetrating eve*, and the somewhat unusual evening 
clothes flint titled his tall figure closely, mid. I*y a clever touch of 
tire tailor'* Art. conveyed the suggestion of an era more picturesque 
than our <>wn. She studied him with deep attention, ami Immii her 
head in gratified Acknowledgment of |he profound Imw with which 
lie marked tire introduction. A moment later Ire offered her hi* 
liam* und himself a**i*«ei| her to the waiting gnndnlA. 

With « pIcAsant. exeilod ACBse of dignity mid importance she 
m«hI down lire «l> p* and enteresl the law t. noting, a* sire t<«*k her 
*e it. its costly and clahornte fittings ,md the picturesque liveries 
of the two gondoliers: thou, as *hr leaned hork again*! the cu»h 
ions I Init silp|Hirted her. Irer eve* pi-*«d li-iek inteiratedly in the 
three men to whom sire owed the night's adventure. 

laird IWrehust came fits?, moving with u certain * 1 iff dignity, 
and appropriated the seat by her side: Ilamard and Serracuuid 


Copyright. 1905, by Katm«sins Caen. Tiussrox 


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[be •toai'ud? mowM l ’ui 1 J n »h h ' .'"V”' 11 " A-»l 

I? mad ta( 0 n„, ir **“ lh * «*i»* liih- 

‘II !«. “!,“ l ,h " «"«• ■>**»' 

>l» r".rnt "lfl lr t , < r t l™*irtl" .oJ 'I 1 !' ''I""’ K^ndollkni h„„ir,l for 
nlfthtlv l„ , h * <d VrniM 

«( IW somli 7 W,,,h ,h " P*l" 

onward. She was Ism, ling 
W U * » t V , ! ul - . nn ‘.vpifying <5 

(| u . I,..' |.... * * . in her Iji |», «iii‘| aguin 

t he J ib- f ‘* vr r "** i ‘l«rko. 1 .H| by their .lib, tod pupil.. 
i.nfrJ .r i' 1 '1*^1 -n.l the throbbing mu-ie became 

'™ . V? T ,,, : ,rr ,,U|iBcl - ]A,r,i IJwirhiinit. who had 
Ucn cmertly studying her, leaned Midden I v rlua* to her. 

Ion are a great uppreciator of the beautiful. Mr*. Milbank.'" 
he Mid. in his thin, high-bred voice. 

Clodagh started, and glancing from one to the other nf the 
three men. laughed ihvljr. 

“ Why do you say tfia’tr" she naked. 

" Because | have presumed to watch vour face.” 

She blushed: and liarnanl, feeling rather i.liau seeing her cm- 
bnrrnsenicnt. made baste to reassure her. 

"Mrs. Millwnke is an adept in the appreciation of 1 •runty.” lie 
said, with u laugh. •• She was brought up on the study of it." 

'gain (lodagli colored, and aguin she gave u shy laugh. 

"If you say that. Mr. Itamurd.” she said. " I shall nenise you 
of bring a fellow countryman. I am Irish, you know." She lurried 
and lookrd lip at Deerrnurat. 

The old peer aguin brnt forward interestedly. 

“Indeed l” he rxelaiined. "Then we have a bond of sympathy. 
Some of my best friends come from Ireland." 

flit* voice was high and possessed no fuln.-*. hut lie had the 
same courteously ingratiating manner that U*l»ngcd to bis 
nephew: while a larger acquaintance with the world had taught 
him un adaptability to circumstances — and person* — thut. Scrru- 
eauld had not trouided to a<*quire. As hp spoke now he brought 
a lone of deference and friendliness into his words that touched 
Clodagh to a feeling of companionship. 

“Then you know Ireland!" she said, quickly. 

*' Very weH indeed." 

Her expression softened. 

" When were you there last !" she asked, in a low voice. 

" 1a»*t autumn. 1 was staving at Arraninore with — " 

M Willi 1-ord Muskrcrr. I know l know. Why. you were in 
inv count v! Mv father often and often stayed at Arranmore tie- 
fn're— " She checked herself, hastily. "Oh. long ago. before— be- 
fore I was I lorn.” she added, a 
little awkwardly. " It was 
from a stream that runs by 
Arraninore that he took inv 
name — Clodagh.” 

"Indeed! What a charming 
idea ! ” 

Derrehurst raided his gold 
rimmed eye-glass and peered at 
her through the dusk. 

At the same moment Serra- 
rauld leaned forward in his 
•.-at. 

"Clodagh!” he repeated. 

"Clodagh! \»bnt a pretty 
name!" 

Oner more, and without ap 

1 ui rent reason, Clodagh felt her 
icart heat unevenly. With a 
short laugh she turned to 
llarnard. 

” And you, Mr. llarnard." she 
said, hastily, “do you like the 
nnme!” 

llarnard made a suave gesture. 

" I say that it fits it* owner.” 

Once more she laughed with a 
tinge of nervous excitement. 

"A very guarded statement !’* 
she said, iirightlv. “ I think we 
had lietter talk about some- 
thing else. Who nre I he people 
I am to meet here! Mr. Bar 
nurd kindly wants to provide me 
with new friends." 

She turned again to l)rerr- 
hnr»t. 

” Indeed!” Once more he 
lifted the gold -rimmed eye glass, 
this time to study Barnard. 

"Yes.” broke in Barnard, 
genially. " Mrs. Milhankr’s hu«- 
haml and 1 have met here to talk 
•hop; and I have a shrewd are 
sentiment that, unless we p r «e 
vide her with a diverting ehan- 
n r| or two. Mr-. Mi Its, nke may 
linil \ mice a bore.” 

“ I mold never do that." 

<b«l..|ih turni.1 nnimutnl 
“<* toward. dnk 

.nit .kin, .kick n, -i, „„„ 
gondola was hoveling. 


.1 V mu loom,- unii.l-r™tin« and 

i i “ 1 ," mv Barnard rrtnrnrd. airily. “ M, 

•„ l'« rxplain. J. •• „ 11, at | .l„.„l,| „„ k „ 1|„™ anil 

k * ™ ri ‘ " ,h " t you lliaaik Ihr idra 

" Quite! Quite!" Serraeauld looked up interestedly. "You are 
u man of ideas. Baraev!" ' * “ rr 

l-ord Deerehurst said nothing, but again liis evegUs, gleamed 
in the uncertain light. * 

wlthd^i* }*** France- Hope like!" CTodagh asked, suddenly 
withdrawing her gnee from the nms-ed gondolas that swav.nl in 
the musicians lantern-light. 

"Like!" Serracauld repeated, vaguely. "How would vou de 
serila* her, uncle! The sort of woman who does everv thing twice 
ns well as anvlsslv rise — and at half the cost — eb!" 

I>»rd Derrehurat gave one of his thin, metallic laughs. 

I always think." he said, slowlv. "that if Lady France. Hope 
had Iweti the child of u milkman instead of a marquis, she would 
hive made a singularly successful adventuress. So reflections cast 
ii|Min the lute Ssinmy, my dear Barnard!" 

He wave.] his white hand, and the dim, uncertain light gleamed 
on a magnificent iliaioond ring. 

Barnard laughed with a tolerant air. 

" Bather an apt deduction!” hr admitted. “I inclined to 
agiee with you. Frances is just one of those shrewd, plain -looking, 
iitliaetive women who enjoy climbing steep ladders. It •'« rather 
II pity she was lawn mi the top rung. But I lielieve we have fright 
cited Mrs. Milhnnke!” 

He turned suddenly mid caught t'ludagli’s expression, a- she 
•vit forward, listening intently. 

At the mention of her lurne she laughed qui<-kly, and leaneil back 
agnin-t the cushions of her seat. 

"What do you mean!" she asked, with u touch of constraint. 
“ Am I a- childish as all that?” 

They all three hoiked at her. and Itniiinrii gave an amused laugh. 

•Tome!" he cried, hmiteringly. "There’s tin use telling me you 
weren't just a little shocked.” 

" Shoekeil !" 

" Yes. s|i(M-ked." 

He niMhhsI his head mice or twice in genial gaycty. " There's 
no denying that the word ‘ adventuress ’ has 'a daunting 
Miund. There was a danger signal in the very thought of a ladv 
who might — under any conditions — have been notorious. Come, 
now. i*on fess ! " 

< 'hslagli Inokevl from his anmae«l, qiiizeical eyes to Serracauld’s 
satirical, laughing ones, ami a shadow of uneertaiutv. of doubt, 
crossed her own bright face. There was an element iii this social 
atinosphcre that she did not 
quite understand. 

" Indeed — ” aim begun, hotly. 
But Serracauld, whose glume 
had never left her own, bent for- 
ward quickly, looking up into 
her face. 

" I say. Mr*. Milliankr," he 
cried, " let's refute the insinua 
lion of this old inquisitor! 
lad's waive ceremony, and storm 
Lady Frances Hope in her cit- 
adel! She is always nl home at 
this hour of the night." 
t’lodugli looked up. 
"To-night!” she said. " Oh. 
hut how could I ? I don't know 
her." 

Serracauld laughed. 

" Oh. a« for that, we're ahroud. 
not in Knglaml! The greatest 
stickler for etiquette ullows that 
there's a difference in the two 
conditions." 

“ But I couldn't. How could 
I !” Her eyes sought Barnard's. 

" Oh yea!” he cried. " I knew 
it! I knew it! We have 
frightened you off!" 

She Hushed umtnnforliibly. 

"It isn't iliut!" ahr erin’l. in 
distress. “ You know it isn't 
that!” 

Involuntarily she turned to 
laird Deerehurst. hut in the dim 
light she detected a smile on 
lii« pale, cold face. 

With a sudden change of 
emotion self • reliance came to 
her. 

“ When* does Lady Frances 
Hope live!" slip asked.' id a care- 
less voice. 

Barnard whs studying her in- 

tently. 

" She has apartments in the 
1’ula/y.o rgochini” he said. 
“ Quite close at hand.” 

For a moment Ctodugh looked 
fixedly in front of her; thru her 
lips closed suddenly, and the 
turned her head. 

“Very well!” she said, short- 


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lv. " Take mi* to l hr Palazzo 
('gorhini — just to prove that 
you were wrong.” 

CHAPTER XXI 
The decision waa no aoonrr 
itudr thnn it waa curried into 
rxrrutlun. The order was given 
tu the gondolier*. and instantly 
the long dark gondola swung 
round. 

TW Palazzo L'gochini was on 
the Grand Canal; and as they 
glided westward, past the beau 
I iful church of Santa Maria drllu 
Salute, Barnard leaned forward 
and directed his attention to 
their destination. 

•' There is thr palace of the 
rguchini,'* he said. '* It con- 
tains sonic of tile And freacoes 
ill Italy. It was bought up 
•otne years ago by an enter- 
prising Fieuchman, who lids it 
»iit in sections. Just now Lady 
Frances Hope is the proud occu- 
pier of the first floor." 

With a - movement of interest 
she followed his glance, looking 
silently at the long line of 
imposing buildings that stretrli 
ed away before her. 

" What a beautiful old place I” 
she said. “ Are those your 
friend's windows!" 

She indicated the first floor 
of the palace, from the open 
windows of which a warm 
stream of light poured down- 
ward upon the water. 

" Yea. I expect they're play- 
ing bridge up there. Frances is 
an enthusiast. By the way. do 
you gamble, Mrs. Milhnnkc?" 

Involuntarily t 'Ulugh started 
and looked round; then, as she 
met Barnard's Idand. amiable 
fare, she blushed at her own 
mint inns. 

“Oh no!” -die Buid. in a | nw 
voice. “ | — | never play Birds." 

Krrracauld looked up quickly. 

What!" hi* exclaimrd. 

' inu don't play bridge ?” 

Ti!.*,!" F'Ti ”< ""'I- -int-t- I »». „ .-hild.” 

• lie three men looked ut her in unfeigned surprise 
Not really, Mrs. MillwnkeV* 1 

-rIX* *' dc wit, ‘ "■•tonislimrnt. 

Keallyr Quite really!** 
hhe ; smiled as she made the statement. 

w, !£ i’l™ IS-. MHUnk, !" Iktrni.nl uitl. 

Wt 'toh u~. "I’ P"l«-» »'*l~ " The |M,„- 

n '« t"i in.tr.li, ml.. 1„„. ,( rl«k.- 

Hodagh laughed nervotislv. 

Ihen I must la* inhuman.” she said, 
her hi, *»?• !, "‘ l Ur ' 1 l*">li..r*t nro*. A, he offered 
■Uilv r e "" kwl • Parrh,n 8l.v into her face. 

UAeiJ bc^r ? rOV r. V* . ,r, " h ° f ll »«t *1 iteiuenl , Mrs. Mil* 

dagh to ° f l ‘" surroundings the winds seemed to C|«- 

hnL'd m r " r,,,u " ; * prophetic, ting; ...id their echo 

the iwliKT u,,!'*'? ** l ’ h ‘‘ " to l , l’ w * from the gondola und entered 
rver »*» *«"**• «"'l to the young a.-lion must 


Lord I/oerchunt pfaectf *i yuld coin on number 14 


— kfc. ’in 

®* r I'* »«air.-a,r before 


•^nt all other idea. 


the excitement of her impending ordeiil 


spinning into oblivion. There w 


by a velvet eurtain WTW <>r * n “relied doorway hidden 

"died. TSe uTni *V *"- v n ’ l>r '' "hnwii was large and higli- 

w>»k of .. “ 0 ""* *H'*gorlcal studies in the fre-co 

and high I v itolisbed V.u T !, l M | k, * r,: ‘he floor was Imre of «-ar|M*t 
furniture aril ,»._ / ^ *l*l«r*t« , ly designed but aeunty 

filing; ami i n ,k u r ? chandeliers that hung from the 

'"sal group, i ?utM rer ** Win,l ° W " * , “' t ,, l M n,sl «» Ihn 
ffuriiig the iiKinietii ni.i 


believed (hat Mhiwed their cnlniiiee t'ludagh almost 

J* l'«k-. but, **" uft,Nl ' , >pH*d. s„ wide and formal did 

farther end fun. * ,unnr convinced her of her mistake. At its 

partly sheltered rJT T Wrr * P U - vin * 1,1 » *»wll l«ble. 

■wr-en. rn| " l,, «* rest of I Ik- room l.y a massive leal her 

SwLr.rt!,7' ■""•M.un.nsl no on.- »l lit,, mbit. rooviM nr 
"“Hit II,. "nnn.diMnl, ,, 

InJlttu,,! | lv „ *'., ...mu! ,.r ttii.l. t bum n lui-litv 

r * Wl* lotto), in « tvtniuitt'n vuito-. 


"Game — and rubber! Well 
done, partner! How dno« the 
"core stand. Tory?” 

The owner of the |« U gh roar 
from her seat, and almost in- 
stantly turned to the door, re- 
vealing to Clodugh's curious 
erea a strong, energetic face, re- 
deemed from ugliness bv a pair 
of intensely intelligent eyes and 
a mouth that displayed' strong 
white Urth. It was the some- 
what disconcerting face of a 
clever woman to whom life rep- 
resents an undeniable— if an in- 
vigorating — struggle. Seeing 
the little group by the doorway, 
"he hurried forward with an a’l- 
niosl masculine assurance. 

“ You iKior, dear people!” she 
exclaimed, in her strong voire. 
“A thousand ufiologies! We 
wen* on the point of finishing a 
mo.t exciting rubber— ’’ Her 
voice; broke off short ns her eves 
rested on Clmlngh. 

“Who ia this, Barnev!” she 
asked, interestedly. 

Barnard stepped forward, lay- 
ing his hand smilingly on Clo- 
dagh's arm. 

“ This, my dear Frances." he 
'aid. " is n new friend that I 
want you to make! The wife of 
an old friend of mine. You mar 
have met her husband— Mr. Mil 
hanke — one of the Somerset Mil- 
banker— |k»ot Sammv knew him 
well.” 

I*dy Frances Hope puckered 
her strong, assertive eyebrows. 

** 1 believe I do remember 
meeting a Mr. Millwnke. but I 
scarcely think—*' She looked 
M-rutinizingly at Clodagh. 

“tMi yes. it's the aaine! It's 
the ■caine!" Barnard's inter- 
ruption was somewhat hasty. 
** Mr. Milbunke is a great 
un-hsmlogist, lie and Mrs. Mil- 
Ikinke are only in Venice for a 
week. I had intended bringing 
you to mil formally at their 
hotel, but circumstances — ” 

Here t'ludagh btukc in. 

” You nuist pleu-w*. pli-iiM- forgive my doing -<uc-h n very extrnor- 
dimiry thing us this.' - she said. "It was all Mr. Barnard's 
fault — ” 

lint laidy France* ||o|k* cot tlic explanation slinrt by holding out 
her hand. 

" You are extremely Welcome!” she slid, cordiullv. ** And if 
the truth must In* told I owe you a debt of gratitude fur saving 
me an afternoon cull. It's ii hundred times pleasanter to jncet like 
this. "Now, let me sec*! You play bridge, of emiisc. We ni make 
up uiiol her four." 

She glaiH-cd over her guest, with an organizing eye. 

(’lodiigli stepjHsI forward ih-premtingly ami east a Issos-c-liing 
look nt Barnard. But in the slight pause that lollowed it was 
laird Dis-rehnrst who rame to her rescue. 

” Mrs. Millianke has just been confessing to us that she never 
play- cards." he said, smoothly. “ If you will go on with your 
game, lardy Frances. I shall do my best to am Use her.” 

lie tiirmsl bis unemotional glams* from one to the other. 

The surprise that his announcement had brought to their host 
rss’s face* changed instantly to un rx pres* inn of hospitality. 

" Xo! No, indeed!" she cried. ** I would inflnitely prefer to talk 
to Mrs. Millianke. t’omr!” she added, smiling at Clodagh. "(Ww 
and let' me introduce you to tln*se bridge- playing people. IV-r- 
Imps they will convert you.” 

She hiiighccl, ami. followed by the four, moved ai*tom the mtlon. 

At their upproaeii the three ut the* curd-table — two women and 
a mini — turnrd to |is«k at them, ami the last, a square built. 
lliirk-xct youth, wearing a pince-nez and possessing a quick, in- 
quisitive manner, rose to his feet. 

" Mrs. Millianke. said Lady Frances, "this is Mr. Vidor Luard! 
Miss Luard! Mrs. Hat hur*t !" 

I am nl IniwchI: and the two women looked at Clodagh. each ac- 
knowledging the introduclimi after her own fashion. .Mi** Luard 
gaw- a quick, friendly nod. Mr-. Bathurst » "low and gran* 
ful inclimition of tin* head, iiccxnn panics! hv a faint, insincere 
-mile. 

•• An* von u bridge plavi-r!" she a*k»sl. raising a pmr of prctiv. 
languid brown eyes tn tlodagh"*. "I wi-h much you would 

take in, plucs*. I've Iss-ti having the tuciet appalling link.' 

Her gliim-e wandered on to Serraeiinld. Barnard, and IVerc- 
linr*i- 

" All. here is laird Ibs-rehurst!*' she ern d. in a suddenly mu 
milted voice •* laird l)ecicliur*t. do enmr al*d tell me wlml you 
would have done with a hand like this!'' 

She picked up her scattered curds and liegan to «orl them: then. 


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with h graceful movement, she drew her skirt* aside. and indicated 
a vacant chair tint vtood beside lier own. 

I»rd Deerehurst hesitated. lifted his eye-gins*, and scrutinized 
her pretty pink and white fun*, then languidly dropped into the 
empty chair. At the same moment Clodagh, .Serracauld, 
Luard. and his sister fell into conversation; and Lady France* 
and Barnard moved away together towards one of the open 
windows. 

For a quarter of an hour the formation of the party remained 
the same; then a slight incident cuii-ed a distraction in the assem- 
bly. Clodagh — who had shaken off her first shyness and was 
beginning to enjoy the conversation of her new acquaintance — 
heard the curtain at the arched entrance drawn I nek. and look- 
ing round, was surprised to see two servants enter, solemnly carry- 
ing a table and a painted hoard which they proceeded to set. up 
in the middle of the room. 

Her wonder and curiosity were depicted on her face, for Luard 
looked at her quickly and interestedly. 

“ Don't you know what that is. Mr*. Milbanke V he asked. 
“Hasn’t Barney told yon of Lady Frances's famous roulette? Lady 
Frances!” he called. “Come and initiate Mrs. Milbnnkc!" 

At the words every one turned and looked at Clodagh. And 
Io»rd Deerehurst, with a murmured word to Mrs. Bathurst, rose 
and mine round the mrtl-tahle. 

“ Are you going to tempt the gods?” lie asked, in his peculiar 

t'lodngh looked round, a little embarrassed by the general in- 
terest. 

“ Well, I — I suppose I should like to see roulette played," she 
admitted, guardedly. 

He bent his head and lookrd at her with his cold, penetrating 
smile. 

“ Ah, I see!” he said, softly. “Judicious reservations!” 

But at that moment Lady Frame* crossed the room, tind pausing 
by the roulette- table, net tile ball sriinuing. 

“Come along, people! 1 * she crieo, gnylv. “Fortune smiles!” 

They all laughed and strolled aero-* the room. 

“Come along!” Lady France* urged again. “Come, Rose!” 
She smiled ni Mr*. Bathnr-t. “ Unlucky at bridge, lucky at 
roulette! Come, Tory! Come, Val!” 

She glanced from Luard to Serracauld. 

There wa* another amused laugh, and all the party with the 
exception of Clodngh stepped forward and placed one or many 
coins u [ion the tablg, 


Ia*dy Frances's eye* were quick to detect the exception. With 
her liugi-r* poind above the board she- waited smilingly. 

“ Won't you stake, Mrs. Milbanke?” *l»e asked. 

Clodagh blushed, and stepped back *hvly. At the Mime instant 
Serracauld moved forward to her side. 

. “'Oh, Mrs. Milbanke, but you must!” be cried. 

Again confusion covered Clodagh, as all eyes were turned upon 
her. 

“ No, please!” she said. “ 1 — I think I’d rather nut.” 

Barnaul laughed suavely. 

“Mrs. Milbanke is wise!” he said. “She wants to see which 
way the gods are pointing." 

“Then Mrs. Milbanke is unwise! The gods are jealous beings; 
we ip.u*1 not treat them with suspicion. I’ll stake for her!" 

It was laird Drrrehurat who -|sikc. And regardless of Clodagh ’* 
quick, half-frightened expostulation, he step^s-d forward nut of the 
little circle and placed a gold coin <m the number thirteen. A 
moment later Lady France* gave a short unm* d laugh, and with 
a dexterous movement of the finger* * t the bull whizzing. 

To Clodagh it was a supreme, an extraordinary, moment. Until 
Lord Deerehurst had made the stake — until the first, click of the 
spinning bill had struck upon her ear — she lir.d been conscious of 
only one feeling: • prejudiced, innate dread of every game, 
whether of chance or skill, upon which money could Ire silked; 
but the simple placing of the coin, the simple turning of the pivot, 
had marked for her a psychological epoch. From that moment 
her feelings changed. With a quick catching of the breath she 
stepped involuntarily forward, aware of but one fact — the keen, 
exhilarating knowledge that the stopping of the bill must mean 
loss* or gain — individual loss or gain. 

During the dozen second* that it spun round the circle she stood 
transfixed; then a faint souud of uncontrollable excitement slipped 
from between her lips. Hers was the winning number! 

As in a dream, she extended her hand and took tin* little 
heap of money from the fingers of Luard. who had come to Lady 
Frances's assistance; then, on the in-tant that the coins touched 
her palm, her excitement evaporated: her sense of elation fell 
away, to lie succeeded by the first instinctive shrinkage that had 
swayed her imagination. 

Acting purely upon Impulse, she turned to Lord Deerehurst, 
and before he could remonstrate pressed the money into his hand. 

“ Ple*M take it! It isn't mine. It oughtn't to bt mine. I— I 
don’t wish to play.” 

To k Continued. 


Results of a Literary Inversion 

By M. Ernest Dimnet 

Pasis. July i4. »poj. thorn eagerly. I have known women born and btoughl up in 

P ARIS was astonished when placard* announced that quiet provincial towns who possessed an astonishing knowled„o of 

an American professor would lecture in English at the English literature and English contemporary history only through 

Sorb ni in-, on the institution* and literature of his country. that admirable nrugazine, unfortunately now discontinued, the 

English, a* it is spoken in Paris, means mostly con versa- /trews Hritannique. They assimilated their knowledge instead of 

tion* held by hotel muiiagers, jewellers, and tailors with being ahsortied by it, as is the ea*« with people who want to shine 

people likely to pay them well. As u literary medium it is lim* instead of wi*liing to grow. For such genuine mind* the presence 

it «1 to an exceedingly narrow circle, consisting of a few pro- of Mr. Barrett Wendell at the Korluiiiue will have Ian n useful, anil if 

fe*sors and critics, a few diplomats, and a very few “society" tin* plan is continued it is *ure to lie productive of immeii*e results, 
people with EnglLlr or American connection*. For people so disposed the presence of Mr. Wendell in the first 

The lecturer who was ilrus announced wa.* Professor Barrett seat of learning in France mean* that attention to this subject. 

Wendell, of Harvard I'nivetaity. 'I he audience which attended hi* combined with the employment of cllicicnt method*, will make us 

lectures was mostly American and English, with a fair pro|Hirlion in Francs* a* open to foreign culture ns foreigners are to our own. 

of intelligent Frenchmen, Indeed, in arranging the lectures by Mr. Barrett Wendell it was 

Are there any tangible result* of Mr. Barrett Wendell's four desired, above all, to strengthen the good feeling prevalent la- tween 

months' stay in Paris? (if •nurse trot , except in the form of *cv- the country of Washington and that of Lafayette, to set the French 

••ral extremely flattering article* published by the leading paper*. nation an example of initiative, and to di-pci some prejudices en- 

Wlien MM. Bruncti&rr. Douruic, Dcsdrampt, and Rod were called tertained over here about modern America. In thi* the effort wa- 

to America it was mostly to encourage the study of French lit successful. We know now that America i* the home of generous 

erature among literary societies founded for Unit very purjatsc, enterprise in educational matters a* well a* in everything else, 

and to whose iiicniliers the French language wa* pretty familiar. and that keen attention to material civil izut hut and piogre*.* is 

The conditions under which Mr. Wendell lectured in Paris wen* quite consistent with a disinterested taste for intellectual pursuit*, 

very different. Whereas the French lecturers in America saw an The pn-*ence of Professor Wendell in Paris, thanks to the wide 

infinitesimal number of their countrymen in their atidirnce*. Mr. embracing initiative of Mr. Hyde, wu* in itself a capital object- 

Barrett Wendell spoke mostly to mctuU-i-* of the American colony. lesson. Whereas education i* exclusively ill the band* of the slate 

In Paris, society certainly know* more English than it did in of France — mi much so that individual bounty, u thousand time* 

the day* of the dudiesse* whom Thackeray no pitilessly ridiculed. checked, has at lust bem killed — in America it is encouraged by 

but it is English caught from cheap Iri-li nurse*, and innocently the generosity of many citizens, I'mfc— or Barrett Wendell has 

parudrd in tennis -court* or around chatty Ira-tulde*. The In- explained how Harvard has been endowed mostly through Indi- 

telligent Frenchmen I saw at Mr. Barrett Wendell’s lectures were vidunl gift*. What we want is sufficient trust on the part of the 
chiefly undergraduates or professors, with n very few journalist* government of the various universities, to let them manage their 

and fewer amntrun. In reality, Mr. Wendell leaves us a* poor own affairs, win sympathy, and enjoy the liberty of employing 

linguists mid about as in-nlar a* we were. The number of Parisians possible gift* a* tln-y think pro|**r. Towards this end the example 

pcr-nadr-d by his lectures to peruse llawthorm- or Walt Whitman of America is evidently a powerful help, and neither what Mr. 

is inconsiderable indeed. Wendell *aid nor whu{ wa* exemplified in himself will be lost, 

lb*** it matter much? I* it very necessary llmt we should he We may ho[ie that the central power will gradually become leas 

able to read American author* in the original? I am not quite ji-alous of private assistance, ami that indi\ hltial initiative will 

sure. Certainly the nntravellcd Frenchman i* unpleasantly nnr- show itself le«* timidly than baa been it* wont lately, 
row when lie i* not except inn ally intelligent, lie bus an off The prejudice, according to which the typlnil American in a 

hand way of disbelieving what he ha* not seen, and of brushing matter-of-fact money-maker, ha* been disposed of by Mr. Wendell’* 

aside what he vaguely knows by hearsay, which preclude* every cfjiosf of the literary influence of his country, and of the atten 

attempt at conversation. But the Frenchman, and especially the tion given to purely’ intellectual progress by men who might be 

French woman, who. even without the advantage of travel, happen* suspected of minding exclusively their immniTcial nr imliist rial 

to have received a thorough French enlhtrr, i* often delightful. uffiiir*. The anxiety evlneeil by immv American business mm to 

They both have the brilliniicy In-longing naturally to the French improve and extend classical education i- evident proof that 

1eiti|ieranieiit. not that which i* obtained by much friction against rullurc and professional skill do not ucccssirllv conflict, ami that 

all -"it* of advent it ion* object*. Such intellects .ire never averse a dangerous fallacy points out the old da— do* a* the cau-e of nnr 

to literary forma different from those to which they love Is-cii commercial apathy, and a technical education a* flic panacea that 

jiccnstomc-d from their childhood; mi the contrary, they often seek should make us infallibly prosperous. 


Google 


1092 





Co rr esp 


A NOVEL THAT GRIPS 


N*w Yowc. July IT. 


To the Editor of Harper'* Weekly: 

Sia, — Permit me to express to you my appreciation of what I 
consider a literary performance of the first importance — Mrs. 
Thur-tnn'a new novel, “The Gambler," now running aerially in 
the Weekly. It stands nut as nn achievement of conspicuous in- 
terest and brilliancy. 


I am. air. IIknry O. Auhtos. 


MILLIONAIRES AND ** COMMON PEOPLE" 

trMftMWOOO, La.. Jmty IJ, l(Bf, 

To the Editor of Harper '* Weekly: 

Sib, — I notice you sometimes publish letters from the common 
people. I, being one of them, write my opinion on the bequests of 
millionaires, such as Carnegie and Rockefeller. They don't seem 
to have any real humun nature about them or any human feeling 
for the toiling masse*. I hark on Carnegie's library bequests as 
somrthing in the way of a monument. They do the world no 
good. Those who want to read have the means to buy books, ami 
those who do not won’t, with rare exceptions, read his. 

I have read in one of your publietitioiis that fifty per cent, 
of the children iu the New York public *ch«sd* an- suffering from 
starvation. lamk at the immense numbers dying every day from 
consumption induced hy lack of prri|»cr food. What a chance to 
save life with money, and to die feeling you have been the in- 
strument of saving mi many human beings! 

The same may 1 h* said of Rockefeller’s bequests to college* to 
further, perhaps, a knowledge of how to throw balls and pull a 
toy bout on n river, or, nuiybe, to give learned disquisition* on in- 
funt damnation, the immaculate conception, and resurrection, all 
to be disputed hy other learned men supported by those same 
millions. 

It may tie answered that this money is their own to do what 
they. please with, llr an unjust system of political economy and 
tariff* fth give it no harder naniei they have become the possessors 
of immense wealth, but, by a moral law, it is not theirs. There 
could be volumes written about useful human way* in which to 
spend surplus wealth. 1 will close by quoting a line of Rums 
that conic* to mind. 

" Man's inhumanity to man 
Make* countless thousand* mourn.” 

I am, sir. S. Bryson. 


TO MAKE STUDENTS OF SOCIALISM 

UtnuSi N. H , July 14, igof. 

To the Editor of Warper'# Weekly: 

Sir. — 1 observe in u recent number of your valuable journal 
an expression of surprise that my name should be united with 
others in tbp formation of an " inti*rcollegiate Socialist School ” 
which " aiuis tn imbue the minds of the rising generutiun with 
socialistic doctrines."’ This last phrase is your own, for I at 
least am connected with no organization for the purpose yon here 
state. As to the names, with which mine is united 1 am not con- 
cerned; as Theodore Parker -used to say. '*1 am rot particular 
with whom I unite in a good action.” As to the object in view 
it is clearly enough stated in the call itself; the movement doc* 
not aim to produce socialists, but to create students of socialism. 

It is hu*cd on the obvious fact that wo are more and more sur- 
rounded by institutions, such as free schools, free text books, free 
libraries, free bridges, free water-supplies, free lecture courses, even 
free universities, which were all called socialistic when fir*t pro- 
posed. and which so able a man as Herbert Spencer denounced as 
socialism to his dying day. Every day makes it more important 
that this tendency should lie studied seriously and thoughtfully, 
not left to demagogues alone. For this purpose our foremost 
universities should take the matter up scientifically, aa has been 
done for several years at Harvurd University, where there is a 
full course on " Methods of Social Reform — Socialism. Com- 
munism. the Single Tax." etc., given by Professor T. N. Carver. 
This is precisely what the " lntcr<<ollegiute Socialist School " aims 
at ; and those who seriously criticise this object must la* classed. 
I fear, with those medieval gram mar ia n* who wrote of an ad- 
versary "May God confound thee for thy theory of irregular 
vrrlwr* I am, sir. 

Thomas Wentworth Hwoixrox. 


LIVING I P TG MARRIAGE VOWS 

New Voss. July 17. toof. 

To the Editor of Harper* H’« ekly: 

Sin, — Among the thousands of women who have been married 
by the ceremony of tlie Episcopal Church. I wonder bow many 
of them have noticed a certain discrepancy between the hunband’* 
vows nt that interesting momrtit and the actual outcome of those 
vows as interpretisl by the law v When the bridegroom asserts 
that "with all my worldly goods I tins* endow.” the bride believe* 
that he means what be say*, and regard* herself a* the equal 
iNWKi***or of whatever pi«-n«-r!y lie own*. Hut mark the sequence. 
The hu*hand. perhaps, die-. Tin* widow find*.- when the estate 
i* — ‘tthsl. that she wits not endowed with all his worldly good# — 
not i-vm) with half of them! Her IiujiI dower is one-third in some 


ondence 

States of the Union, and assumes various projiortiona in other*. 
This curious discrepancy continue* from generation to generation, 
and nobody says anything about it. though the marriage vows are 
regarded as solemn and binding. Should not either the law or 
the Episcopal ceremonial be altered to lit the truth as it is, and 
not as beautiful but unreliable language paints it? To start mar 
ried life with a paradoxical statement on the part of either man 
or woman, a vow or promise which the law will later deny, ia a 
poor way to begin, in my opinion. 

1 am, sir, Robert Bright. 


INFORMATION WANTED 

Coivast-t. Kim.. July 14. ifoi. 

To the Editor of Harj>er'u Weekly: 

Sir, — I want some advice if I can get it, and 1 want that advice 
to carry with it some consolation, some hope if it can be so done 
candidly. It so cornea about that 1 have a wide acquaintance 
with the iM-oples of our country from New England to Texas. 1 
have trafficked with them, and enjoyed their hospitality, and 1 
think 1 know them well. 

Now, to my mind, the people of this community are ms liberal, as 
patriotic, as highly cultured, as sweet and gentle in their own homes 
as any that 1 have ever hrvn thrown with. It i* a community 
siir-religioun, loud -mouthcdly * 0 , in fact. We have places of wor- 
th In from the modest meeting-house to the cathedral where fat 
bishops snort and prate of Christian lieatitudes. And yet when I 
look at the column* of to-day’s Memphis Appeal I find that the 
subject-matter of the first page i« largely devoted to the homicides 
of yesterday in Mississippi— two of them in my own county. 

There wa» no waylaying, no assassination, no mean advantage 
taken in all thi*. mind you ; but a aerie* of stand up and lake your 
medicine street duel*. Settlements of trivial differences — in most 
of the instances — with the ready trigger-finger. 

Being to the manor horn, the advice I seek ia bow can this 
homicidal mania he stopped? Can you tell me? 

I am, sir, K. R. Sherman. 


DOLLARS AND CENTS 

Cmattanoooa. Tsaa . July 9 . too * 

To the Editor of Har/ter ’# Weekly: 

Sin,- On the page of “ Correspondence.” in your issue of July I. 
1005, Mr. O. H. IotGrange attempts to show that in the civil war 
the South was actuated by lew dinmlereutid motives than the 
North, because the South sought to hold Its property in slaves, 
amounting to half a billion dollars. 

What about the tariff, a matter purely of dollars and rent*, which 
played almost a* great a part in bringing on the war a* slavery 
did? In the beginning of the differences between the two section* 
(in 1828) Thomas H. Benton, a strong antislavcrv man, in speak- 
ing of the results of tariff legislation, said. “ Virginia, the two 
Carolina*, and Georgia may Is- said to defray three fourth* of 
the annual expense of supporting the Federal government”: and 
on the eve of the war Alwultum Lincoln is credited with the frank 
exclamation, “ Let the South go? where, then, shall we get. our 
revenue?” 

Is it not possible that the subsidized, manufacturing North wh* 
counting the dollars involved alsmt as religiously as the unprn 
levied, slave-holding South! 

In fact. Mr. Editor (ami in all good humor I. would not the 
whole world la- inclined to titter if some one were to suggest, to 
it that the Yankee ever allowed any mini or set of men in all 
creation to outdo him in affection for the almighty dollar? 

" Platform: No Humbug!” 

I am, sir, II. J. Stewart. 


THE CALL OF THE WOODS 

Saw Voss July 14. /po< 

To the Editor of Harper'* Weekly: 

Sir,-— I f vour correspondent “ I- IV really means what she says 
about vacation* fl beg hi* pardon if he is not a woman, as I 
fancy), Irt her |wiek up her in-longings, close her apart incut, and 
make for the Adirondack*, somewhere, for instam-e, around 
Racqw-ttc Lake. She ean lake up a lent and utrnsil* for vamp 
cooking, provisions and old clothes, a gun or two. ami fishing 
tackle. She can live as gypsies do. go Imck to nature and aim 
plicity. and get strong and happy beyond her wildest dreams. To 
find a suitable location she can consult the nlficial* of the rail- 
road that runs up there. But she will not do this, mid I doubt — 
with due respect ami apologies — if she really means wliat *he 
says. I» she actually willing to forego bathtub*, electric light*, 
iced grape-fruit at breakfast, and the other thing* to which habit 
has accustomed her? Would the sight of a deer in a forest vi*tn 
compensate her for the loss of “civilization”? Would she be 
willing to taste ashes occasionally In her plain camp food; rirr** 
in old clothes; endure the loneliness ami drabness of a rainy day 
in tlic woods: submit to the occasional onslaught* of mosquitoes 
or black flies: go without daily mails, etc.? Of course, those of n* 
who love Hu- wood- and find there the true zest of lifp at its 
In-st. regard the civilized amenities a* mere tinsel, — hut how about 

L. M. Ai.vmtn. 


HUM 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


The Last Honors to John 
Paul Jones 

(Vo nlinued from page / OSS. ) 

Tench Tilghtnan. the brave .voting Mary- 
lander who rode in hot haste from Yorktown 
to Philadelphia bearing the nrws of Corn- 
wallis’* surrender. The silver spur* worn 
hv thl* uidr of the great cotunuiiider are 
a)«n prmi-rvetl at Annapolis. 

It is impossible to depict in a limiter! 
apace the cnarin of Annapolis to one with 
appreciation of things historic. Here the 
hands of time seem turned hack to the far- 
off days of Lord Baltimore’s palatinate, when 
Annapolis was the centre of the gay court 
circle composed of the colonial officials who, 
with their families and retainers, lent lustre 
to the little capital; and so us we thread 
our way along it m narrow streets nanus! for 
the royal Idood — King fJeorge’s Street. 
Prince fJeorge’s Street. the Duke of Oloucrs- 
ter Street, nml Hanover Slrret — there is a 
strong suggestion of kings and coronets. In- 
deed. one might easily imagine oneself across 
the channel when turning into Fleet Street 
or Bloomsbury Square. 

On the wall of the State House hangs 
Mayer’s great picture. "The Burning of the 
IVggy Stewart." which is a typical exponent 
of the ({evolutionary spirit which environs 
the last resting-place of John Paul Jones — 
the Revolutionary hero! 


Died of Improvements 

Tilt! following is told of a patient, a 0 !er- 
mnn woman, who. taken seriously ill, was 
sent to the hospital. 

In the evening her huslmnd inquired how 
*he was getting along, am) wuh tohl that 
she was improving. 

Next day he culled ugain, and was told 
alic was still imploring. 

Tliis went on for some time, each day the 
report Iwing that his wife was improving. 

Finally, one night when he called he was 
told that his wife was dead. Seeing the 
doctor, he went up to him and said, “ Veil, 
doctor, vat did *he die of — improvement*!’’ 


Not for Him 

Ala. and Mrs. Tiflin had been qunrrelling. 
After an exchange of words incident to such 
occasions each settled Into an armchair in 
silence. Finally. Mrs. Tiflin extended the 
olive branch by saying to her apoiiae. 
“Trying a* you are at time*, Mr. 
Tiflin, if I hnii my time to go over. I’d 
marry you ju*t tin- same.” 

"You would ? I wouldn’t!” rame the 
reply from the depths of the other arm- 
chair. . 


A Good Word 

lx the old South it was customary for 
slaves who could neither rend nor write to 
ask some member of their master’s family 
to do their correspondence. 

One morning Aunt Chloc approached her 
young miss nnd requested her to write a 
love letter to I’ncle Billy, an aged suitor. 

" What shall I say. Aunt Chloe!" the 
young lady inquired. ’ 

’’ D’law! Miss Annie t write it jes Ink you 
wns er writ in’ to one cr your own Is-aiix; 
hut I tink nottrithatandint) is er mighty 
purty word. Jea put dut in ftoui’er*." 


A Hard World 

“Mamma.” said a small girl, “if I get 
married when I grow up will I have a hus- 
band like papa?” 

" Yes. dear," wns the answer, 

” And if I don’t get married shall I lie 
an old maid like Aunt Sarah'" 

“ Why, ye*, dear, you probably will," 
replied her mother. 

The little girl sighed. "Well, no matter 
what wc do,” she said, “ if’s a pretty hard 
world for us women, isn’t it!” 


ahvertisim; section 


An Anecdote of Dumas 

Human ptre, who was proud of the prices 
lie received for hi* work, was once boasting 
uf the fact. 

" Beyond a doubt," he remarked, “ I am 
the best paid of living men of letters; I re- 
ceive thirty sous n line." 

" Indeed, monsieur?” said a bystander. " I 
have never worked for less limn flUOO pounds 
a line. What du you think of that?" 

“ You are joking,” responded Dumas, in 
irritation. 

“ Not at all.” 

" For what do you receive such rate* 
per line?” 

“ For constructing railways," wa* the 
answer. 


A Little Mixed 

Amoc a meeting of the parish council in 
n New England town the chairman rose to 
sum up. 

” You keep us here,” he said. " till ten 
o'clock at night, and then you cant the town 
drains in our teeth. You keep ua here 
ploughing the sand*, and then when all 
decent people are asleep you go into the 
public drains, causing unnecessary friction. 
It won’t do — it’s too barefaced to hold 
water.” 


He Saw It 

An American touring in the country 
with an English friend stooped to point 
out to him a sign-post on whu-h some wag 
had printed tbift sign: 

" This way’ to Squcdunk. Those who can- 
not read apply at the blacksmith’* oppo- 
site.” 

The American roared with laughter, but 
the Englishman looked purr.lcd. After they 
hnd returned home that night the English, 
man came into hi* host’s room roaring with 
laughter. 

“ Ah,” he said, “ I see the joko now— 
suppose the blacksmith were out?” 




Anvic* to Mots***. — Vs* Winslow'* Roots r*o Sraur 
should slwmy* bn tiaol for children Irelhin*. It moth** tbs 
chilil, toftcfii the rum, *l!»y* sB twin, cares wire! colic, and 
it the beM reratUy for drerrWe — |,1 Jv] 


DESSERTS 

are eaitly and quickly prepared when RoeoiM’a E»r.i ■ Bsairn 
( nvriuiii MILK i* u«-l Atwar* hove a tubplv on hand and 
1* ready for the unexpected Buret Send for kecipe Uook. to* 
Hudson Street, New York, — M Jr | 


Mxwv Actor* and Sinaer* use Pno* Cvaa to itrenathen the 
voice and prevent hoorateiat — IAdv.1 



Cold Medals 

Chicago BewOrleans Peris 
1693 1663 1900 


Grand Prize /S 

St.LouisWorlds Fair. 


Lea & Perrins' 
Sauce 


Cm* MiCisu wosci 



Butlers la the best famlllas. chef* la 
leadlnt hotels »nd cafes and all flrst- 
clss* cooks can tell you that Soup*. Fish. 
Hot and Cold Meat*. Gravies. Game. 
Salad*, etc-, are given * rare and *p- 
celitlnc relish If seasoned with 
LEA 4 PERRINS’ SAUCE. Rsfuse 
imitations- 

Join. Dreu '1 Son*. AfeaM, New York. 




A Dozen 
Doctors 

couldn't do you no much good this 
Summer a* two weeks or a month 
spent in Wisconsin. There are hun- 
dreds of delightful resort*— fashionable 
watering places or wild stretches of 
forest and Iron I stream, just accord- 
ing lo your tastes — along the 


Wisconsin Central 
Railway 


• CHICAGO a mi ST. PAUL. 

.r Book of 1906. UreriiluDr Oretretad. 


saral rwaarer Aaaat, 

Colo Parlor Cara MILWAUKEE. 

Ere. Rodina* Chair Cara WIS. 

Service - System - Safety 


financial 


. .. Bill* of exchange bought and 

L6tt6r8 sold. Cable Transfers to Ea- 

m rope sod South Africsu Com- 

of mercisl sod Travellers' Letter* 

,, of CiediL Collections made. 

Cted t. International Cheques. Cer- 

VU l * tlflcste* of Deposit. 

Brown Brothers A Co., 

H>h»ihk, Xn, 89 \Vm, Svasar. 


Copvriobt IRoticc 


I.ISRARY of Iom.nr**, ) 

On n s or tii* Hn.iar** or tm-t mk.mt*. | 
Wasiiinoton. D. L. j 

Claaa A. XXc-, No. 11B72H-— 1 1 » will Hr // 'rmtmbrrrj. 
Thai tilt the lOlli d-»y of June. 11*011. Wendell Prime, of the 
I' oiled Stilei. hath dr(»vited In tills office the title of a 
IM H IK. tin* title of which la in the lullowloc word*, to wits 
“ l lur C hlldren'* honga. 'V ith II luitrstkma.” the riglit w here- 
of lie claim, a. proprietor In conformity with the law* of the 
United Male. re-peclin« copyright*. 

(Signed) ill * aim Pi TV*M. Librarian of Coagrtn. 

By Turn MBr “~ 


SIX MONTHS FREE 

THE MINING HERALD.. 1 «<hng 

mining and financial paper, giving valuable informs, 
turn on mining and oil industries, principal com- 
panies, best dividend-paying stocks, and showing how 
immense profits rosy be made on absolutely safe in- 
* vestments. Write for it today. A. L. WINNER & 
CO,. 3a Broadway. New York. 



1095 




II. — The Adventure of the Dorrint'ton Ruby Seal 


“TORD DORRINGTON, as you may have heard," said Raffles 
1 Holme*. leaning back in my easy-chalr uihI gazing re- 
I . fleet ively up at the ceiling. ” was chiefly fumoun in Eng- 

■■ Innil as a sporting peer. Ilia va*t estates, in live countie*, 
were always u|H*n to any sportsman of renown, or other- 
wise, a* long ns lie was a true sportsman. So open, indeed, was 
the house that he kept that, whether he was there or not. little 
week-end parties of member* of the aporting fraternity used to be 
got up at a moment'* notice to run down to Dorrington Castle. 
Devonshire; to Dorrington l/alge on the Isle of Wight; to Dnrring- 
ton Hall, near Dublin, or to any other country place for over Sunday. 

" Sometime* there’d lie a lot of turf people; sometimes a dozen 
or more devotees of the prize ring; not infrequently a gal luring of 
the bent known cricketers of the time, among whom, of course, 
my grandfather, A. .1. Ruffles, was conspicuous. For the most jmrt. 
the cricketers never partook of Dorrington 'a hospitality save when 
his Lordship was present, for your cricket-player is a hit more 
punctilious in such matters than vour turfmen or ring-side habitues. 
It so happened one year, however, that his Lordship was absent 
from England for the better part of eight months mid. when the 
time came for the annuul cricket gathering at his Devonshire 
phu-e. he cabled his London representative to sec to it that every- 
thing was carried on just ns if he were picM-nt, and that every one 
should lie invited for the usual week’s play urn! pleasure at Dor- 
rington Castle. His instructions were carried out to the Irttrr mid, 
nave for the fact that the genial host was absent, the house-party 
went through to perfection. My grandfather, ns usual, was the 
life of the occasion, and all went merry as a marriage bell. Seven 
months later. I/jrd Dorrington returned and. a week after that, the 
loss of the Dorrington jewels from the Devonshire strong bn\p* 
was a matter of common knowledge. When, or by whom, they 
had Im-cii taken was an absolute mystery. As far as anybody 
could And out. they might have been taken the night before hi* 
return, or the night ufter his departure. The only fact in sight 
was that they were gone — Ladv Dorrington’* diamonds, a half- 
dozen valuable jewelled ring* belonging to hi* lordship and, must 
ir reined in hie of losses, the famous ruby seal which George the 
Fourth had given to Dorrington 's grandfather. Sir Arthur Ih-er- 
ing, as u token of hi* personal esteem during the period of the 
Regency. This was a flawless ruby, valued at some six or seven 
thousand pound sterling, in which hud been cut the Dcering arms 
surrounded by a garter upon which were engraved the words. * I>eer- 
ing Ton,’ which the family. uj*»n Sir Arthur's elevation to the 
peerage in iHillt, took ns its title, or Dorrington. Hi* Lordship 
was almost prostrated by the le««. The diamond* and the rings, 
although valued at thirty thoii-aml pounds, he could easily re- 
place. hut the personal associations of the *cal were such 'that 
nothing, no nrmnint of money, could duplicate the lost ruby." 

“ So that his first act." I broke in breathlessly, “ was to semi 
for — " 

“ Sherlock Holmes, my father," said Raflli-s Holmrs. “ Yes, Mr. 
.li-nkiris, the first thing Lord Dorrington did was to telegraph to 
London for Sherlock Holmes, requesting him to come immisliately 
to Dorrington Castle and assume charge of the case. Needle** to 
say, Mr. Holme* druppid everything else and eaine. He inspected 
tin- garden*, iiica-tiicd the road from the railway station to the 
Castle, questioned all the servants: was particularly in»i*ten1 
upon knowing where the parlor-maid was on the thirteenth of 
January: secured accurate information as to the personal habits 
of hi* Lordship’* dachshund Nicholas; subjected the chef to a 
cross-examination that covered every point of his life, from hi* 
remote ancestry to hi* receipt for baking apples; gathered up 
three suit-case* of sweepings from hi* Lordships private apart- 
ment. and two lioxea containing three each of every variety of 
cigars that laird Dorrington luul laid d< wn in hi- cellar. As von 
me aware, Sherlock Holmes, in hi* prime, was a great master of 


detail. He then departed for I ./union, taking with him an impres- 
sion in wax of the missing -nil, which laud Dorrington hup|a-tied 
to have preserved in hi* escritoire. 

" On hi* return to London, Holme* inspected the seal carefully 
under a magnifying gins*, and was instantly impressed with the 
fact that it vva* not unfamiliar to him. lie had *ce» it some; 
where la-fore, hut where* That wan now the question uppermost 
in hi* mind, l’rior to this, he had never had any communication 
with Lord l>orrington. no that, if it was in his correspondence that 
the seal had formerly conic to him, most assuredly the person 
who had u*cd it had come by it dishonestly. Fortunately, at that 
time, it was a habit of my father’s never to destroy panel.* of anv 
sort. Every letter that he ever received was classified and filed, 
envelope and all. The thing to do. then, was manifestly to run 
over tin- flic* and flud the letter, if indeed it was in or on a letter 
that the seal had tlr*t come to hi* attention. It was a herculean 
job, but thut never feazrsl Sherha-k Holme*, and lie went at it tooth 
nnd nail. Finally bis effort wa* rewarded. I’ndcr ’Application* 
for Autograph' he found a daintily aerated little missive from n 
young girl liv ing nt tinring -St real lev on the Thames, the daughter, 
she said, of a retired missionary tfie Reverend James Tatlershv — 
asking him if he would not kindly write his autograph upon the 
enclosed slip for her collection. It was the regular stock applica- 
tion that truly distinguished men receive in every mail. The only 
thing to distinguish it from other application* wan the beauty of 
thp seal on the fly of the envelope, which attracted hi* passing 
notice and was then filed away with the other letter* of similar 
import. 

"'Ho! bo!’ quoth Holme*, as he conqiaml the two impression* 
and diHcovered that they were identical. * An Innocent little 
maiden who collect* autographs, and u retired missionary in poa- 
session of the Dorrington seal, eh* Well, thut. ia interesting. I 
think I shall run down to Ooring-Streatley over Sunday and meet 
Mis* Marjorie Tuttersby and her reverend father. I’d like to see 
to what style of people I have entrusted my autograph.' 

"To decide was to act with Sherlock Holme*, and the following 
Saturday, hiring a canoe at Windsor hr made his wav up the 
river until he came to the pretty little hamlet, snuggling in the 
Thame* Valley, where the young lady and her good father were 
dwelling. Fortune favored flint in that hi* prey were still there — 
both much respected by the whole community ; the father a flue 
looking, really splendid specimen of a man whose presence alone 
carried a conviction of integrity and lofty mind; the daughter — 
well, to see her was to love her, and the moment the eyea of 
Slu-rha-k fell upon her face that great heart of hi*, that had ever 
lorn adamant to beauty, a very Gibraltar aguin-t the wiles of the 
other sex, went down in the chaos of a first and overwhelming 
passjnn. So hard hit was he hv Mi— Tatter-by’s la-nuty that hi* 
chief thought now was to avert rathei than to direct suspicion 
toward her. After all, «lie might have mine into |a>**esaion of the 
jewel honestly, though Jinw the daughter of a retired missionary, 
considering it* intrinsic value, could manage such a thing, was 
pretty hard to understand, and he Ih-d bark to I/>ndmi to think it 
over. Arrived there, he found an invitation to visit Dorrington 
Castle again incog, laird Dorrington was to have a mixed week- 
end party over the following Sunday, and thi*. lie thought, would 
give Holmes an opportunity to oh-erve the characteristic* of Dor- 
rington'* visitors and possibly gain therefrom - one elm- as to the 
light-fingered |M-r*un from wlmse deprivation* his Lordship had 
suffered. The idea commended itself to Holmes, nnd in the dis- 
guise of a soung American clergyman, whom Dorrington had met. 
in the States, the following Frida v found him at Dorrington 
I’astle. 

“Well, to make u long story short." said Raffle* Holmes, "the 
young ch-igyiir.ui was introduced to many of the leading sportsmen 
ol the hour and, for the most port, thev pa-sed muster, hut one of 


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them did not. and Hint was the well-known 
cricketer A. .1. It* Hies, for the moment Raf- 
ties entered the room, jovially greeting ev- 
erybody about him, and was presented to 
Lord Herrington's new guest, Sherlock 
Holmes recognized in him no less a person 
than the Reverend James Tattersby, retired 
missionary of Gor ing-. St reatley -on- Thames, 
and the father of the woman who had tilled 
hi« soul with love and yearning of the truest 
sort. Thr problem was solved. Rallh-s Was, 
to all intent* and purposrs, caught with the 
goods on, Holmes could have exposed him 
then and there had he chosen to do so, hut 
every time it came to the point the lovely 
face of Marjorie Tattersby came between 
him and his purpose. How could Iip 
inflict the pain and shame which the ex- 
posure of her father’s misconduct would cer- 
tainly entail upon that fair woman, whose 
beauty and fresh innocence had taken so 
strong a hold upiori his heart T No I hut was 
out of the question. The thing to do clear- 
ly was to visit, Miss Tattersby during her 
father’s alMcnec and, if possible, ascertain 
from her Just how she had come Into pos- 
session of the seal, before taking further 
steps in the matter. This he did. Making 
sure, to begin with, that Raffles was to re- 
main at l>orringtnn Hull for the coining ten 
days. Holmes bad himself telegruplu-d for 
and returned to T.<oridiwi. There lie wrote 
himself a letter of introduction to the Rev. 
James Tattrrsby, on thr paper of the Anglo- 


American Missionary Society, a sheet of 
which lie secured iu the public writing-room 
of that institution, arnica with which he re- 
turned to the henutiful little spot on the 
Thames where the Tatter»by.-i abode. He 
spent the night at the inn. and, in conversa- 
tion with the landlord and boulmen, h-arm-d 
much that was interesting concerning the 
Reverend James. Aiming other things, he 
discovered that this gentleman and his 
daughter had been respected residents of 
the plan* for three years; that Tattersby 
was rarely seen in the davtime about the 
place; that lie was unusually fond of canoe- 
ing at night, which, he said, gave him the 
quiet ami solitude necessary for that re- 
tlcrtion which is so essential to the spiritual 
being of a minister of grace; that lie fre- 
quently indulged in long absences, during 
which time it was supposed that he was en- 
gaged in the work of his calling. He ap- 
peared to lie a man of some, but not of 
lavish, means. The must notable and sug- 
gestive thing, however, that Holmes ascer- 
tained in his conversation with the boot- 
men was that, at the time of the famous 
Cliveden robbery, when several thousand 
|Niundi' worth of plate had Iss-n taken from 
the great hall, that later fell into the pos- 
session of n well-known American hotel- 
kre|*er, Tnttersby. who happened to la* on 
the river late that night, was. according to 
his own statement, the unconscious witness 
of the escape of the thieves on board a mys- 


terious steam-launch, which the police were 
never able afterwards to locate. They had 
nearly upset his rum a- with the wash of their 
rapidly moving craft as they sped past him 
after having slowed tbeir loot safely on 
hoard. Tattrrsby hud supposed them to be 
employers of the estate, and never gave the 
matter another thought until three days 
later, when the news of the rnldicry was 
published to the world. He had immediate- 
ly communicated the news of what he had 
seen to the police, and bad done all that 
luy in his power to aid them in locating the 
robbers, but all to no purpose. From that 
day to this the mystery of the Cliveden 
plot hud never been solved. 

*’ The following day Holmes called at the 
Tattcmby cottage, and was fortunate enough 
to find Miss Tatteraby ut home. Ilia pre- 
vious impression as to her marvellous beauty 
was more than continued, and each moment 
that he talked to her she revealed new grace* 
of manner that completed the capture of 
his hitherto unsusceptible lo*art. Miss Tut 
ter shy regretted her father’s absence. He 
had gone, she said, to attend a secret mis- 
sionary conference at Pentwllycod in Wales, 
and was not expected hack for a week, all 
of which quite suited Sherlock Holmes. Con- 
vinced that, after years of waiting, his affin- 
ity had at last crossed hi* |M»th, lie was in -no 
hurry for the return of that parent, who 
would put an instant quietus upon this af- 
fair of the heart. Manifestly the thing for 

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HARPER’S WEEKLY 



him to do wan to win 
the daughter's bund, 
and then intercept l hr 
father. acquaint him 
with hi* aspiration*, 
and compel arqui 
esrcnce by the force of 
Itin knowledge of Raf- 
fle*’* misdeed. Hence, 
instead of taking his 
departure immediate- 
ly. he remained at the 
(Joring-Strratley Inn. 
taking cure each day 
to encounter Mias Tat- 
tenuity on onr pretext 
or another, hoping; 
that their niquulnt 
am** would ripen into 
frirndship. and then 
into something warm 
er. Nor wu» the hope 
a vain one. for when 
tlie fair Marjorie 
learned thnt it wn* 
the visitor's intention 
to remain in the 
neighborhood until 
her father's return, 
she herself hade him 
to make use of the old 
gentleman's library, 
to regurd himself al- 
ways ns a welcome 
dnytimu guest. She 
even suggested pleas- 
ant walks through the 
neighboring country, 
little canoe trips up 
and down the Thames, 
which they might take 
togethrr, of all of 
which Holmes prompt- 
ly availed himself, 
with the result that, 
at the rnd of six days, 
both realised that 
they were designed 
for i-arh other, ami a 
passionate declaration 
followed which opened 
new vistas of happi- 
ness for both. Hence 
it was that, when the 
Rev. .lames Tattersby 
arrived at (Joring- 
S treat ley the following 
Monday night, unex- 
pectedly. he was as- 
tounded to And sitting 
together in the moon- 
light. in the charming little Knglish garden at the rear of his 
dwelling, two persons, one of whom was his daughter Marjorie 
and the other a young American curate to whom he had already 
been introduced as A. J. Raffle*. 

* We have met before. I think.’ said Raffles, coldly, ns his rye 
fell upon Holmes. 

“‘I — er — do not recall the fart,’ replird Holme*, meeting tin* 
steely stare of the home-comer with one of hi« own flinty glances. 

"‘ff’m!’ ejaculated Raffles, nonplussed at the other’s failure to 
recognize him. Then he shivered slightly. * Suppose we go indoor*, 
it is a trifle chilly out here in the night air.’ 

“The whole thing, the greeting, the meeting. Holmes’s demeanor 
and all. was so admirably handled that Marjorie Tattersliy never 
guessed the truth, never even suspected the intense dramatic 
quality of the scene she had just gazed upon. 

“‘^es, let us go indoor*.’ she acquiesced. ‘Mr. Dutton lias 
something to say to you. Papa.’ 

“ So I presumed.’ said Haines, drily. ‘ And something that were 
la*tter said to me alone. I fancy, eh he added. 

“‘Quite so.’ said Holmes, calmly. And indoors they went. Mar- 
jorie immediately retired to the drawing-room, and Holmes and 
Hafflcs went at ones* to Tattersliy’* study. 

“'Well?' said Raffles, impatiently, when they were H-atcd. *1 
sup|M)se you have come to get the Dorrington seal. Mr, Holmes.’ 
“‘Ah — you know me. then. Mr. Raffle* !’ said Holmes, with a 
pleasant smile. 

*' ' Perfectly.’ &nid Raffle*. 'I knew you at Dorrington Hull the 
moment I set eyes on you. and, if I hadn't, I should have known 
Inter, for the night after your departure land Dorrington took 
me into his confidence and revealed your identity to me.’ 

“‘I am glad,’ said Holme*. ' It save* rue a great deal of un- 
necessary explanation. If you admit that you have the seal—’ 
"‘Rut 1 don't,' *uid Raffles. *1 mentioned it a moment ago. 
because Dorrington told me that was what you were after. I 
haven’t got it, Mr. Holmes.’ 

‘‘‘I know that.’ observed llolmes, quietly. ' It i« in the posses- 
sion of Mis* Tattersliy, your daughter. Mr. Ruffle* ' 

“ ‘ She showed it to you. Hit' demanded Raffles, paling. 

"‘No. She sealed a note to me with it. however.’ Holme* re- 
plied. 


A note to you?* 
cried Raffles. 

Yes. One asking 
for niv autograph. I 
have it in rny pos- 
session. ' said liol nies. 

“ * And how do you 
know that she is the 
person from whom 
that note really 
came?’ Raffle* asked. 

“ ‘ Reran sci I have 
seen the autograph 
which was sent in re- 
»|M>n»c to tliat re- 
quest in your daugh- 
ter'* collect ion, Sir. 
Raffles." said Holmes. 

“ * No that you con- 
clude V Raffle* put in. 
hoarsely. 

‘“I do not con- 
clude; I In-gin by sur- 
mising. sir. that the 
missing seal of laird 
Dorrington wa* stolen 
by one of two |ier««n* 
— yourself or Mis* 
Marjorie Tattersliy.’ 
said Holmes, calmly. 

•’’Sir!' roared Raf- 
fle*. springing to hi* 
feel menacingly. 

" • Sit down, please.' 
*aid Holme*. ’ You 
did not let me finish. 
I was going to add. 
Dr. Tattersliy, that a 
week'* acquaintance 
with that lovely wom- 
an. a full knowledge 
of her peculiarly ex- 
alted character and 
guileless nature 
make* I he alternative 
of guilt that alfeet* 
her integrity clearly 
irrpostcrou*. whirh, 
>y a very simple 
process of elimina- 
tion. fastens the guilt, 
beyond all peradvrn- 
ture. on your shou I 
ders. At any rule, 
tlie presence of the 
seal in this house 
will involve vnu in 
difficult explanations. 
Why i« it here? How 
did it come here? 
Why are yon known 
a* the Reverend Janie* Tattersby. the missionary, at tSorlng-Rtrcat- 
ley. and as Mr. A. J. Raffles, the cricketer, and man of the 
world, at Dorrington Hall, to say nothing of the Cliveden plate — ’ 

“'Damnation!' roared the Reverend Janie* Tatterabv again, 
springing to Id* feet and glancing instinctively at the long low 
lMHik-*lielv e» la-hind him. 

'“To say nothing.' continued Holme*, calmly lighting a 
cigarette, ‘of tlu* Cliveden plate now lying concealed behind those 
dusty theological tomes of .yours which you never allow to la- 
touched by any other hand than your own.' 

*’* How did you know?' cried Raffle*, hoarsely. 

'“I didn't.’ laughed Holme*. ‘You have only this moment in- 
formed me of the fact !' 

''There was a long pause, during which Ruffle* pm-ed the floor 
like u caged tiger. 

‘“I'm a dangerous man to trifle with. Mr. Holme*.' he said, 
finally. ‘ I can shoot you down in cold Mood in a second.' 

••‘Very likely.’ said Holmes. * Rut von won't. It would add to 
the difficulties in which the Reverend James Tattersliy l* already 
deeply immersed. Your troubles are suHii-ii-nt. a* matters stami. 
without your having to explain to the world why you have killed 
a defenceless guest in your own study in cold biota!.' 

"'Well — what tin you pni|ai*c to do?' demanded Raffle*, after 
another puu*c. 

" ' Marry your daughter. Mr. Raffles, nr Tattersliy. whatever your 
permanent name is — 1 gut-** it’s Tattersby in this ease.' said Holme*. 
' I love her anti slit- loves mi- I'erluip* I should apologize for 
having wooed and won lu-r without dm- not i<*- to you, hut you 
doubtless will forgive that. It's a little formality you sometime* 
overlook yourself when you hap|H-n to want, something that be- 
long* III somebody else.' 

" What Raffle* would have answered no one knows. He had no 
Hiuntc to reply for. at that ninment. Marjorie herself put her 
radiantly lovely little head in at the door with a ' May I come 
in' 1 anil a moment later she was guthi-ieil in Holmes’* arm*, anil 
the happy lovers received the Reverend -Fames Tattersby'* blessing. 
They were married .« week Inter and. as far a* the world is con- 
cerned. the mystery of till- Remington seal and that of the Clive- 
den plate wa* never solved. 

'll is compounding a felony. Ruffle*. ' *oid Holmes, ufter the 


I to trift* ft ith, .Ur, Holme*,' he mini " 


|lfli> 


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. HARPER'S WEEKLY 


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TRIBUNE BLOG . CHICAGO 


wedding, * but for a wife like (hut, hanged 
if I wouldn't eompound the ten command- 
ment*!' 

*’ I hope.'* I ventured to |>ut in at tliut 
point, '• that the marriage ceremony wax not 
performed by the Iter. .lame* TutlrrxliV." 

** Not on your life!” retorted It* Me* 
Holme*. “ My father wax too fond of my 
mother to permit nf uny (law in hi* title. A 
year Inter I was horn, and — well, here I atn 
— non of one. grand*on of the other, with 
hereditary trait* from both *trongly devel- 
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erary partner — a man who will write me aa 
Bunny did Raffle*. and Watxon did Holme*, 
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me!” 

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struek a bargain and U'l-nnie partners. 

To br Continued. 


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The Silence of 
Mrs. Harrold 


By S. M. GARDENHIRE 

The 6tory ot a woman h ho could keep a »ecrrt xt taa- 
riiuilinit a* a detrrtlve story, w ills u plut cn 
tlirly orlgmil In the ;inn:il. uf fu tli.ii, 

/'rift ft .30 

Harper Sc Brothers, New York 



A Union of Nations 

(Vontinwd from /mge lOHS.f 

the one on which the Swedish people, under 
political leader* whose conduct I have al- 
ready described, hare themselves insisted. 

Hoping that these two misunderstanding* 
may not lead to a third, which would great- 
ly endanger the future of the north. I say 
that the aim of the three northern people 
must be to come together. They only com- 
prise nine million*, and they have only one 
enemy — the Russian desire for expanaion. 

It would be an unheard-of piece of folly 
if the dissolution of tin* union, which greatly 
fiirlhi'rs this aim, ahould lie seized upon by 
Swixliah Chauvinism as a pretext for pre- 
venting it. The Swedish people — strongest 
in numbers and richest in historical renown 
— must take the lend in this matter. Our 
continual strife within the union lots hither- 
to been an obstacle to broad views, and it 
cun only be when there are these equuliy in- 
dependent nations that the natnml desire 
to stand shoulder to shoulder will become 
universal. 

Some of the foremost men of the north — 
such as Bishop Grundtwig in Denmark and 
the historian P. A. Munch in Norway — have, 
from the middle of the last century on- 
wards. advocated an alliance between the 
Teutonic races, and the bearer* of the lui ti- 
ller of peace in the north have taken up tin- 
idea. seeing that the best ami surest ap- 
proach to universal |icact- — the highest aim 
of all noble souls — lies by sueli a road. 

It is hut natural that the small nution* 
should take the iniutive in educating peo- 
ple's minds tip to the iioint where thout/hl 
shall become an Irresistible power. For. 
standing as they do outside the quarrels and 
strifes in which the larger nations are con- 
stantly engaged, this lie come* their natural 
rAle. 

I am, as I take this opportunity of re- 
peating, longing for the time to pome when 
far-seeing men and women in Great Britain, 
in the United States of America, in Hol- 
land. in Belgium, in Luxemburg, Switzer- 
land. Austria. Germany. Denmark, and 
Sweden and Norway shall form a society 
which will live for and in this great ideal. 
However hopeless the present may appear, 
the formation of such a society will surely 
lend to tin attainment of this great end. 

I would dwell, in fine, upon this view of 
unity and peace a mm mg nations, and the 
sharp emit rust afforded by the energy of the 
Chauvinists, who. from their narrow* hovels, 
are constantly creating internal strife. The 
one is like the hroad. inspiring, life-giving 
ocean of the world. Of the other and its 
nature I will say nothing. 


Fifty Years of Progress in 
America 

f Continued from poffc JOfLt.J 

shipboard, or in remote regions where com- 
munication was infrequent or irregular. To- 
day the poorest cabin yard is littered with 
tin cans, while the tables of the rich owe 
to the canning industry many of their best 
foods. 

Market - vegetable production averages 
$37 IIS per aere for the national cron. In 
the North Atlantic States it is $80 11. and 
in Massachusetts $133 43. The other ex- 
treme is in the South Atlantic Suites — 
$47 IK per acre, with the minimum in Dela- 
ware at $.111 «U. Proportionally, while veg- 
etable* are only K.3 per cent, of the value 
of all crops, in Rhode Island their value is 
714.11 per rent.; in New Jersey, 110.7 |**t rent.: 
in Massachusetts. 20.1 per cent. Then fol- 
low Maine, Florida. Connecticut. Delaware, 
and Maryland to reach New York, where the 
proportion reaches only 18.1 per cent. 

Ten years after the first permanent set- 
tlement the colonists had gone mad over the 
production of IoImcco »is men go mad over 
newly discovered gold-fields. All available 
space, even in their streets ami in the “pub- 
lic square." was planted with that one crop. 
ToW.s. could Is- void for gold in Kuro|«c. 
or exchanged for food. clothing, furniture, 
and all the needs of the New World life. 


From that wild beginning, on through all 
colonial history, now up. now down, yet ever 
preseut iu persistent interest, tobacco held 
a leading place among colonial farm products 
in Maryland and Virginia ami North Caro- 
lina. It paid little heed to either the Revo- 
lutionary war or the formation of the Con- 
stitution. In IH12 the demand in foreign 
countries for dark-colored tobacco became so 
great that artificial heat was employed in 
curing. In this way the piebald, or spangled, 
tobacco of Virginia was introduced. Shortly 
after IKJ8 flues and charcoal begun to super- 
sede open wood fire*, and by 18U3 that meth- 
od supplied the full product of the popular 
bright yellow sort* used for cigarette, plug, 
and twist wrapper*. In 1832. on a sandy 
ridge, in Caswell County, North Carolina, 
the llr»t eiop of “ lemon-yellow " was pro- 
duced. Bract b ully abandoned during the 
civil war. it came forward again afterward, 
and in 18715 there were 4IMKI0 arres of it 
planted, yielding twenty million pounds. 

Next smaller, in dollars, than tlir tobacco 
crop is the sugar crop. The first hundred 
years of American colonial life were almost 
entirely sugar less. Even in Europe sugar 
wn* a rosily luxury and article of medicine 
only till the eighteenth century. Toward a 
hundred years after the landing of the J/ug- 
flotnr, sugar production la-gun in the West 
India Islands, and in 1 7 !•.*» the first sugar 
was grained iu iAiui-iaiin. Tin* writer re- 
meiulicra clearly the oidinarv price of fifteen 
cents per pound for yellow “ muscovado ” 
sugar, in the country store* of western New 
York State, in the early fifties, us well a* 
the introduction of the wonderful product 
known as “ loaf sugar” < while) at u later 
period. 

Although bret-angar production in 1000 
was less than that of •orghum, it is now 
about three times ms great. At to maple 
sugar, its day is doomed. T»o much arti- 
ficial maple. t<M> much exu-lh-nt refined 
sugar, too much delirious candy in a thou- 
sand tempting forma. The largest producers 
in IlNMi were Vermont with $4tKi,000 of 
inuplc sugar, and Ohio with $010,000 of 
■nuplc syrup. Tile first successful production 
of sugar In lluwuii was in 1830. and to-day 
over five hundred million pound* i* the an- 
nual crop. 

The first greenhouse in America was built 
in New York in 1 7 *!4. About 1 glass 
roofs began to take the place of wood. Other 
improvements followed in quick earnest, and 
Philadelphia, Washington. Baltimore, and 
Charleston were the leaders. In 1860 Peter 
Henderson issued the first important book 
on floriculture. Ten years later specializa- 
tion begun, n lid progress became phenomenal, 
and so continues. Were tLe land under glass. 
B0, 200,000 square feet, brought into one great 
greenhouse a hundred feet wide, it would 
lie over one hundred and eighty miles in 
length, and New York State would occupy 
the llr-t twenty-three miles, while the other 
lending State* would not occupy no many 
miles less. Gardening, floriculture, und 
greenhouses easily suggest the kindred in- 
dustry of furnishing .voting tree* for hotli 
ornament and fruit. The United States 
government, in It* Department of Agri- 
culture, lias c* In Wished extensive nursery 
Operations, and is conduct ing ojieration* on 
a gigantic scale, to improve all sorts of fruit 
tree*, ».hrub». and vines, und to improve and 
originate ornamental tree*, and to stock 
thousand* of treeless prairie tracts with 
forest tree* for t im tier, and nut trees for 
food and commercial profit. ■ 

" A new broom sweep* clean.” Therefore 
the fifty-four million new brooms made from 
the ninety-one million |>ound* of broom -corn 
grown in lIMKt should have put Uncle Sam’* 
big home in “ company condition " all round. 
This suggestion i» enforced hv the fact that 
in the ten veai*. 18H0-1UIM), while our popu- 
lation Increased only about twenty-two per 
rent., our broom-coin crop more than dou- 
lih-d. Illinois i* the great broom-corn State, 
growing two-thirds «-f the entire erop. and 
Kansas grow* one-third of the balance. The 
railroads have to provide a train consisting 
of one thousand car* to move the Illinois 
nop to the Eastern State*, To supply all of 
Uncle Sam** housekeeper* with broom* c«»*t« 
the tidy -uni of some twenty million dol- 
lar*. bill the farmer pnr-ket* only about oiic- 
llflh of th.it amount. the other four-fifths I*- 
ing divided nuiotig tlx- railroads, manufac- 
turers, Mile*irii-ii. and merchant*. 


1100 

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HARPER'S W EEKLY 


Lost 

Bv Burge* Johnson 

Tnnr tell dip. when I !«»»»«• a tiling. 
No one’s at fault but me; 

It'* just because I'm carelesser 
'N what 1 ought tn It**. 

Hut there ure happenin'!! that tritour 
It Isn't true a hit, — 

'( 'iiu’h* when a thing gets lost, I know 
It's part the fault of if. 

’Cause often when I'm in the house 
For ju*t a little while. 

I put my cap an’ hall an' such 
All in a little pile. 

Theu when I'm in u rush to go. 

And hurry right to where 

I left 'em. it's 'most always &o 
That one of 'ein'a not there! 


And while we hunt with all our might, 
The thing we're looking for 
Is hid. I'm sure. ju*t out of sight 
An" laughin’ mors an* more. 

’Can*** if ran hear u* goin’ wrong 
An' savin'. “ Il'Arrr if'f/tiu r’/wiw 
Thm olif Ihitifj iaf ’ An' all along 
It'* happy, 'enuse if know*! 


A New Theory of Magnetism 

Till! old theory that ferromagnetism was 
a property of the ehemieal atom «rems to be 
seriously questioned ns a result of a mini* 
her of recent experiments with magnetic 
alloys not containing iron. It would up|M-ur 
from tiles** studies that magnetism depends 
ii|ion molecular structure rather than upon 
any fundamental characteristics of an atom 
of a given element. This conclusion is 
reached after a series of experiments where 
alloys of manganese, copper, and aluminium 
with a trace of carbon, silicon, and iron 
were fuund to possess all the magnetic 
properties of the ferromagnetic materials, 
even to the extent that they could Is* per- 
manently magnetized. It l« assumed that in 
such an alloy a similar grouping of the 
molecules takes place ns in tin* caw of the 
magnetic metals, and magnetization consists 
in arranging or disturbing the position of 
these molecular magnets. 

If it is possible by further investigation 
and experiment to gain some knowledge of 
this molecular structure, it may lie possible 
to construct alloys which ure as magnetic 
<*r even more magnetic than iron. This bus 
an iui|M>rtant hearing on eleetriewl engineer- 
ing. as it means that smaller masses of 
metal can lie used, and when these are in 
the form of moving (tarts much less |»owrr 
will Ik required to drive them. Indeed, *** 
many practical advantages and economies 
are suggested by this line of reasoning that 
additional researches in this firld are await- 
ed by physicists and engineer* with consid- 
erable Interest. 


The Trade of Scandinavia 

SwaiEX impoits a! suit 14. million dollars* 
worth of merchandise annually, about tl* ? 
millions living from the I'nited States, and 
Norway import* about 7*'- million dollars' 
worth of merchandise, a little less than 5 
millions being .upplied by the I’nited Slates. 
Ilie r.\|N)rt* from Sweden in the Intcst avail- 
able year wen* ll>P' 4 million dollars in value, 
ulsiui -P , millions having been taken l»v the 
1 nited State*, while from Norway the 
|"'M» were Hi'', million dollars in value, 
of which less than 2 million* were imported 
by the I’nited Stall., 

While no gold or silver bullion appears to 
have ls*-n srnt to or received from Sweden 
**r Norway. I’nited States Consul Iteigh. at 
<*nttcnborg. report* incoming money orders 
to the value of *2..VH),000 sent from the 
l nitid States to Sweden during |!HM. and 
outgoing money oidi-ln to the value of 
• Hin sent from Sweden to thi* country, a net 
movement of £2.000,000 to Sweden ftour the 
I nited Stairs during a single year. 



RIFLES FOR ALL KINDS OF HUNTING. 

Winchester rifles are not the choice of any one special class, but of all 
intelligent sportsmen who go to the woods, the plains, or the mountains 
in quest of game. They are designed to handle all calibers and types of 
cartridges, to meet the requirements of all kinds of shooting, and can always 
be counted on to shoot where they are pointed when the trigger is pulled. 
Winchester rifles and Winchester cartridges are made for one another. 

FREE. SemJ n*M aaj Mnm m • tml rf/«f m f la rf. Mu* rat. J Mfe/***.. 

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO., .... NEW HAVEN. CONN. 


A JAPANESE LOVE STORY 


THe Wooirvg of Wistaria. 


By ONOTO WAT ANN A, Author of **A Japan*** Ntahtlngwlo ** $1.50 

HARPER A BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. NEW YORK 



1101 


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HARPERS WEEKLY 



THE SUMMER CONCERT SEASON. 

Concert Giver {concluding opening speech): "And disappointing as it is to find the 
audience this evening so small, consisting as it does of one person only, we have never- 
theless determined to go through the entire programme." 

The Audience: “Orl right, guv’nor, only ’urrv up — I'm the caretaker." 


Books for Women 


FAMILY LIVING 
ON $500 A YEAR 
By Juliet Corson 

This is a daily reference bonk for vObng house- 
wives. It contains just the things that all 
housekeepers must know — even the trifles. 

ft. 25 

HOUSEKEEPING 
MADE EASY 

By Christine Terhune Herrick 

What to do in all parts of the house on every 
day in the week. Practical hints on everything 
from engaging a maid to arranging and serving 
dinners, etc. 

ft. 00 

HARPER & BROTHERS, NET YORK 




ON A JAUNT 


Every outing outfit needs a 
bottle of pure alcoholic stimu- 
lant for emergencies. 

Hunter 

Whiskey 


Is the choke of those who 

KNOW THE BEST 
LIKE THE BEST 
BUY THE BEST 



YOU Know the kind of concocrion 
that masquerades as cocktail in 
London and Paris bars. Well, 
CLUB COCKTAILS are as su- 
perior to made-in-a-hurry kind as 
the latter are to the foreign attempts 
— and that’s saying a lot. Accept 
no substitute if you want the best. 
CLUB COCKTAILS is the 
original bottled brand. 


Just strain through ice and serve. 


Seven kinds— Manhattan, Martini, Ver- 
mouth, Whiskey, Holland Gin, Tom Gin 
and York. 


G. F. HEUBLEIN & BWL Sole Proprietors 

Hartford New York London 


OPIUM 


nn<l l.tiiuor llulill cnml in IO 
No !•*> I»ll rurwl. U id* 

nit. .1. 1.. mtkphknk «•«.. 

Ilr|»l. At. Ohl*. 


20th CENTURY LIMITED new” YORK T CENTRAL AND* LAKE SHORE. 


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1 Hid 





| Harper’s Book Newi | 

Miss Bellatd’s 
Inspiration 

By W. D. HOWELLS 

Here is a situation that might j 
occur in the experience of any j 
American girl and her lover. Mr. 
Howells extricates his heroine from 
her predicament by means of a won- j 
derful “ inspiration,” and makes a 
delightful story out of this summer 
episode. But it would be interest- 
ing to know if the average girl of 
Miss Bellard’s independent turn of 
mind would break her engagement | 
and then renew it in just this 
fashion. 

The entrance of Mr. and Mrs. 
Mevison into the story was the 
cause of it all — an unhappy, ill-* 
mated couple such as might cloud 
the romance of any pair of lovers 
nowadays. They came near spoil- 
ing things for Miss Bellard — but not 
quite, thanks to her “ inspiration.” j 
The reviewers seem to be enjoying 
this new' novel by Mr. Howells: 

** A triumph in summer comedy," says the World ; 

decidedly entertaining book,” the Timti; “Mr. 
Howells lva» never been more engaging.’’ Tribune. 

" What delicious fooling’ — it is greatly 10 lx doubted 
if more finivhed work has coroe from his hand," 
Brooklyn Eagle. 

Love's 

Cross-currents 

ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE 

The publication of a novel by the 
greatest of living English poets — 
the only novel he has ever written 
— is an event of unusual importance. 
Lovers of Swinburne’s poems will 
find in his prose the same sweep of 
fancy, passionate warmth, and grace 
of narration that his poetry possesses 
in so marked a degree. 

It will come as a surprise, how- 
ever, to find the pages filled with 
delicious humor and the keenest of 
epigrams. The tragi-comedy grow- 
ing out of the love affairs of four in- 
teresting young people while they j 
play at cross-purposes is an absorb- j 
ing, delightful story'. 

HARPER 4 BROTHERS, N. Y. 


THE 


NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW 


EDITED BY GEORGE HARVEY 


August, 1905. 

Maritime Responsibilities in Time of War, 

j HANNIS TAYLOR, Lieut. CARLYON BELLA1RS, R. N„ 
( C DUPUIS, Commander VON USLAR, L G. N. 

Federal Regulation of Life Insurance . JAMES M. BECK, 

Formerly Auutunt United Stale* Attorney- General. 

“The Negro a Beast” EDWARD ATKINSON 

Present Conditions in the Anthracite Coal Industry . . DAVID WILLCOX, 

President of the Delaware and Hudson Company. 

The Fight for the Caliphate WALTER F. BULLOCK 

Historical Relations of Russia and the United States • . OSCAR S. STRAUS, 

Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. 

The Future of Crete H. N. BRAILSFORD 

Ireland's Representation in Parliament EDWARD PORRITT 

The Quest MARGARET SHERWOOD 

Psychological Studies of the Chimpanzee . • . • Professor R. L. GARNER 

THE SCANDINAVIAN CRISIS 

Norway's Right to Independence . . . . H. L. BRAEKSTAD 
The Grounds of Sweden’s Protest ..... KARL STAAFF, 

Member of the Swedish l’nrlia merit 

WORLD POLITICS 

London ; St. Petersburg ; Berlin; Washington 

50 cents a copy $ 5.00 a Ycat 

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK 



The Vicissitudes of Evangeline 

By ELINOR GLYN 

Anther ef - The VMH #/ BH—betb " 

Evangeline, an irresistible creature, with glorious hair 
and amazing eyes, is alone in the world, having but one 
confidant — her diary ; and into these pages the reader is 
allowed to peep. Never before was there such a jumble 
of humor and charm as this wonderful journal reveals. 

| Post &vo. Cloth, ft JO 

HARPER ft BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK 


New Conceptions in Science 

By CARL SNYDER 

Lord Kelvin’s Commendation — Eng- 
land's foremost scientist. Lord Kelvin, 
wrote as follows concerning A Vie Con- 
cepiions tn Scieme: "It is full of valu- 
able matter, treated in a very interesting 
manner. I ant glad to have the book, 
and I see that I shall find it. not only 
interesting, but useful in many respects ’ 
The London Acadamy says : "We have 
rarely rend a scientific book we could more 
heartily commend." 

Musirmtad. Cloth. tS.00 not (postage ozlra) 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, If. Y, 


A NEW EDITION 

How to Get Strong 

And H ow to Stay So 

By WILLIAM BLAIKIE 

A valuable book, with practical, common-sense 
directions that ran be followed by any one. 
$i do net (postage extra) 

HARPER * BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS. NEW YORK 


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MADE IN NATURE'S LABORATORY 

lii I lie wind. w lit at lurry Natuie ha-. given nun a «*>innlric ami petlerl f*«id with every element 
in it tor tin- niak in.; of Iwm-, brain an>l brawn. The most ot these nutritive elements arc in the outer 
coating* of the wheat kernel. In the inudera prone* c»t milling iIic-h ate cast niik anti wre get the 
starch grsnuhut in the shajie til “ white Htwir." 

All the noun*ning, hody-huilding elements ut the whole wheat ore held in natural purity and 
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SHREDDED WHOLE WHEAT BISCUIT 

It i- etjukol wheat drawn nut into title shred*, rendering it poemr* anil light without the use of 
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Shrrddrd Whole Wheat Bisiuit should hr slightly warmed before serving. Ir h delirious with 
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Try TRISCUIT, the ti»-w- iTacker, to K u-. .( a* toast or water. Judd lay all grocers. 

Send for free booklet, “ THE VITAL QUESTION.” 








EDITED BY 


* iqo 11 ; 


Induct 




The hand that steers 
also controls the power 

The Rambler throttle is opened 
or closed by the fingers of the hand 
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Every forward movement of the car, 
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This feature is only one of the many points 
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Branches: Bowl on. Chicago, Philadelphia, 

New York Agency , 134 W. 38th Si. Repreeentativce in other leading c It lee. 


Miss Bellard’s 
Inspiration 

By W. D. HOWELLS 


“A triumph in summer comedy." — M. Y. World. 
“A decidedly entertaining book.” — N. V. Times. 

“ Mr. Howells has never been more engaging.” — 
N. Y. Tribune. 

“ What delicious fooling! — it is greatly to be 
doubted if more finished work has come from his 
hand .” — Brooklyn Eagle. 


Cloth. Price, $1.50 


HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers 


The Vicissitudes of 
Evaugeiine 

By ELINOR GLYN 

Evangeline comes upon the scene in 
these opening words — 

** I wonder so much if it is amusing to be an adventuress, 
because that is evidently what I shall become now. I read 
in a book about it. it is being nice-looking and having' 
nothing to live on.” 

This is from her diary. In fact, the 
whole book is simply her diary put into 
print — a delightful jumble of humor and 
charm. Those who have read “The Vis- 
its of Elizabeth ” know what to expect 
in this new volume by the same author, 
and they will find here the same deli- 
cacy of touch and filmy imaginings. 

Post 8vo, Cloth, 

HARPER &. BROTHERS, publishers, NEW YORK 

Love’s 

Cross-currents 

By ALGERNON 
CHARLES 
SWINBURNE 

There is not a page without its spark and 
flash as love’s currents play at cross- purposes 
in the affairs of the four interesting young peo- 
ple of this story — the only novel the great poet 
Swinburne has ever written. It is full of de- 
licious humor, glancing wit, and the keenest of 
epigrams— a delightful, exhilarating surprise to 
all who have read Swinburne's poems. 

“ The many admirers of Swinburne will rub 
their eyes after reading the first few pages. 

Here is a book full from cover to cover with 
humor, wit, bright epigrams— and, stranger still, 
with boyish spirits and fun ." — New York Sun. 

Cloth. Price $1.50 


HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK 



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No, m? 



voi-xux. New York, SMurdar, August 5, 7905 


Capyrigkt, 190$, t-jr IIahckm Jt BmotiIEH*. Alt ngkti rrttrrrJ 




'■ < :>- 

e 



PUTTING A CUTTING EDGE ON IT 

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HARPERS WEEKLY 


HARPER’S WEEKLY 

Vot XLIX, No. *537 

EDITED BY GEORGE HA RYE Y 


THIRTY- SIX PAGES 

New York City, August 5, 1905 

Terms: 10 Cenis a Copy — $4 00 a Year, in Advance 

Postage tree to all Subscriber* in the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, the Philippine Islands, imam, and Tutuila, Samoa 

Enttrrd at tkt Xfw Tart fl>il afict at trtand tiatt malltr 


HARPER & BROTHERS. PUBLISHERS 

NEW YORK CITY: FRANKLIN SQUARE 
LONDON: 45 ALBEMARLE STREET. W 


COMMENT 

TmatK continue!* to Ik* much speculation in England re- 
specting the wecenor of Prime-Minister Balfour when that 
adroit statesman shall finally let go and permit tlie Liberals 
to return to power, as they almost surely will when given the 
opportunity. The venerahle Earl Spkncer for various reasons, 
and Lord Roskrkky because of his personal popularity with 
both the people ami the King, tire still *up|>o*cd to Ik* in the 
running. We have the highest authority, direct from head- 
quarters, however, that the Liberal leaders have already agreed 
that Sir IIknry Camprkll-Hanvkkman shall have the coveted 
position. 

M Is Mr. Hr ax sincere?" asks thp Providence Journal, a 
sane paper far removed from the busy mart of screech-owl isin. 
“What docs it all mean? Can it be that Mr. Ryan is not, 
after all, a financial Colossus seeking to dominate the utfairs 
of Wall Street in the interests of his own poeketbook, but, 
rather, a good Samaritan, who ass^.oes the ta*k of rebuking 
the unfaithful servants and turning the Equitable millions 
over to the policy-holders, to whom they rightfully belong, for 
the paltry money reward of a few mon ills’ interest on two 
million five hundred thousand dollars? Whatever Mr. Ryan's 
motives may turn out to he, it is clearly a fact that he has 
resold to the trustees the controlling amount of stock purchased 
from Mr. I Ivor, and that there is now under consideration a 
plan of mutunli/ntion submitted by Mr. Wkstimjik* •«*:, which, 
at first glance, appears to Ik* one that the policy-holders should 
be wilting to see adopted. For the present, therefore, the 
public must in fairness give Mr. Rvw the benefit of the doubt 
and prepare itself to believe that out of his financial probity, 
the executive ability of Chairman Pu l Morton, ami the high 
character and unsullied reputation of the holding trustees will 
flow an honest administration of the enormous business of 
the Equitable Society." Why not? Would not the mere 
accomplishment of such a result, the prevention of a threaten- 
ing financial panic, the conserving of millions of the people’s 
money, the restoration of confidence in the ubilitv and de- 
termination of big-minded Americans to master a delicate 
and dangerous situation in the right way, constitute a suffi- 
cient reward? Mr. IIvax asks only that he Ik* judged by his 
nets. And if, as the Providence Journal observes, thus far 
they have been wholly exemplary, the request does not seem 
unreasonable. It is a time for wuiting. seeing, nod hoping, 
not for the worst, but for the best. Meanwhile, wo happen to 
he in a position from personal knowledge to assure fair- 
minded newspaper* such us the Providence Journal that what- 
ever lie* within the power of Thomas F. Rvw to do in tile 
interest of the Fquituble pnliry-hoklrni to place their grent 
society upon a prosperous, sound, and enduring Iwsi* will be 
done. 

T* it envv. uncharitablenc**. or what not that induce* 
spasm* of nttai-k upon men who g<*t rich ami give away 


money? One apparently must do both to achieve a full 
measure of obloquy. Mr. Carxeuif. at one time came under 
the ban because they said his great giving was ostentatious. 
Mr. Mori.ax occasionally gets a dab despite the fact that 
hi* many splendid benefactions are made with the utmost 
secrecy. Mr. Yanummiilt and Mr. Sauk and a score of others 
similarly well-to-do, who give little or nothing, go scot-free. 
So. too, do men like Rokfkt C. Ogdrh and Alexander C. 
Humphreys, who ore not rich but generous. Neither the 
possession nor the giving urous«*s complaint. It is the com- 
bination. Ju*t at present Mr. John I). KicRtmiER is the 
target, and a fine one, too, because he in not only the richest, 
but tie give# l 1 m? most. Therefore everybody pitches into him. 
Formerly Im did not mind, but now they say he carts; that 
lie considers himself a victim of unfair treatment, of mis- 
representation, and of downright malice. That his belief to 
this effect is wholly honest nobody questions. That it ha* 
n gixid deal of basis, moreover, i* indicated by all tin* evi- 
dence at hand. The article- cleverly constructed for popular 
consumption by Miss Iua TarbflL are obviously partisan, 
and made to ap|H>nr to Ik* judicial, when clearly they are not. 
for the sole purpose of carrying conviction. The one certain 
fact deduce') from the lady’s “ .Six Year* of Painstaking Re- 
search ” is that, in common with his thousand* of stm'k- 
holding iNtrtner*. Mr. Kockkpeu.fr hn* profited materially 
fmm railway rebates. So ha* everybody duo who was en- 
gag'd in tin* shipping business to any extent twenty or thirty 
years ago. Moreover, when* did the rebates come from? 
It takes two to make a bargain. If Mr. R'K'KFFKl.LEft and hi* 
associates received rebates, did not Mr. VaSdkrrilt, Mr. 
Scott, Mr. Rntinrr*, Mr, Cassatt, and other eminent citizen* 
give them? And whether more blessed or not. is it not clear 
that in this instance it was at least more culpable to give 
than to receive? 

Hut we have neither time to delve into the detail* of Mr. 
Rock eff.li.kr’s business career nor inclination to analyze 
Miss Tarhi:i.l’s collected gossip furtla-r than to note the in- 
teresting fact that, so far as we have heard, nobody has 
demonstrated that Mr. R'K'KFFKLLKR ever stole, lied, or 
cheated. That he took all that was coming to him we can 
readily lielioA'e; result* indicate it. Hut the testimony quoted 
by Mis* Tarkki.l of the man who declared that, despite tlw_* 
fact that Ik- had known Mr. R<tkkfkllfj< forty years, lie 
had not a doubt that in a deal to-day the latter would exact 
the ln*f eent he could get legally, docs not impress ns a* so 
very damning; indeed, it might inferentially Ik* construed 
ns praise. Of one fact we are posit i\*c: In a personal sense 

the recent treatment of Mr. K'n'kkitm.kk ha* been grossly 
indecent. A sensitive person — or one not so sensitive, for that 
matter — suffer* enough frail his own realization of a virtual 
disfigurement resulting from personal affliction. If Miss 
T ARRtXL wen* cross-eyed, humpbacked. club-footed, or bow- 
legged, we feel certain that she would regard reference to 
the fact as unkind. So Mr. I{«mkkfki.I.kiTs loss of hair from 
his head end face should, and does, of course, in properly 
constituted being*, evoke sympathy rather than derision. 
Moreover, the taking of advantage of such an affliction to 
read unwarrantable traits into a countenance thus deprived 
of its natural expressions is not only the finality of injustice 
and cruelty, hut an outrage upon the decencies of civilization. 

Next under the lime-light, we su*pcct, will Ik* Mr. Thomas 
F. Ryan. To avert the trouble of inquiry on the part of any 
Indy journali*! who may feel inspired to lacerate hi* feelings, 
we announce with gloating that he wears n wig. ha* two glass 
eves, twenty-two fa!.**’ teeth, one wooden leg, and freckles on 
his hack; is knork-km*«*d and spavined, will not stand without 
hitching and sometimes not with, wear* a high hat w r ith a 
sack-coat, and eats hay. For further information inquire of 
Mr. John Skelton Williams. 

It perms to Ik- *eitb*d that the “khaki * Parliament, chosen 
in 1900. will last for n twelvemonth longer, or, in other 
words, for six out of the seven yours to which it* term is 
limited by statute. Prime-Minister Balfour. when be rose 
on Monday. July St, 1o anwmiwx* tlte cabinet’s decision, 
found it easy to adduce n mind«rr of precedents for hi* re- 
fusal either to resign nr to dissolve in consequence of his 
having boon la-ateq on »n item **f the estimate* by u few 


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HARPER’S WEEKLY 


votes on n division in which fewer than 400 took part, al- 
though the House, when full, contains H70 members. While, 
however, precedents in favor of his course could be mustered 
without difficulty, there an* some on the other side; indeed, 
a British government has been known to resign when it still 
retained u nominal majority, but recognized that the ma- 
jority, having been cut down to a few votes, was too un- 
substantial and untrustworthy to work with. Naturally the 
Liberals, whose hunger for office has been uunppensed sine** 
1S95. were sorely disappointed, and the Irish Nationalists, 
whose leader, Mr. John E. Rkomo.NI>. had engineered the de- 
feat of the eabinet, were furious. Tlie Nationalists know 
that Mr. Baleopr, with his ostensible majority of from 90 
to 100 in the House of Commons, and with his almost ab- 
solute control of the Hou.se of Lord*, can enact, if he likes, 
his redistribution of-setits bill, which will take away from 
Ireland twenty-two seat*, of which Wales will get one, Scot- 
land four, and England seventeen. From an international 
view-point, tin* probability that the present ministry will 
retain office for a year should prove reassuring to the friends 
of the Franco- English entente and the A nglo-J apaitese al- 
liance. There is reason to helieve that some influential 
British Liberals look without sympathy on the design of M. 
Dklcaxhe to isolale Germany, and it is not likely to bo for- 
gotten at Tokio that but for the refusal of the last Literal 
Prime Minister, Lord Romrrery. to promise Japan the sup- 
port of the British navy, the Mikndo would have rejected 
in 1995 the ultimatum of Germany. France, and Russia, 
and have declined to retrocede fo China the Liao-tung pen- 
insula. So long as Lord Laxsmwxr is Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, he may he relied upon to uphold the Franco- English 
entente. of which he was a coauthor, and to renew, perhaps 
in nn extended form, the Anglo- Japanese alliance, which, 
unless renewed, would expire presently by limitation. The 
effect of Ihe existing treaty is. limited to keeping the lists 
for the combatants in the Far East, and would not have 
enabled Japan to retain preponderance in Korea, had the 
Russian fleet proved. ns it was expected to prove, superior 
to the Japanese. If the alliance should now be so extended 
as to hind eHch of the parties to assist the otlier, if the latter 
should he attacked even by a single power, it is obvious that 
Japan would lie invulnerable in Manchuria and Great Britain 
invulnerable in India. 

If our President had been present at the •(inference of the 
Czar and the Kaiser, we guess something would have been 
done. 

“It may be doubted.” says the London Sat unlit i/ tie view. 
“ whether the Americans would quite care to be spoken of 
a* British colonist*. To be sure. America was once a British 
colony, and then certain of our aneesto it away from 

others of our ancestors. So much the histories record; but 
none of ♦hem, to my knowledge, refers to the fact that those 
of our ancestor* who took flip side of the mother country 
have been amply avenged. For since the great Declaration 
of Indciicndcncc those who ratted have been «k*spoikd by a 
mighty host of Germans, French. Poles, Dutch, and Rus- 
sians; and what was once a solid English and English- 
speaking country has become u conglomeration of hybrids 
who speak a sniffle and a snuffle and n gargle which is cer- 
tainly not the English longue. Such name* a* Roosevelt. 
Carl, Schmidt, Stein mx:. etc., have no peculiarly English 
Sound.” Quite true; and the hearers of such names have no 
peculiarly English characteristic*, thunk